ResearchPad - american-thoracic-society-documents Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The Occupational Burden of Nonmalignant Respiratory Diseases. An Official American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society Statement]]> Rationale: Workplace inhalational hazards remain common worldwide, even though they are ameliorable. Previous American Thoracic Society documents have assessed the contribution of workplace exposures to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on a population level, but not to other chronic respiratory diseases. The goal of this document is to report an in-depth literature review and data synthesis of the occupational contribution to the burden of the major nonmalignant respiratory diseases, including airway diseases; interstitial fibrosis; hypersensitivity pneumonitis; other noninfectious granulomatous lung diseases, including sarcoidosis; and selected respiratory infections.

Methods: Relevant literature was identified for each respiratory condition. The occupational population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated for those conditions for which there were sufficient population-based studies to allow pooled estimates. For the other conditions, the occupational burden of disease was estimated on the basis of attribution in case series, incidence rate ratios, or attributable fraction within an exposed group.

Results: Workplace exposures contribute substantially to the burden of multiple chronic respiratory diseases, including asthma (PAF, 16%); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PAF, 14%); chronic bronchitis (PAF, 13%); idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (PAF, 26%); hypersensitivity pneumonitis (occupational burden, 19%); other granulomatous diseases, including sarcoidosis (occupational burden, 30%); pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (occupational burden, 29%); tuberculosis (occupational burden, 2.3% in silica-exposed workers and 1% in healthcare workers); and community-acquired pneumonia in working-age adults (PAF, 10%).

Conclusions: Workplace exposures contribute to the burden of disease across a range of nonmalignant lung conditions in adults (in addition to the 100% burden for the classic occupational pneumoconioses). This burden has important clinical, research, and policy implications. There is a pressing need to improve clinical recognition and public health awareness of the contribution of occupational factors across a range of nonmalignant respiratory diseases.

<![CDATA[Outdoor Air Pollution and New-Onset Airway Disease. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report]]>

Although it is well accepted that air pollution exposure exacerbates preexisting airway disease, it has not been firmly established that long-term pollution exposure increases the risk of new-onset asthma or chronic obstruction pulmonary disease (COPD). This Workshop brought together experts on mechanistic, epidemiological, and clinical aspects of airway disease to review current knowledge regarding whether air pollution is a causal factor in the development of asthma and/or COPD. Speakers presented recent evidence in their respective areas of expertise related to air pollution and new airway disease incidence, followed by interactive discussions. A writing committee summarized their collective findings. The Epidemiology Group found that long-term exposure to air pollution, especially metrics of traffic-related air pollution such as nitrogen dioxide and black carbon, is associated with onset of childhood asthma. However, the evidence for a causal role in adult-onset asthma or COPD remains insufficient. The Mechanistic Group concluded that air pollution exposure can cause airway remodeling, which can lead to asthma or COPD, as well as asthma-like phenotypes that worsen with long-term exposure to air pollution, especially fine particulate matter and ozone. The Clinical Group concluded that air pollution is a plausible contributor to the onset of both asthma and COPD. Available evidence indicates that long-term exposure to air pollution is a cause of childhood asthma, but the evidence for a similar determination for adult asthma or COPD remains insufficient. Further research is needed to elucidate the exact biological mechanism underlying incident childhood asthma, and the specific air pollutant that causes it.

<![CDATA[Home Oxygen Therapy for Children. An Official American Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline]]>

Background: Home oxygen therapy is often required in children with chronic respiratory conditions. This document provides an evidence-based clinical practice guideline on the implementation, monitoring, and discontinuation of home oxygen therapy for the pediatric population.

Methods: A multidisciplinary panel identified pertinent questions regarding home oxygen therapy in children, conducted systematic reviews of the relevant literature, and applied the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to rate the quality of evidence and strength of clinical recommendations.

Results: After considering the panel’s confidence in the estimated effects, the balance of desirable (benefits) and undesirable (harms and burdens) consequences of treatment, patient values and preferences, cost, and feasibility, recommendations were developed for or against home oxygen therapy specific to pediatric lung and pulmonary vascular diseases.

Conclusions: Although home oxygen therapy is commonly required in the care of children, there is a striking lack of empirical evidence regarding implementation, monitoring, and discontinuation of supplemental oxygen therapy. The panel formulated and provided the rationale for clinical recommendations for home oxygen therapy based on scant empirical evidence, expert opinion, and clinical experience to aid clinicians in the management of these complex pediatric patients and identified important areas for future research.

<![CDATA[Reducing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Hospital Readmissions. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report]]>

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of hospital readmissions in the United States. The quality of care delivered to patients with COPD is known to be lacking across the care continuum, and may contribute to high rates of readmission. As part of the response to these issues, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid instituted a penalty for 30-day readmissions as part of their Hospital Readmission Reduction Program in October 2014. At the time the penalty was instated, there was little published evidence on effective hospital-based programs to reduce readmissions after acute exacerbations of COPD. Even now, several years later, few published programs exist, and we continue to lack consistent approaches that lead to improved readmission rates. In addition, there was concern that the penalty would widen health disparities. Despite the dearth of published evidence to reduce readmissions beyond available COPD guidelines, many hospitals across the United States began to develop and implement programs, based on little evidence, due to the financial penalty. We, therefore, assembled a diverse group of clinicians, researchers, payers, and program leaders from across the country to present and discuss approaches that had the greatest potential for success. We drew on expertise from ongoing readmission reduction programs, implementation methodologies, and stakeholder perspectives to develop this Workshop Report on current best practices and models for addressing COPD hospital readmissions.