ResearchPad - african-people https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Sexual norms and the intention to use healthcare services related to female genital cutting: A qualitative study among Somali and Sudanese women in Norway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15732 Female Genital Cutting (FGC) is a traditionally meaningful practice in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. It is associated with a high risk of long-term physical and psychosexual health problems. Girls and women with FGC-related health problems need specialized healthcare services such as psychosexual counseling, deinfibulation, and clitoral reconstruction. Moreover, the need for psychosexual counseling increases in countries of immigration where FGC is not accepted and possibly stigmatized. In these countries, the practice loses its cultural meaning and girls and women with FGC are more likely to report psychosexual problems. In Norway, a country of immigration, psychosexual counseling is lacking. To decide whether to provide this and/or other services, it is important to explore the intention of the target population to use FGC-related healthcare services. That is as deinfibulation, an already available service, is underutilized. In this article, we explore whether girls and women with FGC intend to use FGC-related healthcare services, regardless of their availability in Norway.MethodsWe conducted 61 in-depth interviews with 26 Somali and Sudanese participants with FGC in Norway. We then validated our findings in three focus group discussions with additional 17 participants.FindingsWe found that most of our participants were positive towards psychosexual counseling and would use it if available. We also identified four cultural scenarios with different sets of sexual norms that centered on getting and/or staying married, and which largely influenced the participants’ intention to use FGC-related services. These cultural scenarios are the virgin, the passive-, the conditioned active-, and the equal- sexual partner scenarios. Participants with negative attitudes towards the use of almost all of the FGC-related healthcare services were influenced by a set of norms pertaining to virginity and passive sexual behavior. In contrast, participants with positive attitudes towards the use of all of these same services were influenced by another set of norms pertaining to sexual and gender equality. On the other hand, participants with positive attitudes towards the use of services that can help to improve their marital sexual lives, yet negative towards the use of premarital services were influenced by a third set of norms that combined norms from the two aforementioned sets of norms.ConclusionThe intention to use FGC-related healthcare services varies between and within the different ethnic groups. Moreover, the same girl or woman can have different attitudes towards the use of the different FGC-related healthcare services or even towards the same services at the different stages of her life. These insights could prove valuable for Norwegian and other policy-makers and healthcare professionals during the planning and/or delivery of FGC-related healthcare services. ]]> <![CDATA[Serum and cervicovaginal IgG immune responses against α7 and α9 HPV in non-vaccinated women at risk for cervical cancer: Implication for catch-up prophylactic HPV vaccination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15726 Cervical cancer associated with high risk-human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is becoming the one of the most common female cancer in many sub-Saharan African countries. First-generation immigrant African women living in Europe are at-risk for cervical cancer, in a context of social vulnerability, with frequent lack of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination.ObjectiveOur objective was to address immunologically the issue of catch-up prophylactic HPV vaccination in first-generation African immigrant women living in France.MethodsIgG immune responses and cross-reactivities to α7 (HPV-18, -45 and -68) and α9 (HPV-16, -31, -33, -35, -52 and -58) HPV types, including 7 HR-HPV targeted by the Gardasil-9® prophylactic vaccine, were evaluated in paired serum and cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) by HPV L1-virus-like particles-based ELISA. Genital HPV were detected by multiplex real time PCR (Seegene, Seoul, South Korea).ResultsFifty-one immigrant women (mean age, 41.7 years; 72.5% HIV-infected) were prospectively included. More than two-third (68.6%) of them carried genital HPV (group I) while 31.4% were negative (group II). The majority (90.2%) exhibited serum IgG to at least one α7/α9 HR-HPV. Serum HPV-specific IgG were more frequently detected in group I than group II (100% versus 68.7%; P = 0.002). The distribution of serum and genital HPV-specific IgG was similar, but mean number of IgG reactivities to α7/α9 HR-HPV was higher in serum than CVS (5.6 IgG per woman in serum versus 3.2 in CVS; P<0.001). Rates of IgG cross-reactivities against HPV different from detected cervicovaginal HPV were higher in serum and CVS in group I than group II. Finally, the majority of groups I and II women (68.6% and 68.7%, respectively) exhibited serum or cervicovaginal IgG to Gardasil-9® HR-HPV, with higher mean rates in group I than group II (6.1 Gardasil-9® HR-HPV per woman versus 1.4; P<0.01). One-third (31.2%) of group II women did not show any serum and genital HPV-specific IgG.ConclusionsAround two-third of first-generation African immigrant women living in France showed frequent ongoing genital HPV infection and high rates of circulating and genital IgG to α7/α9 HPV, generally cross-reacting, avoiding the possibility of catch-up vaccination. Nevertheless, about one-third of women had no evidence of previous HPV infection, or showed only low levels of genital and circulating HR-HPV-specific IgG and could therefore be eligible for catch-up vaccination. ]]> <![CDATA[Women’s reproductive health decision-making: A multi-country analysis of demographic and health surveys in sub-Saharan Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa58fd5eed0c484ca5c5a

Introduction

Women’s ability to make decisions regarding their reproductive health has important implications for their health and well-being. We studied the socio-demographic factors affecting reproductive health decision-making among women in 27 sub-Sahara African countries.

Materials and methods

The study made use of pooled data from current Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted from January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2016 in 27 countries in sub-Sahara African. Binary and multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations of women’s socio-demographic factors with decision-making regarding sexual reproductive health.

Results

The proportion of women who can ask their partners to use a condom during sexual intercourse ranged from lowest in Mali (16.6%) to highest in Namibia (93.4%). Furthermore, the proportion of women who can refuse sex ranged from 18.3% in Mali to 92.4% in Namibia. Overall, approximately every five out of ten women can ask their partners to use a condom, six out ten women could refuse their partners sex and seven out of ten women could make at least 1 decision. Women from rural areas (OR = 0.51, CI = 0.48–0.54), those with no education (OR = 0.11, CI = 0.10–0.12), Muslim women (OR = 0.29, CI = 0.27–0.31), women not working (OR = 0.53, CI = 0.51–0.56) and women whose partners had no education (OR = 0.17, CI = 0.16–0.19) were less likely to make a decision on their reproductive health.

Conclusion

Residence, age, level of education, religion, occupation and partner’s education were found to be associated with women’s decision-making about sexual intercourse, condom use and reproductive health decision-making index. This study contributes to the discourse on reproductive health decision-making in Africa. Policies and intervention targeted at improving women’s autonomy and empowering them to take charge of their sexual and reproductive health issues should be focused on these factors.

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<![CDATA[Leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) GLY2019SER mutation is absent in a second cohort of Nigerian Africans with Parkinson disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ed789d5eed0c484f14346

To date the LRRK2 p.G2019S mutation remains the most common genetic cause of Parkinson disease (PD) worldwide. It accounts for up to 6% of familial and approximately 1.5% of sporadic cases. LRRK2 has a kinase enzymatic domain which provides an attractive potential target for drug therapies and LRRK2 kinase inhibitors are in development. Prevalence of the p.G2019S has a variable ethnic and geographic distribution, the highest reported among Ashkenazi Jews (30% in patients with familial PD, 14% in sporadic PD, 2.0% in controls) and North African Berbers (37% in patients with familial PD, 41% in sporadic PD, and 1% in controls). Little is known about the frequency of the LRRK2 p.G2019S among populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Our group and others previously reported that the p.G2019S is absent in a small cohort of Nigerian PD patients and controls. Here we used Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) assay to screen for the p.G2019S in a larger cohort of Black African PD patients (n = 126) and healthy controls (n = 54) from Nigeria. Our analysis confirmed that all patients and controls are negative for the p.G2019S mutation. This report provides further evidence that the LRRK2 p.G2019S is not implicated in PD in black populations from Nigeria and support the notion that p.G2019S mutation originated after the early human dispersal from sub-Saharan Africa. Further studies using larger cohorts and advance sequencing technology are required to underpin the genetic causes of PD in this region.

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<![CDATA[Ethnicity estimation using family naming practices]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0c047dd5eed0c48481c067

This paper examines the association between given and family names and self-ascribed ethnicity as classified by the 2011 Census of Population for England and Wales. Using Census data in an innovative way under the new Office for National Statistics (ONS) Secure Research Service (SRS; previously the ONS Virtual Microdata Laboratory, VML), we investigate how bearers of a full range of given and family names assigned themselves to 2011 Census categories, using a names classification tool previously described in this journal. Based on these results, we develop a follow-up ethnicity estimation tool and describe how the tool may be used to observe changing relations between naming practices and ethnic identities as a facet of social integration and cosmopolitanism in an increasingly diverse society.

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<![CDATA[Exploring barriers to reproductive, maternal, child and neonatal (RMNCH) health-seeking behaviors in Somali region, Ethiopia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c95523cd5eed0c4846f31f8

Introduction

Health-seeking behaviours are influenced by internal and external contributing factors. Internal factors include attitudes, beliefs and core values, life adaptation skills, psychological disposition whereas external factors include social support, media, socio-cultural, political, economic and biological aspects, health care systems, environmental stressors and societal laws and regulations. This study was meant to explore factors affecting health-seeking behaviors in the Somali regional state of Ethiopia. The study employed a cross-sectional study design using qualitative data collection tools. Data were collected from 50 individual interviews and 17 focused group discussions (FGD) on women of reproductive age and their partners, health extension workers (HEWs), health care providers and health administrators. To ensure representativeness, the region was categorized into three zones based on their settlement characteristics as agrarian, pastoralist and semi-pastoralist. Two districts (one from high and the other from low performance areas) were selected from each category. The data were entered, coded, categorized and analyzed using NVIVO version 11 software. The Socio-ecologic Model (SEM) was used for categorization.

Results

Using the social ecological model, the following major barriers for health seeking behaviors were identified. Low socio-demographic and economic status, poor exposure to health information or mass media, detrimental preferences of breast feeding methods and short acting family planning (FP) methods were identified barriers at the individual level; male dominance in decision making, the influence of the husband and society and the role of word of mouth were identified barriers at the interpersonal level and lack of acceptance, fear of modern health practices, unclean health facility environment, lack of well-equipped facilities shortage of trained staffs and barriers relating to distance and transportation were barriers identified at organizational and policy level.

Conclusion

Overall, factors at various level affected health seeking behaviors of the Somali community. Socio-demographic and economic factors, non-responsive bureaucratic system, shortages or absence of medical supplies and human resources, lack of supportive supervision, a shortage of water and electricity at the health facility and an unclean service delivery environment are significant barriers to health-seeking behaviors for the community.

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<![CDATA[Tobacco use and oral sex practice among dental clinic attendees]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c92b37bd5eed0c4843a4134

Tobacco use and oral sex (OS) are important risk factors for oral and oropharyngeal Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Little is known about the prevalence of OS practice in South Africa. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of OS practice and tobacco use in a South African patient population. This cross-sectional study used a structured questionnaire to collect socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco use, betel nut use and OS practice data from consenting adults (≥18 years; n = 850). Oral sex practices were recorded for patients 18–45 years-old (n = 514). Data analysis included chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses. Of the study population, 55.2% (n = 468) were female, 88% (n = 748) self-identified as black Africans and 45.1% (n = 383) were unemployed. Furthermore, 19.7% (n = 167), 6.4% (n = 54) and 2.1% (n = 18) were current smokers, snuff users and betel nut users, respectively. Out of the 514 who answered the questionnaire in relation to OS, 22.8% (n = 115) reported to practice it. Oral sex practice in the age group 18–45 years was most common among the self-identified white participants (41.9%); and among tobacco users than among non-tobacco users (30.9% vs. 20.5%; p = 0.022). A multivariable-adjusted regression model showed that white South Africans were more likely to use tobacco than black Africans (OR = 5.25; 95% CI = 2.21–12.47). The practice of OS was more likely among those 18–35 years-old (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.01–2.74), but had no significant association with tobacco use (OR = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.62–1.83). The observed age and ethnic differences in both risk behaviours suggest a need for targeted population intervention in order to reduce the risk for oral HPV infection.

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