ResearchPad - allergic-diseases https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Likely questionnaire-diagnosed food allergy in 78, 890 adults from the northern Netherlands]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13854 It is challenging to define likely food allergy (FA) in large populations which limited the number of large studies regarding risk factors for FA.ObjectiveWe studied the prevalence and characteristics of self-reported FA (s-rFA) in the large, population-based Dutch Lifelines cohort and identified associated risk factors.MethodsLikely food allergic cases (LikelyFA) were classified based on questionnaire reported characteristics consistent with FA. Subjects with atypical characteristics were classified as Indeterminate. We investigated 13 potential risk factors for LikelyFA such as birth mode and living on a farm and addressed health-related quality of life (H-RQOL).ResultsOf the 78, 890 subjects, 12.1% had s-rFA of which 4.0% and 8.1% were classified as LikelyFA and Indeterminate, respectively. Younger age, female sex, asthma, eczema and nasal allergy increased the risk of LikelyFA (p-value range <1.00*10−250–1.29*10−7). Living in a small city/large village or suburb during childhood was associated with a higher risk of LikelyFA than living on a farm (p-value = 7.81*10−4 and p = 4.84*10−4, respectively). Subjects classified as Indeterminate more often reported depression and burn-out compared to those without FA (p-value = 1.46*10−4 and p = 8.39*10−13, respectively). No association was found with ethnicity, (duration of) breastfeeding, birth mode and reported eating disorder. Mental and physical component scores measuring H-RQOL were lower in both those classified as LikelyFA and Indeterminate compared to those without FA.ConclusionThe prevalence of s-rFA among adults is considerable and one-third reports characteristics consistent with LikelyFA. Living on a farm decreased the risk of LikelyFA. The association of poorer H-RQOL as well as depression and burn-out with questionable self-perceived FA is striking and a priority for future study. ]]> <![CDATA[Base-rate expectations modulate the causal illusion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823c7d5eed0c484638fca

Previous research revealed that people’s judgments of causality between a target cause and an outcome in null contingency settings can be biased by various factors, leading to causal illusions (i.e., incorrectly reporting a causal relationship where there is none). In two experiments, we examined whether this causal illusion is sensitive to prior expectations about base-rates. Thus, we pretrained participants to expect either a high outcome base-rate (Experiment 1) or a low outcome base-rate (Experiment 2). This pretraining was followed by a standard contingency task in which the target cause and the outcome were not contingent with each other (i.e., there was no causal relation between them). Subsequent causal judgments were affected by the pretraining: When the outcome base-rate was expected to be high, the causal illusion was reduced, and the opposite was observed when the outcome base-rate was expected to be low. The results are discussed in the light of several explanatory accounts (associative and computational). A rational account of contingency learning based on the evidential value of information can predict our findings.

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<![CDATA[Acute rhinosinusitis among pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis: A nationwide, population-based cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75e2d5eed0c4843d03bf

Background

While chronic rhinosinusitis is a common complication of allergic rhinitis, the link between acute rhinosinusitis and allergic rhinitis is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of incident acute rhinosinusitis among pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis, using a nationwide, population-based health claims research database.

Methods

Newly diagnosed allergic rhinitis patients aged 5–18 years were identified from the health claim records of the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 of Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was assembled by randomly selecting patients from the same database with frequency matching by sex, age group, and index year. All patients were followed until a diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis or the end of the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between allergic rhinitis and acute rhinosinusitis.

Results

Of the 43,588 pediatric patients included in this study, 55.4% were male and 43.9% were between the ages of 5.0–7.9 years. The risk of acute rhinosinusitis was significantly higher in pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis compared to those without the condition (adjusted hazard ratio = 3.03, 95% confidence interval = 2.89–3.18). Similar hazard ratios were observed between male and female pediatric patients.

Conclusions

This secondary cohort study using a nationwide, population-based health claim data of the Taiwan’s NHIRD showed that allergic rhinitis was significantly associated with a higher risk of acute rhinosinusitis among pediatric patients.

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<![CDATA[San Antonio refugees: Their demographics, healthcare profiles, and how to better serve them]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75abe5d5eed0c484d07e5c

Objective

The recent refugee crisis has resulted in the largest burden of displacement in history, with the US being the top resettlement country since 1975. Texas welcomed the second most US-bound refugees in 2016, with a large percentage arriving in San Antonio. Yet, the composition of the San Antonio refugees has not been described and their healthcare needs remain ill-defined. Through this study, we aim at elucidating their demographics and healthcare profiles, with the goal of devising recommendations to help guide refugee program development and guide other refugee resettlement programs.

Methods

Data from 731 charts belonging to 448 patients at the San Antonio Refugee Health Clinic (SARHC) were extracted and analyzed. Data included age, gender, country of origin, first language, interpretation need, health insurance status, medical history, vital signs, diagnoses, and prescribed medications.

Results

Women constituted the majority of patients (n = 267; 56.4%), and the median age of all patients was 39 (Q1:26, Q3:52). Nepali-speaking Bhutanese patients were the most represented group (n = 107, 43.1%), followed by Iraqi (n = 35, 14.1%), Burmese (n = 30, 12.1%), and Iranian (n = 19, 7.7%) refugees. Of those who responded, 200 (86.6%) did not have any form of health insurance. Additionally, 262 (50.9%) had a body-mass index (BMI) in the overweight or obese range. Further, 61.4% (n = 337) had blood pressures in the hypertensive range, while 9.3% (n = 51) had an elevated blood pressure. On average, each patient had 1.9 complaints, with abdominal pain, headaches, and cough being the predominant complaints. Allergic rhinitis, viral upper respiratory infections, and elevated blood pressure were the most common diagnoses. However, the list of common diagnoses differed per country of origin.

Conclusion

The SARHC demographics were different from those of other Texas refugees. The rate of the uninsured and the burden of non-communicable diseases were high. Furthermore, each refugee subgroup had a different set of common problems. These findings reveal important considerations for refugee healthcare providers and the unique approach that may be required for different communities.

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<![CDATA[Utilizing longitudinal microbiome taxonomic profiles to predict food allergy via Long Short-Term Memory networks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8e9d5eed0c48496f3af

Food allergy is usually difficult to diagnose in early life, and the inability to diagnose patients with atopic diseases at an early age may lead to severe complications. Numerous studies have suggested an association between the infant gut microbiome and development of allergy. In this work, we investigated the capacity of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks to predict food allergies in early life (0-3 years) from subjects’ longitudinal gut microbiome profiles. Using the DIABIMMUNE dataset, we show an increase in predictive power using our model compared to Hidden Markov Model, Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network, Support Vector Machine, Random Forest, and LASSO regression. We further evaluated whether the training of LSTM networks benefits from reduced representations of microbial features. We considered sparse autoencoder for extraction of potential latent representations in addition to standard feature selection procedures based on Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (mRMR) and variance prior to the training of LSTM networks. The comprehensive evaluation reveals that LSTM networks with the mRMR selected features achieve significantly better performance compared to the other tested machine learning models.

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<![CDATA[Real-world utilization patterns of systemic immunosuppressants among US adult patients with atopic dermatitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644930d5eed0c484c2f855

At the time of this study, prior to the introduction of biologics in the US, systemic therapies used for the treatment of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis included off-label immunosuppressants and corticosteroids. Immunosuppressant therapy is associated with a substantial risk of side-effects, therefore needing clinical monitoring, and is likely to incur a significant healthcare burden for patients and payers. This retrospective cohort study based on claims data measured immunosuppressant use and its associated burden among US adult patients with atopic dermatitis covered under commercial or Medicare Supplemental insurance from January 01, 2010, to September 30, 2015. Overall, based on age, gender, region, and index year, 4201 control patients with atopic dermatitis without immunosuppressant use were matched with 4204 patients treated with immunosuppressants. The majority (68.5%) of patients using immunosuppressants were non-persistent with immunosuppressant treatment during the 12-month follow-up period after a mean (standard deviation) of 88.1 (70.7) days of immunosuppressant use; 72.3% required systemic steroid rescue treatment. Immunosuppressant users had higher incidence of immunosuppressant-related clinical events than controls; in addition, a larger proportion of immunosuppressant users versus controls developed cancer (0.28% vs 0.14%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Healthcare utilization and costs associated with clinical events and monitoring were also higher for immunosuppressant users compared with controls (total costs, $9516 vs $1630, respectively; P < 0.0001; monitoring costs, $363 vs $54, respectively; P < 0.0001). This study revealed that patients treated with systemic immunosuppressants often require systemic steroids or changes to treatment. The increase in immunosuppressant-related clinical events, including the need for increased monitoring with immunosuppressant treatment, compared with controls demonstrates a substantial treatment burden and highlights the unmet need for more effective long-term therapies for atopic dermatitis with improved safety profiles and reduced monitoring requirements.

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<![CDATA[Chronological changes in rhinitis symptoms present in school-aged children with allergic sensitization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c605a4cd5eed0c4847ccd03

Introduction

It is difficult to accurately predict the natural course of allergic rhinitis (AR), because it is affected by a wide variety of environmental influences, as well as genetic predisposition. Considering the high prevalence of allergic rhinitis in children and adolescents, caregivers should be given appropriate information regarding the disease course. This study aimed to understand the prognosis of allergic rhinitis by examining the relationship between allergic sensitization and rhinitis symptoms during this developmental period.

Methods

This cross-sectional study included 1069 children aged 9–16 years from the Korean International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Survey database who had completed health questionnaires, and for whom skin prick test results were available. Data were collected during May 2016. The distribution of sensitization and allergic symptoms was compared by age groups (elementary, middle, and high school). Data were analyzed using linear-by-linear analysis.

Results

Sensitization to at least one tested allergen differed by age (59.2%, 58.3%, 68.2%, in elementary, middle, and high school students, respectively; p = 0.025), and seasonal allergen sensitization (35.0%, 37.1%, 53.9%, respectively) increased with age (p < 0.001). Conversely, the proportion of rhinitis symptoms among sensitized children decreased as age increased (58.80%, 52.90%, 49.70%, respectively; p = 0.047). However, the rate of non-allergic rhinitis was age-independent.

Conclusion

With increasing age during childhood and adolescence, symptomatic allergic rhinitis decreases; thus, subclinical allergic rhinitis increases. This suggests that the symptoms of later-sensitized children are less clearly manifested, or that the symptoms reduce as previously sensitized children mature. This should be clarified further in a longitudinal study.

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<![CDATA[Discriminating severe seasonal allergic rhinitis. Results from a large nation-wide database]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c084234d5eed0c484fcc2c0

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic disease affecting a large amount of the population. To optimize treatment and disease management, it is crucial to detect patients suffering from severe forms. Several tools have been used to classify patients according to severity: standardized questionnaires, visual analogue scales (VAS) and cluster analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the best method to stratify patients suffering from seasonal AR and to propose cut-offs to identify severe forms of the disease. In a multicenter French study (PollinAir), patients suffering from seasonal AR were assessed by a physician that completed a 17 items questionnaire and answered a self-assessment VAS. Five methods were evaluated to stratify patients according to AR severity: k-means clustering, agglomerative hierarchical clustering, Allergic Rhinitis Physician Score (ARPhyS), total symptoms score (TSS-17), and VAS. Fisher linear, quadratic discriminant analysis, non-parametric kernel density estimation methods were used to evaluate miss-classification of the patients and cross-validation was used to assess the validity of each scale. 28,109 patients were categorized into “mild”, “moderate”, and “severe”, through the 5 different methods. The best discrimination was offered by the ARPhyS scale. With the ARPhyS scale, cut-offs at a score of 8–9 for mild to moderate and of 11–12 for moderate to severe symptoms were found. Score reliability was also acceptable (Cronbach’s α coefficient: 0.626) for the ARPhyS scale, and excellent for the TSS-17 (0.864).

The ARPhyS scale seems the best method to target patients with severe seasonal AR. In the present study, we highlighted optimal discrimination cut-offs. This tool could be implemented in daily practice to identify severe patients that need a specialized intervention.

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<![CDATA[The use of machine learning to understand the relationship between IgE to specific allergens and asthma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bfdb37dd5eed0c4845c9e65

Thomas Platts-Mills and Matthew Perzanowski provide their expert Perspective on a translational study from Custovic and colleagues that identifies pairings of IgE that show value in estimating risk of concurrent asthma.

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<![CDATA[Pregnancy and Delivery in Patients with Mastocytosis Treated at the Polish Center of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db26ab0ee8fa60bd04cb

Objective

To present current guidelines regarding treatment of mastocytosis in pregnancy on the example of observed patients.

Design

Case control national study.

Setting

Polish Center of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM).

Population or Sample

23 singleton spontaneous pregnancies in 17 women diagnosed with mastocytosis in years 1999–2014, before becoming pregnant.

Methods

Prospective analysis outcomes of pregnancies and deliveries.

Main Outcome Measures

Survey developed in cooperation with the Spanish Instituto de Estudios de Mastocitosis de Castilla-La Mancha (CLMast), Hospital Virgen del Valle, Toledo, Red Espańola de Mastocitosis (REMA), Spain.

Results

All 23 pregnancies resulted from natural conception. Obstetrical complications recorded in the first trimester included spontaneous miscarriage (5 pregnancies). Four patients delivered preterm, including one delivery due to preeclampsia at 26 weeks which resulted with neonate death due to extreme prematurity. Five women delivered via cesarean: four due to obstetrical indications and one due to mastocytosis, during which no anesthesia related complications were recorded. Of patients delivering vaginally, two received extradural anesthesia, three required oxytocin infusion due to uterine hypotonia. No labor complications were recorded. In one woman with pregnancy-induced hypertension, early puerperium was complicated by the presence of persistent arterial hypertension. One neonate was born with the signs of cutaneous mastocytosis. Another neonate was diagnosed with Patau syndrome. Four women were treated for mastocytosis prior to conception and continued therapy after becoming pregnant. One patient was put on medications in the first trimester due to worsening of her symptoms. Pregnancy exerted only a slight effect on the intensity and frequency of mastocytosis-related symptoms observed. Worsening of the disease-related symptoms was documented in only four patients (23%). None of the patients showed the signs of anaphylaxis, either before becoming pregnant, or during pregnancy and puerperium.

Conclusions

There is no contraindication to pregnancy when mastocystosis-related pathologies are under appropriate medical control.

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<![CDATA[Asthma and Rhinitis Are Associated with Less Objectively-Measured Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity, but Similar Sport Participation, in Adolescent German Boys: GINIplus and LISAplus Cohorts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da54ab0ee8fa60b8e806

Introduction

Physical activity (PA) protects against most noncommunicable diseases and has been associated with decreased risk of allergic phenotype, which is increasing worldwide. However, the association is not always present; furthermore it is not clear whether it is strongest for asthma, rhinitis, symptoms of these, or atopic sensitization; which sex is most affected; or whether it can be explained by either avoidance of sport or exacerbation of symptoms by exercise. Interventions are thus difficult to target.

Methods

PA was measured by one-week accelerometry in 1137 Germans (mean age 15.6 years, 47% boys) from the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts, and modeled as a correlate of allergic symptoms, sensitization, or reported doctor-diagnosed asthma or rhinitis.

Results

8.3% of children had asthma, of the remainder 7.9% had rhinitis, and of the remainder 32% were sensitized to aero-allergens (atopic). 52% were lung-healthy controls. Lung-healthy boys and girls averaged 46.4 min and 37.8 min moderate-to-vigorous PA per day, of which 14.6 and 11.4 min was vigorous. PA in allergic girls was not altered, but boys with asthma got 13% less moderate and 29% less vigorous PA, and those with rhinitis with 13% less moderate PA, than lung-healthy boys. Both sexes participated comparably in sport (70 to 84%). Adolescents with wheezing (up to 68%, in asthma) and/or nose/eye symptoms (up to 88%, in rhinitis) were no less active.

Conclusions

We found that asthma and rhinitis, but not atopy, were independently associated with low PA in boys, but not in girls. These results indicate that allergic boys remain a high-risk group for physical inactivity even if they participate comparably in sport. Research into the link between PA and allergy should consider population-specific and sex-specific effects, and clinicians, parents, and designers of PA interventions should specifically address PA in allergic boys to ensure full participation.

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<![CDATA[Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species and the Antioxidant Protein DJ-1 in Mastocytosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da49ab0ee8fa60b8c847

Neoplastic accumulation of mast cells in systemic mastocytosis (SM) associates with activating mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT. Constitutive activation of tyrosine kinase oncogenes has been linked to imbalances in oxidant/antioxidant mechanisms in other myeloproliferative disorders. However, the impact of KIT mutations on the redox status in SM and the potential therapeutic implications are not well understood. Here, we examined the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of the antioxidant protein DJ-1 (PARK-7), which increases with cancer progression and acts to lessen oxidative damage to malignant cells, in relationship with SM severity. ROS levels were increased in both indolent (ISM) and aggressive variants of the disease (ASM). However, while DJ-1 levels were reduced in ISM with lower mast cell burden, they rose in ISM with higher mast cell burden and were significantly elevated in patients with ASM. Studies on mast cell lines revealed that activating KIT mutations induced constant ROS production and consequent DJ-1 oxidation and degradation that could explain the reduced levels of DJ-1 in the ISM population, while IL-6, a cytokine that increases with disease severity, caused a counteracting transcriptional induction of DJ-1 which would protect malignant mast cells from oxidative damage. A mouse model of mastocytosis recapitulated the biphasic changes in DJ-1 and the escalating IL-6, ROS and DJ-1 levels as mast cells accumulate, findings which were reversed with anti-IL-6 receptor blocking antibody. Our findings provide evidence of increased ROS and a biphasic regulation of the antioxidant DJ-1 in variants of SM and implicate IL-6 in DJ-1 induction and expansion of mast cells with KIT mutations. We propose consideration of IL-6 blockade as a potential adjunctive therapy in the treatment of patients with advanced mastocytosis, as it would reduce DJ-1 levels making mutation-positive mast cells vulnerable to oxidative damage.

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<![CDATA[25-Hydroxyvitamin D3-Deficiency Enhances Oxidative Stress and Corticosteroid Resistance in Severe Asthma Exacerbation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da71ab0ee8fa60b95159

Oxidative stress plays a significant role in exacerbation of asthma. The role of vitamin D in oxidative stress and asthma exacerbation remains unclear. We aimed to determine the relationship between vitamin D status and oxidative stress in asthma exacerbation. Severe asthma exacerbation patients with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-deficiency (V-D deficiency) or 25-hydroxyvitamin D-sufficiency (V-D sufficiency) were enrolled. Severe asthma exacerbation with V-D-deficiency showed lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) compared to that with V-D-sufficiency. V-D-deficiency intensified ROS release and DNA damage and increased TNF-α, OGG1 and NFκB expression and NFκB phosphorylation in severe asthma exacerbation. Supplemental vitamin D3 significantly increased the rates of FEV1 change and decreased ROS and DNA damage in V-D-deficiency. Vitamin D3 inhibited LPS-induced ROS and DNA damage and were associated with a decline in TNF-α and NFκB in epithelial cells. H2O2 reduces nuclear translocation of glucocorticoid receptors in airway epithelial cell lines. V-D pretreatment enhanced the dexamethasone-induced nuclear translocation of glucocorticoid receptors in airway epithelial cell lines and monocytes from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-deficiency asthma patients. These findings indicate that V-D deficiency aggravates oxidative stress and DNA damage, suggesting a possible mechanism for corticosteroid resistance in severe asthma exacerbation.

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<![CDATA[Allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma are associated with differences in school performance among Korean adolescents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc2e8

Several studies have reported negative relations between allergic diseases and school performance but have not simultaneously considered various allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis, and only examined a limited number of participants. The present study investigated the associations of allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis with school performance in a large, representative Korean adolescent population. A total of 299,695 7th through 12th grade students participated in the Korea Youth Risk Behaviour Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 to 2013. The subjects’ history of allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis and number of school absences due to these diseases in the previous 12 months were examined and compared. School performance was classified into 5 levels. The relations between allergic disorders and school performance were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions with complex sampling and adjusted for the subjects’ durations of sleep, days of physical activity, body mass indexes (BMIs), regions of residence, economic levels, parents’ education levels, stress levels, smoking status, and alcohol use. A subgroup analysis of the economic groups was performed. Allergic rhinitis was positively correlated with better school performance in a dose-dependent manner (adjusted odds ratios, AOR, [95% confidence interval, CI] = 1.50 [1.43–1.56 > 1.33 [1.28–1.38] > 1.17 [1.13–1.22] > 1.09 [1.05–1.14] for grades A > B > C > D; P < 0.001). Asthma was negatively correlated with better school performance (AOR [95% CI] = 0.74 [0.66–0.83], 0.87 [0.79–0.96], 0.83 [0.75–0.91], 0.93 [0.85–1.02] for performance A, B, C, and D, respectively; P < 0.001). Atopic dermatitis was not significantly correlated with school performance. The subgroup analysis of the students’ economic levels revealed associations between allergic diseases and school performance. Compared to other allergic disorders, the asthma group had more school absences due to their symptoms (P < 0.001). School performance was positively correlated with allergic rhinitis and negatively correlated with asthma in Korean adolescents, even after adjusting for other variables. The asthma group had an increased number of school absence days, which presumably contributes to these students’ poor school performance.

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<![CDATA[Expression of DP2 (CRTh2), a Prostaglandin D2 Receptor, in Human Mast Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da34ab0ee8fa60b85aca

PGD2 has long been implicated in allergic diseases. Recent cloning of a second PGD2 receptor, DP2 (also known as CRTh2), led to a greater understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological implications of PGD2. PGD2 signaling through DP1 and DP2 mediates different and often opposite effects in many cell types of the immune system. Although mast cells (MC) are the largest source of PGD2 in the body, there is little information about their potential expression of DP2 and its functional significance. In this study, we show that tissue MC in human nasal polyps express DP2 protein, and that human MC lines and primary cultured human MC express mRNA as well as protein of DP2. By immunohistochemistry, we detected that 34% of MC in human nasal polyps expressed DP2. In addition, flow cytometry showed that 87% of the LAD2 human MC line and 98% of primary cultured human MC contained intracellular DP2. However, we could not detect surface expression of DP2 on human MC by single cell analysis using imaging flow cytometry. Blocking of endogenous PGD2 production with aspirin did not induce surface expression of DP2 in human MC. Two DP2 selective agonists, DK-PGD2 and 15R-15-methyl PGD2 induced dose-dependent intracellular calcium mobilization that was abrogated by pertussis toxin, but not by three DP2 selective antagonists. MC mediator release including degranulation was not affected by DP2 selective agonists. Thus, human MC express DP2 intracellularly rather than on their surface, and the function of DP2 in human MC is different than in other immune cells such as Th2 cells, eosinophils and basophils where it is expressed on the cell surface and induces Th2 cytokine and/or granule associated mediator release. Further studies to elucidate the role of intracellular DP2 in human MC may expand our understanding of this molecule and provide novel therapeutic opportunities.

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<![CDATA[IgG Expression upon Oral Sensitization in Association with Maternal Exposure to Ovalbumin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d6ab0ee8fa60b65e20

The role of maternal allergen exposure in the allergenicity of the offspring remains controversial. Some studies have shown that maternal exposure is a risk factor for allergy in the offspring, whereas other studies have shown that maternal exposure induces immune tolerance and protects offspring from allergy disease. Therefore, we utilized maternal rat allergen exposure model to evaluate the offspring immune reactions to ovalbumin protein and to determine whether the Brown Norway (BN) rat model is a suitable animal model for studying the allergenicity of food proteins. For three generations, rats received an allergens or non-allergens by gavage during the pregnancy and lactation periods. After weaning, the offspring rats were used for oral sensitization experiment. In the sensitization experiment, the control rat, which had maternal exposure to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), exhibited full response of IgG to oral exposure to OVA. The IgG level was significantly lower in F1 rats that were sensitized by maternal exposure to ovalbumin(OVA). Moreover, the lowest IgG level was found for the F3b sensitized by maternal rats exposed to OVA allergen for three continuous generations. Compared with maternal OVA exposure prior to postnatal sensitization, the sensitization via maternal PBS led to a higher serum level of OVA-specific IgG. However, the OVA-specific IgG levels for the two generations of maternal PBS exposure prior to postnatal sensitization was not higher than that for the one generation of maternal rats exposed to PBS prior to postnatal sensitization. Our studies demonstrate that maternal OVA exposure during the pregnancy and lactation can affect the results of oral sensitization studies using ovalbumin protein. BN rats must be bred in non-allergen conditions for at least one generation to avoid problems in rat models for studying the allergenicity of food proteins.

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<![CDATA[Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e8ab0ee8fa60b6be9c

In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i) milk allergy, ii) peanut allergy and iii) egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour.

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<![CDATA[The relationship of serum vitamins A, D, E and LL-37 levels with allergic status, tonsillar virus detection and immune response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbefb

Background

Tonsils have an active role in immune defence and inducing and maintaining tolerance to allergens. Vitamins A, D, and E, and antimicrobial peptide LL-37 may have immunomodulatory effects. We studied how their serum levels were associated with allergy status, intratonsillar/nasopharyngeal virus detection and intratonsillar expression of T cell- and innate immune response-specific cytokines, transcription factors and type I/II/III interferons in patients undergoing tonsillectomy.

Methods

110 elective tonsillectomy patients participated. Serum levels of vitamins A, 25(OH)D, and E, LL-37 and allergen-specific IgE as well as nasopharyngeal/intratonsillar respiratory viruses were analyzed. The mRNA expression of IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IL-28, IL-29, IL-37, TGF-β, FOXP3, GATA3, RORC2 and Tbet in tonsils were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR.

Results

The median age of the patients was 16 years (range 3–60), 28% of subjects had atopy, and 57% carried ≥1 respiratory virus in nasopharynx. Detection of viruses decreased by age. Higher vitamin A levels showed borderline significance with less viral detection (P = 0.056). Higher 25(OH)D was associated with less allergic rhinitis and atopy (P < 0.05) and higher vitamin E with less self-reported allergy (P < 0.05). In gene expression analyses, 25(OH)D was associated with higher IL-37, vitamin A with higher IFN-γ and vitamin E with less IL-28 (P < 0.05). LL-37 was associated with less FOXP3, RORC2 and IL-17 in tonsils (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

Vitamin D and E levels were associated with less allergic disorders. Vitamin A was linked to antiviral and vitamin D with anti-inflammatory activity. LL-37 and was linked to T regulatory cell effects.

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<![CDATA[Plasma Lipid Profiling of Patients with Chronic Ocular Complications Caused by Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da49ab0ee8fa60b8c760

Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and its severe variant, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), are drug-induced acute inflammatory vesiculobullous reactions of the skin and mucous membranes, including the ocular surface. Even after recovery from skin symptoms, some SJS/TEN patients continue to suffer with severe ocular complications (SOCs). Therefore, this study aims to understand the pathophysiology of chronic SOCs. Because plasma lipid profiling has emerged as a useful tool to understand pathophysiological alterations in the body, we performed plasma lipid profiling of 17 patients who suffered from SJS/TEN-associated chronic SOCs. A lipidomics approach yielded 386 lipid molecules and demonstrated that plasma levels of inflammatory oxylipins increased in patients with SJS/TEN-associated chronic SOCs. In addition, oxidized phosphatidylcholines and ether-type diacylglycerols increased in the patients with chronic SOCs, while phosphoglycerolipids decreased. When we compared these lipidomic profiles with those of patients with atopic dermatitis, we found that patients with chronic SOCs, specifically, had decreased levels of ether-type phosphatidylcholines (ePCs) containing arachidonic acid (AA), such as PC(18:0e/20:4) and PC(20:0e/20:4). To confirm our finding, we recruited additional patients, who suffered from SOC associated with SJS/TEN (up to 51 patients), and validated the decreased plasma levels of AA-containing ePCs. Our study provides insight into the alterations of plasma lipidomic profiles in chronic SOCs and into the pathophysiology of SJS/TEN-associated chronic SOCs.

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<![CDATA[High-Fat and Low-Carbohydrate Diets Are Associated with Allergic Rhinitis But Not Asthma or Atopic Dermatitis in Children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae6ab0ee8fa60bbd6c8

Background

Numerous studies have suggested that nutritional intake is related to allergic diseases. Although conflicting results exist, fat intake is often associated with allergic diseases. We investigated the relationship between allergic diseases and nutritional intake after adjusting for various demographic and socioeconomic factors in a large, representative sample of Korean children.

Methods

A total of 3,040 participants, aged 4 to 13 years old, were enrolled in the present study from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010–2012. Nutritional intake data, including total calories, protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin, were retrieved from the survey using the complete 24-hour recall method. The associations between each nutritional factor and allergic rhinitis/asthma/atopic dermatitis were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), number of household members, income level, and region of residence were adjusted for as covariates.

Results

Of the participants, 22.1%, 6.0%, and 15.5% suffered from allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis, respectively. Allergic rhinitis was significantly correlated with high-fat and low-carbohydrate diets. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was 1.25 (95% CIs = 1.06–1.46, P = 0.007) for fat intake, denoting a 10% increase. Carbohydrate intake (10% increase) was negatively related to allergic rhinitis with an AOR of 0.84 (95% CIs = 0.74–0.95, P = 0.004). No other significant relationships were found between the retrieved nutritional factors and either asthma or atopic dermatitis.

Conclusion

Allergic rhinitis was related to high-fat and low-carbohydrate diets. Although the underlying mechanisms and causal relationships remain elusive, the present study provides reliable evidence regarding the associations between nutritional factors and allergic rhinitis by considering numerous factors within a large and representative population.

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