ResearchPad - allergy https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Lamotrigine-induced DRESS Syndrome Manifesting as ‘Eosinophilic Colitis’: An Uncommon Presentation of a Very Uncommon Condition]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11584 Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a rare drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction that manifests with a variety of signs and symptoms. It is an important condition that must be recognized by all physicians because if untreated, it can be fatal. There are a variety of medications that are responsible for this condition. The liver, lungs, and kidneys are commonly affected, with the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract being very rare; only a few cases are reported worldwide. We are presenting a case of lamotrigine-induced DRESS syndrome manifesting as colitis. A 32-year-old female presented with diarrhea, two weeks after the initiation of lamotrigine. Her condition worsened with the development of a generalized rash and bloody diarrhea. Further investigations revealed that she likely had a drug reaction secondary to lamotrigine. Fortunately, prompt initiation of systemic steroids led to the resolution of her symptoms.

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<![CDATA[Autoantibody-Negative Immune-Mediated Necrotizing Myopathy Responds to Early and Aggressive Treatment: A Case Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10547 Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) is a rare idiopathic disease that is further classified by the presence of serum antibodies. A modicum of patients lack serum autoantibodies. Significantly elevated creatine kinase (CK) is highly characteristic of IMNM. The pathophysiology of IMNM is partially understood, and effective treatment options are limited, particularly in patients without serum autoantibodies. In this case, we report a 76-year-old male presenting with a four-month history of proximal muscle weakness. Muscle biopsy and serology confirmed the diagnosis of autoantibody-negative IMNM. Early and aggressive treatment with high-dose steroids and a course of intravenous immunoglobulin significantly reduced the patient’s symptoms and CK within three months. This case serves as an example of an effective treatment outcome in a patient with this rare idiopathic necrotizing myopathy.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of C-C Chemokine Ligand 5 (CCL5) Chemokine, Interleukin 5 (IL-5) Cytokine, and Eosinophil Counts as Potential Biomarkers in Saudi Patients with Chronic Asthma During Sandstorms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10542 Background and objectives

Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disorder of the lung that can be exacerbated by environmental triggers during sandstorms. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of C-C chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) chemokine and interleukin 5 (IL-5) cytokine and determine the total eosinophil count in blood and sputum for use as biomarkers in Saudi patients with chronic asthma who visited emergency departments during sandstorms.

Methods

The study included 42 Saudi patients with chronic asthma and 20 healthy controls. Plasma levels of CCL5, IL-5, and total immunoglobulin E (IgE) were measured using a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Total eosinophils in peripheral blood were counted using a hematology analyzer (CELL-DYN Ruby System; Abbott Diagnostics, Chicago, Illinois); in sputum, eosinophils stained with Giemsa were examined under a microscope, counted, and expressed as a percentage of the total cells.

Results

Total IgE levels were significantly higher in patients with asthma (mean 433 IU/ml, P = 0.0001) as compared to normal controls (139 IU/ml). There was no significant difference in the levels of CCL5 in patients with asthma (625 pg/ml) as compared to normal controls (663 pg/ml, P = 0. 57). No correlation was found between total IgE and CCL5 levels. IL-5 was not detected in patients with asthma or in controls. Moreover, the total counts of eosinophils in the blood did not increase in patients with asthma as compared to controls while eosinophils in sputum samples were increased in the former (mean =3.128%).

Conclusion

Plasma levels of CCL5 and IL-5 or eosinophil counts in the peripheral blood may not be useful diagnostic biomarkers to evaluate airway inflammation and monitor asthma severity. Conversely, the sputum eosinophil count may represent a useful diagnostic marker for assessing the magnitude of asthma exacerbation during sandstorms.

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<![CDATA[Out of the Blue: A Case of Blue Subungual Discoloration Associated with Prolonged Tetracycline Use]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10504 Tetracycline derivatives are antibiotics such as minocycline and doxycycline that have been commonly utilized for inflammatory dermatological conditions such as acne and rosacea. Hyperpigmentation of the skin, nails, thyroid, oral mucosa, teeth, and bones is a known but rare side effect of prolonged tetracycline use. The hyperpigmentation typically takes months to years to develop. There may also be residual changes to the skin after discontinuation of the medication. For this reason, the time tetracyclines are used should be minimized and patients should be monitored for the skin findings. Subungual discoloration carries a broad differential including infectious, inflammatory, metabolic, malignant or systemic diseases. Knowledge of this side effect is crucial in order to avoid unnecessary testing in determining the etiology of the subungual discoloration. We report on a case of a patient who has been on long-term minocycline use for adult acne management. He was initially on minocycline for six years, but due to minocycline-induced hyperpigmentation of his ears and fingernails, he had switched to doxycycline. One year later, the skin hyperpigmentation of the ears regressed; however, the blue subungual hyperpigmentation of his hands progressively become more prominent without any other significant symptoms. 

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<![CDATA[Prevalence, Incidence, and Sensitization Profile of β-lactam Antibiotic Allergy in Hong Kong]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9404c99e-6567-4056-be56-48ba9251af27 Allergy to β-lactam antibiotics is one of the most frequently reported drug reactions, but epidemiological data in Chinese populations are lacking. Ethnic- and region-specific sensitization patterns of skin testing for β-lactam antibiotic allergy are also unknown.ObjectiveTo identify the prevalence, 1-year incidence, and sensitization patterns of β-lactam antibiotic allergy in patients in Hong Kong.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsThis cross-sectional study obtained territorywide, anonymized electronic patient data from the Clinical Management Systems of the Hospital Authority, the sole publicly funded health care system in Hong Kong with facilities in 7 regions (Hong Kong East, Hong Kong West, Kowloon Central, Kowloon East, Kowloon West, New Territories East, and New Territories West). All referrals to Queen Mary Hospital for β-lactam antibiotic allergy testing from January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2019, were also analyzed for sensitization patterns.Main Outcomes and MeasuresPrevalence and cumulative incidence of β-lactam antibiotic allergy reported in Hong Kong, and sensitization patterns according to β-lactam antibiotic allergy skin testing.ResultsComplete records of 7 184 271 unique patients were analyzed, with a men to women ratio of 1:1.2 and with a median age of 44 years. The prevalence of physician-reported β-lactam antibiotic allergy was 2.0%, and the cumulative incidence was 107 per 100 000 population. Of the 34 402 new drug allergies reported in 2018, 8032 (23.3%) were β-lactam antibiotic allergies. Three hundred fifty-five patients with reactions suggestive of β-lactam antibiotic allergy underwent skin testing, and only 49 (13.8%; 95% CI, 10.64%-17.90%) of them had positive test results. Of these 49 patients, 14 (28.6%; 95% CI, 18.35%-44.49%) had selective reaction and 35 (71.4%; 95% CI, 59.84%-85.27%) had nonselective reaction. The sensitization rate to either benzylpenicilloyl polylysine or a minor determinant (benzylpenicilloate) was 47.0% (n = 23; 95% CI, 34.85%-63.21%), with 10 patients monosensitized to benzylpenicilloyl polylysine only (20.4%; 95% CI, 11.74%-35.48%) and 5 to benzylpenicilloate only (10.2%; 95% CI, 4.45%-23.42%).Conclusions and RelevanceResults of this study suggest that patients in Hong Kong with β-lactam antibiotic allergy had much higher rates of monosensitization to benzylpenicilloyl polylysine and benzylpenicilloate, making these reagents essential in β-lactam antibiotic skin tests. Such a finding warrants future studies into whether this sensitization is specific to ethnicity or region. ]]> <![CDATA[Influence of immune aging on vaccine responses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8b432954-2754-4442-8957-2f44e150cabf Impaired vaccine responses in older individuals are associated with alterations in both the quantity and quality of the T-cell compartment with age. As reviewed herein, the T-cell response to vaccination requires a fine balance between the generation of inflammatory effector T cells versus follicular helper T (TFH) cells that mediate high-affinity antibody production in tandem with the induction of long-lived memory cells for effective recall immunity. During aging, we find that this balance is tipped where T cells favor short-lived effector but not memory or TFH responses. Consistently, vaccine-induced antibodies commonly display a lower protective capacity. Mechanistically, multiple, potentially targetable, changes in T cells have been identified that contribute to these age-related defects, including posttranscription regulation, T-cell receptor signaling, and metabolic function. Although research into the induction of tissue-specific immunity by vaccines and with age is still limited, current mechanistic insights provide a framework for improved design of age-specific vaccination strategies that require further evaluation in a clinical setting.

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<![CDATA[Rosuvastatin Use Implicated in the Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6dcb7abc-ecc3-408b-abb7-e8dc20d57b5f

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a life-threatening drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction that is most closely associated with antiepileptics and antibiotics. While cases of DRESS are rare, here we present a case of DRESS in an adult male following administration of rosuvastatin who presented with fevers, generalized rash, and facial fullness. Vitals on presentation were temperature 102oF, pulse 95/min, blood pressure 95/47 mmHg, and respiratory rate of 14/min. His physical examination revealed scleral icterus, generalized blanching maculopapular rash, facial fullness, and right upper quadrant tenderness. Laboratory investigations found hemoglobin 10 gm/dl, white blood cell count 16.0 K/uL, peripheral eosinophil count 1,700 K/uL, alkaline phosphatase 2,501 U/L, aspartate transaminase 620 U/L, alanine transaminase 680 U/L, total bilirubin 13.2 mg/dl with a direct component of 9 mg/dl, blood urea nitrogen 66 mg/dl, creatinine 5.20 mg/dl, glomerular filtration rate 8 ml/min, and immunoglobulin E level 623 IU/mL. Serology for viral hepatitis, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and human herpesvirus 6 was negative. Computed tomographic scan of chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed generalized lymphadenopathy. Over the next week, the patient deteriorated clinically with worsening transaminitis and oliguric acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy. As per the European Registry of Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reaction Criteria (RegiSCAR), the probability of rosuvastatin-induced DRESS syndrome was scored as “definite.” He was treated with systemic and topical glucocorticoids leading to a gradual improvement in his symptoms. Skin biopsy was suggestive of DRESS syndrome as well. Since DRESS carries such a significant risk of mortality between 10% and 20%, DRESS must be recognized and treated as soon as symptoms present. Clinicians should also be aware that statins, one of the most commonly prescribed drugs, are also a potential cause DRESS.

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<![CDATA[New York Academy pulmonary meeting — March 22, 1990]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc908cb14-041b-4f49-949e-fa26243f3b8b ]]> <![CDATA[A Rare Case of Central Nervous System Vasculitis in a Patient with Perinuclear Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies-associated Interstitial Lung Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc0221ec2-f30b-4d58-9d4d-e74966aae9fa

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a systemic necrotizing inflammation of the small vessels. Central nervous system (CNS) ANCA-associated vasculitis is a rare manifestation of AAV. Three mechanisms of AAV affecting the CNS have been reported which include contiguous granulomatous invasion from nasal and paranasal sinuses, remote granulomatous lesions, and vasculitis of small vessels. Chronic hypertrophic pachymeningitis (CHP) is the meningeal-site involvement in AAV caused by granulomatous inflammation in the dura mater. We present a case of pachymeningitis manifested with slowly progressive cognitive dysfunction, leptomeningeal enhancement on MRI, and necrotic vessels with surrounding inflammation on biopsy. This case represents a rare development of subsequent CNS AAV in a patient with ANCA-associated interstitial lung disease treated with rituximab with a resolution of leptomeningeal enhancement on a follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

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<![CDATA[Summary of the 21st United States-Japan Joint Cholera Conference]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne39abf78-e080-421d-936e-10c623d94515 ]]> <![CDATA[Rare Systemic Response to Titanium Spinal Fusion Implant: Case Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne433ed4a-d611-48d5-9874-9fba9c46fd79

Neurosurgical patients with titanium spinal implant hypersensitivity can be difficult to diagnosis due to its rarity. Suspicion for titanium allergy is generally localized to the hardware site and may initially be thought to be an infectious process. Patients who report anorexia and fatigue over a long duration after the initial post-operative period may be diagnosed with depression rather than a systemic response to spinal metallic instrumentation. To our knowledge, a systemic titanium hypersensitivity reaction to spinal fixation devices has not been reported in the literature. We offer this report to give spine surgeons additional insight into suspected systemic titanium hypersensitivity symptoms which, if remain unidentified, can severely impair patient outcomes. A 67-year-old female with an unreported nickel allergy developed severe debilitating anorexia and fatigue one month post operatively, secondary to minimally invasive thoracic spinal fixation for T11 burst fracture with disruption of posterior elements. Over a two year period, weight loss reached approximately 25 kilograms with loss of muscle mass and subcutaneous tissue surrounding the spinal implants. The screws and rods were removed to avoid skin erosion. Upon hardware removal, the patient had rapid weight gain, improved stamina and generalized sense of well-being. We recommend the removal of spinal hardware in patients with suspected systemic titanium hypersensitivity reaction.

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<![CDATA[Upper Gastrointestinal Bleed in a Young Male- A Rare Presentation of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd41af96a-0630-4b60-96a9-251c3643bd3a

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare idiopathic disease affecting multiple organs (stomach and small intestine) of the digestive tract. It is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall to a variable depth and symptoms associated with gastrointestinal tract disease. The prevalence of this condition is ranging from 8 and 28 per 100,000. We present a rare presentation of EGE manifesting as upper GI bleeding. 

A 28-year-old male with PMH of EGE, duodenal ulcers, and stricture presented to the hospital with the chief complaints of three episodes of dizziness and melena over one day. His home medications included prednisone, montelukast, and pantoprazole. On admission, he was found to be tachycardic (150) while other vital signs were stable. Physical examination revealed cold, pale and clammy skin but was otherwise normal on examination. Initial labs showed hemoglobin (hgb) of 9.3. His hospital course was complicated with 1 episode of large volume hematemesis >1.5 L and brief loss of consciousness for which a code rapid response was called. On day 2, the hgb dropped to 5.7 and the patient received a blood transfusion. Emergent endoscopy (EGD) revealed high-grade duodenal stenosis, severe pyloroduodenal deformity and a duodenal ulcer with the visible vessel. Two clips were deployed blindly. Epinephrine could not be injected due to hard and fibrotic tissue around duodenal stenosis. The Interventional Radiology team was consulted and emergent angiography was done which revealed active bleeding from a branch of the gastric artery. Embolization was done and hemostasis was achieved successfully. He needed 5 units of PRBC transfusion in total. He was treated with pantoprazole twice a day intravenously since admission. For his known duodenal stricture, the surgical team was consulted. No acute surgical intervention was recommended. On discharge, he was sent home with pantoprazole 40 mg twice a day, slow tapering of prednisone and close follow up with gastroenterology, surgery, and primary care doctor within 1 week. The purpose of this case report is to increase awareness about this clinical condition among medical professionals. 

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<![CDATA[Alum impairs tolerogenic properties induced by allergoid‐mannan conjugates inhibiting mTOR and metabolic reprogramming in human DCs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nba40b6d4-48fa-47cf-b08a-175b8040af1f

Abstract

Background

Polymerized allergoids conjugated to mannan (PM) are suitable vaccines for allergen‐specific immunotherapy (AIT). Alum remains the most widely used adjuvant in AIT, but its way of action is not completely elucidated. The better understanding of the mechanisms underlying alum adjuvanticity could help to improve AIT vaccine formulations.

Objective

We sought to investigate the potential influence of alum in the tolerogenic properties imprinted by PM at the molecular level.

Methods

Flow cytometry, ELISAs, cocultures, intracellular staining and suppression assays were performed to assess alum and PM effects in human dendritic cells (DCs). BALB/c mice were immunized with PM alone or adsorbed to alum. Allergen‐specific antibodies, splenocyte cytokine production and splenic forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)+ regulatory T (Treg) cells were quantified. Metabolic and immune pathways were also studied in human DCs.

Results

Alum decreases PD‐L1 expression and IL‐10 production induced by PM in human DCs and increases pro‐inflammatory cytokine production. Alum impairs PM‐induced functional FOXP3+ Treg cells and promotes Th1/Th2/Th17 responses. Subcutaneous immunization of mice with PM plus alum inhibits in vivo induction of Treg cells promoted by PM without altering the capacity to induce functional allergen‐specific blocking antibodies. Alum inhibits mTOR activation and alters metabolic reprogramming by shifting glycolytic pathways and inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in PM‐activated DCs, impairing their capacity to generate functional Treg cells.

Conclusion

We uncover novel mechanisms by which alum impairs the tolerogenic properties induced by PM, which might well contribute to improve the formulation of novel vaccines for AIT.

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<![CDATA[Adult-onset Primary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: Reporting a Rare Case with Review of Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf8379702-0eb8-45e3-8828-520de9ba1fc3

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an uncommon, aggressive hematological syndrome. It is caused by an increased and unchecked proliferation of T lymphocytes and histiocytes. These cells secrete a large number of inflammatory cytokines and infiltrate various tissues causing multi-organ system failure. HLH may be primary or associated with different types of infections, autoimmune disorders, or malignancies. Primary or familial HLH is fatal and is frequently considered a disorder of infants and young children. Only a few cases of primary HLH have been reported in adults. We present a case of a 37-year-old man who presented with fever, pancytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly. Lymph node biopsy showed collections of histiocytes with lymphoplasmacytic cells. After excluding all the secondary causes a final diagnosis of primary HLH was made. The patient was started on HLH-2004 protocol (etoposide, cyclosporin A, dexamethasone) along with empiric antituberculous drugs as necrotic granulomas were also noted in the biopsy. HLH has a very poor prognosis and familiarity with clinical symptoms, and diagnostic criteria can aid in timely diagnosis.

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<![CDATA[Giant Cell Myocarditis: A Time Sensitive Distant Diagnosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N59de8ca9-aecf-40ae-be83-5a64c5ecd30d

Giant cell myocarditis is a rare type of rapidly progressive myocarditis. We present a dramatic case of giant cell myocarditis in a young female with an initial presentation of acute heart failure. Her clinical course was complicated with recurrent cardiac arrhythmias, specifically non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, for which a dual chamber automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) was implanted. Eventually, she presented with cardiac arrest despite being on antiarrhythmic medication and an implantable defibrillator. In the right clinical context, such as an acute presentation of unexplained new-onset heart failure and arrhythmias in a young patient, it is very important to maintain high suspicion of such a rare disease.

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<![CDATA[Rhesus Isoimmunization: Late-onset Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn Without Jaundice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nde276654-d41e-4598-aa53-b3a53be72ada

Rhesus (Rh) isoimmunization commonly presents with anemia and jaundice of varying intensity in the early postnatal period and is usually treated with phototherapy and exchange transfusion. Rarely, babies with mild or no symptoms at birth may present later with severe hemolytic anemia. This report describes a newborn infant with no postnatal jaundice who presented during the second week of life with severe anemia. These findings indicate the importance of regular follow-up and close monitoring of Rh-isoimmunized infants during the first two months of life for delayed onset anemia.

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<![CDATA[A retrospective analysis omalizumab treatment patterns in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria: a real‐world study in Belgium]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N314df29f-596b-4d98-bdd9-59c4606335c2

Abstract

Background

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is characterized by the repeated occurrence of persistent hives and/or angioedema for ≥6 weeks, without specific external stimuli. H1‐antihistamines have long been the standard of care of CSU, but many patients remain uncontrolled even at 4× the approved dose. Add‐on therapy with omalizumab has proven effective in clinical trials, but little is known about omalizumab treatment in Belgium.

Objective

To collect real‐world clinical data on omalizumab treatment in adults with CSU in Belgium.

Methods

This was an observational, retrospective chart review of adults with CSU, who initiated omalizumab treatment between August 2014 and December 2016 (maximum 28 months follow‐up).

Results

In total, 235 patients were included (median time from symptom onset to diagnosis, 5.4 months; median time from diagnosis to commencing omalizumab, 6.7 months). Treatments used before/after commencing omalizumab did not always adhere to guidelines; many patients (26.4%/11.1%) received first‐generation H1‐antihistamines, while 20.4% used omalizumab monotherapy after initiating treatment. The mean interval between omalizumab administrations was 4.8 (SD 1.7) weeks; 67.8% of patients had ≥1 interval prolongation and/or shortening. Mean baseline 7‐day Urticaria Activity Score (UAS7) was 32.0 (SD 6.05); this improved to 12.6 (SD 11.2) after 1 month of omalizumab. About 67.2% of patients reached UAS7 ≤ 6 (well controlled) during the study. A total of 87 patients stopped omalizumab and never restarted before the end of the observation period; the most prevalent reason was remission of symptoms (49.4% of patients), followed by lack of effect (12.6%), lost to follow‐up (6.9%) and adverse events (3.4%). Headache was the most common adverse event (n = 8/82). No anaphylaxis was reported.

Conclusions

This study revealed that patients initiated on omalizumab in Belgium had severe CSU at baseline, and showed substantial improvements after 1 month of treatment. Greater adherence to the prescription of guideline‐recommended medications is needed for the treatment of CSU.

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<![CDATA[Ibuprofen-induced Anaphylactic Shock in Adult Saudi Patient]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd0f459a2-b441-4f5f-8e2d-525f3d8c7607

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most prescribed medications globally. They act through inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 enzymes. In contrast to other NSAIDs, anaphylaxis due to ibuprofen is quite rare, especially in adults. The management of anaphylaxis depends on early recognition of the symptoms, administering epinephrine, and avoidance of the causing allergen. Here, we report a case of a 23-year-old female who presented with anaphylactic shock after ingesting ibuprofen.

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<![CDATA[Autoimmunity as a continuum in primary immunodeficiency]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5ac45f38-769e-4372-8000-0db8f2ee7788

Purpose of review

Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) are no longer defined by infections alone. First clinical sign or sequelae of PID may include autoimmunity, such as cytopenias, arthritis or enteropathy. This review addresses the latest in multidisciplinary approaches for expanding clinical phenotypes of PIDs with autoimmunity, including new presentations of known entities and novel gene defects. We also discuss diagnostic tools for identifying the distinct changes in immune cells subsets and autoantibodies, mechanistic understanding of the process, and targeted treatment and indications for hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT).

Recent findings

In the past years, increased awareness and use of genetic screening, confirmatory functional studies and immunological biomarkers opened the door for early recognition of PIDs among patients with autoimmunity. Large cohort studies detail the clinical spectrum and treatment outcome of PIDs with autoimmunity with specific immune genes (e.g., CTLA4, LRBA, PI3Kδ, NFKB1, RAG). The benefit of early recognition is initiation of targeted therapies with precise re-balancing of the dysregulated immune pathways (e.g., biologicals) or definitive therapy (e.g., HSCT).

Summary

Clinical presentation of patients with PID and autoimmunity is highly variable and requires in-depth diagnostics and precision medicine approaches.

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<![CDATA[Subcutaneous specific immunotherapy: Economic implications from the perspective of statutory health insurance – a population-based cost-effectiveness estimation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndc0378b5-0b0c-4ceb-8356-862b487a2b52

Background: Specific immunotherapy is the only potentially curative therapy in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic asthma (AA). The present study examined the effects of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) on the financial situation of the German statutory health insurance systems and measures the impact on AR/AA prevalence during the next decades. A further objective was to identify possible SCIT-treatment strategies in order to reach an efficient SCIT-use. Methods: Taking population projections of the German Statistical Federal Office, the number of expected new cases (AR, AA) was calculated until 2050. Based on assumptions about the proportion of patients who received SCIT in the future, age cohorts run through a model-calculation based on Markov chains. Data on effectiveness were extracted from published literature. For determining the cost situation of SCIT pharmacies we used selling prices for Allergovit®. All future costs are discounted at a mean rate of 2%. The model calculation was supplemented by a Delphi panel. Results: Based on the current situation, a total annual economic burden of 540 million Euros is to be expected for care of about yearly 6 million patients with AR and AA in Germany between 2011 and 2050. Several scenarios have shown that the use of SCIT seems to be associated with cost savings from the perspective of statutory health insurances, when SCIT is offered to a larger amount of patients with moderate to severe symptoms. That would result in reduced number of expensive patients who suffer from AA. The best effects on the future number of diseased patients could be achieved, however, if SCIT additionally would be applied to patients in earlier stages of disease. Due to the large number of patients receiving SCIT in such a scenario, the initial costs would not completely compensated by cost savings. Nevertheless, the additional costs of 300 to 350 Euros per additionally healed patient seem to be justifiable. Conclusion: From the perspective of the SHI, SCIT is a useful strategic option for preventing the progression of allergic diseases. Particularly with increased use in early disease stages, the number of healed patients is high. Potential cost savings may result from increased treatment rates in patients with advanced disease stages.

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