ResearchPad - anesthesiology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Aging-associated sinus arrest and sick sinus syndrome in adult zebrafish]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13853 Because of its powerful genetics, the adult zebrafish has been increasingly used for studying cardiovascular diseases. Considering its heart rate of ~100 beats per minute at ambient temperature, which is very close to human, we assessed the use of this vertebrate animal for modeling heart rhythm disorders such as sinus arrest (SA) and sick sinus syndrome (SSS). We firstly optimized a protocol to measure electrocardiogram in adult zebrafish. We determined the location of the probes, implemented an open-chest microsurgery procedure, measured the effects of temperature, and determined appropriate anesthesia dose and time. We then proposed an PP interval of more than 1.5 seconds as an arbitrary criterion to define an SA episode in an adult fish at ambient temperature, based on comparison between the current definition of an SA episode in humans and our studies of candidate SA episodes in aged wild-type fish and Tg(SCN5A-D1275N) fish (a fish model for inherited SSS). With this criterion, a subpopulation of about 5% wild-type fish can be considered to have SA episodes, and this percentage significantly increases to about 25% in 3-year-old fish. In response to atropine, this subpopulation has both common SSS phenotypic traits that are shared with the Tg(SCN5A-D1275N) model, such as bradycardia; and unique SSS phenotypic traits, such as increased QRS/P ratio and chronotropic incompetence. In summary, this study defined baseline SA and SSS in adult zebrafish and underscored use of the zebrafish as an alternative model to study aging-associated SSS.

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<![CDATA[Development and validation of a questionnaire to assess healthcare personnel competence in cardiac arrest and resuscitation in pregnancy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7826 Cardiac arrest is rare in pregnancy, and up-to date competence can be difficult to assess and maintain. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire to assess healthcare personnel experiences, self-assessed competence and perception of role and resposibility related to cardiac arrest and cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in pregnancyMethodsThe study had a cross-sectional design, developing and validating a questionnaire: the Competence in cardiac arrest and CPR in pregnancy (ComCA-P). Development and validation of the ComCA-P was conducted in three stages: 1) Literature review and expert group panel inputs, 2) a pilot study and 3) a cross-sectional questionnaire study. In stage one, the ComCA-P was developed over several iterations between the researchers, including inputs from an expert group panel consisting of highly competent professionals (n = 11). In stage two, the questionnaire was piloted in a group of healthcare personnel with relevant competence (n = 16). The ComCA-P was then used in a baseline study including healthcare personnel potentially involved in CPR in pregnancy (n = 527) in six hospital wards. Based on these data, internal consistency, intra-class correlations, and confirmatory factor analysis were utilized to validate the questionnaire.ResultsThe expert group and pilot study participants evaluated the appropriateness, relevance and accuracy to be high. Formulation of the items was considered appropriate, with no difficulties identified related to content- or face validity. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.8 on the thematic area self-assessment, and 0.73 on the theoretical knowledge area of the ComCA-P. On both the self-assessed competence items and the teoretical knowledge items, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin was 0.8. Moreover, the Bertletts’ test of sphericity was greater than the critical value for chi-square, and significant (p < .0001).ConclusionsFindings indicate that the ComCA-P is a valid questionnaire that can be used to assess healthcare personnel competence in cardiac arrest and resuscitation in pregnancy. ]]> <![CDATA[External Validation of a Pharmacokinetic Model of Propofol for Target-Controlled Infusion in Children under Two Years Old]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N68561e64-fa5c-4151-a006-f95e88088bd6

Background

Previously, a linked pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model (the Kim model) of propofol with concurrent infusion of remifentanil was developed for children aged 2–12 years. There are few options for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model of propofol for children under two years old. We performed an external validation of the Kim model for children under two years old to evaluate whether the model is applicable to this age group.

Methods

Twenty-four children were enrolled. After routine anesthetic induction, a continuous infusion of 2% propofol and remifentanil was commenced using the Kim model. The target effect-site concentration of propofol was set as 2, 3, 4, and 5 μg/mL, followed by arterial blood sampling after 10 min of each equilibrium. Population estimates of four parameters—pooled bias, inaccuracy, divergence, and wobble—were used to evaluate the performance of the Kim model.

Results

A total of 95 plasma concentrations were used for evaluation of the Kim model. The population estimate (95% confidence interval) of bias was −0.96% (−8.45%, 6.54%) and that of inaccuracy was 21.0% (15.0%–27.0%) for the plasma concentration of propofol.

Conclusion

The pooled bias and inaccuracy of the pharmacokinetic predictions are clinically acceptable. Therefore, our external validation of the Kim model indicated that the model can be applicable to target-controlled infusion of propofol in children younger than 2 years, with the recommended use of actual bispectral index monitoring in clinical settings that remifentanil is present.

Trial Registration

Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0001752

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<![CDATA[Portable respiratory polygraphy monitoring of obese mothers the first night after caesarean section with bupivacaine/morphine/fentanyl spinal anaesthesia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bf9b279d5eed0c4843d04ea

Background: Obesity, abdominal surgery, and intrathecal opioids are all factors associated with a risk for respiratory compromise. The aim of this explorative trial was to study the apnoea/hypopnea index 1st postoperative night in obese mothers having had caesarean section (CS) in spinal anaesthesia with a combination of bupivacaine/morphine and fentanyl.

Methods: Consecutive obese (BMI >30 kg/m 2) mothers, ≥18 years, scheduled for CS with bupivacaine/morphine/fentanyl spinal anaesthesia were monitored with a portable polygraphy device Embletta /NOX on 1 st postoperative night. The apnoea/hypopnea index (AHI) was identified by clinical algorithm and assessed in accordance to general guidelines; number of apnoea/hypopnea episodes per hour: <5 “normal”, ≥5 and <15 mild sleep apnoea, ≥15 and <30 moderate sleep apnoea, ≥ 30 severe sleep apnoea. Oxygen desaturation events were in similar manner calculated per hour as oxygen desaturation index (ODI).

Results: Forty mothers were invited to participate: 27 consented, 23 were included, but polysomnography registration failed in 3. Among the 20 mothers studied: 11 had an AHI <5 ( normal), 7 mothers had AHI ≥5 but <15 ( mild OSAS) and 2 mothers had AHI ≥15 ( moderate OSA), none had an AHI ≥ 30. The ODI was on average 4.4, and eight patients had an ODI >5. Mothers with a high AHI (15.3 and 18.2) did not show high ODI. Mean saturation was 94% (91-96%), and four mothers had mean SpO 2 90-94%, none had a mean SpO2 <90%.

Conclusion: Respiratory polygraphy 1 st night after caesarean section in spinal anaesthesia with morphine in moderately obese mothers showed AHIs that in sleep medicine terms are considered normal, mild and moderate. Obstructive events and episodes of desaturation were commonly not synchronised. Further studies looking at preoperative screening for sleep apnoea in obese mothers are warranted but early postop respiratory polygraphy recording is cumbersome and provided sparse important information.

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<![CDATA[Clinical applicability of the Feline Grimace Scale: real-time versus image scoring and the influence of sedation and surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2856c4d5-d500-4a4f-95c9-9bc743f8a422

Background

The Feline Grimace Scale (FGS) is a facial expression-based scoring system for acute pain assessment in cats with reported validity using image assessment. The aims of this study were to investigate the clinical applicability of the FGS in real-time when compared with image assessment, and to evaluate the influence of sedation and surgery on FGS scores in cats.

Methods

Sixty-five female cats (age: 1.37 ± 0.9 years and body weight: 2.85 ± 0.76 kg) were included in a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Cats were sedated with intramuscular acepromazine and buprenorphine. Following induction with propofol, anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane and cats underwent ovariohysterectomy (OVH). Pain was evaluated at baseline, 15 min after sedation, and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h after extubation using the FGS in real-time (FGS-RT). Cats were video-recorded simultaneously at baseline, 15 min after sedation, and at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after extubation for subsequent image assessment (FGS-IMG), which was performed six months later by the same observer. The agreement between FGS-RT and FGS-IMG scores was calculated using the Bland & Altman method for repeated measures. The effects of sedation (baseline versus 15 min) and OVH (baseline versus 24 h) were assessed using linear mixed models. Responsiveness to the administration of rescue analgesia (FGS scores before versus one hour after) was assessed using paired t-tests.

Results

Minimal bias (−0.057) and narrow limits of agreement (−0.351 to 0.237) were observed between the FGS-IMG and FGS-RT. Scores at baseline (FGS-RT: 0.16 ± 0.13 and FGS-IMG: 0.14 ± 0.13) were not different after sedation (FGS-RT: 0.2 ± 0.15, p = 0.39 and FGS-IMG: 0.16 ± 0.15, p = 0.99) nor at 24 h after extubation (FGS-RT: 0.16 ± 0.12, p = 0.99 and FGS-IMG: 0.12 ± 0.12, p = 0.96). Thirteen cats required rescue analgesia; their FGS scores were lower one hour after analgesic administration (FGS-RT: 0.21 ± 0.18 and FGS-IMG: 0.18 ± 0.17) than before (FGS-RT: 0.47 ± 0.24, p = 0.0005 and FGS-IMG: 0.45 ± 0.19, p = 0.015).

Conclusions

Real-time assessment slightly overestimates image scoring; however, with minimal clinical impact. Sedation with acepromazine-buprenorphine and ovariohysterectomy using a balanced anesthetic protocol did not influence the FGS scores. Responsiveness to analgesic administration was observed with both the FGS-RT and FGS-IMG.

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<![CDATA[Effect of moderate elevated intra-abdominal pressure on lung mechanics and histological lung injury at different positive end-expiratory pressures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nccafa6f6-e83a-4af1-be67-e451f21e0145

Introduction

Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is a well-known phenomenon in critically ill patients. Effects of a moderately elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on lung mechanics are still not fully analyzed. Moreover, the optimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in elevated IAP is unclear.

Methods

We investigated changes in lung mechanics and transformation in histological lung patterns using three different PEEP levels in eighteen deeply anesthetized pigs with an IAP of 10 mmHg. After establishing the intra-abdominal pressure, we randomized the animals into 3 groups. Each of n = 6 (Group A = PEEP 5, B = PEEP 10 and C = PEEP 15 cmH2O). End-expiratory lung volume (EELV/kg body weight (bw)), pulmonary compliance (Cstat), driving pressure (ΔP) and transpulmonary pressure (ΔPL) were measured for 6 hours. Additionally, the histological lung injury score was calculated.

Results

Comparing hours 0 and 6 in group A, there was a decrease of EELV/kg (27±2 vs. 16±1 ml/kg; p<0.05) and of Cstat (42±2 vs. 27±1 ml/cmH2O; p<0.05) and an increase of ΔP (11±0 vs. 17±1 cmH2O; p<0.05) and ΔPL (6±0 vs. 10±1 cmH2O; p<0.05). In group B, there was no significant change in EELV/kg (27±3 vs. 24±3 ml/kg), but a decrease in Cstat (42±3 vs. 32±1 ml/cmH20; p<0.05) and an increase in ΔP (11±1 vs. 15±1 cmH2O; p<0.05) and ΔPL (5±1 vs. 7±0 cmH2O; p<0.05). In group C, there were no significant changes in EELV/kg (27±2 vs. 29±3 ml/kg), ΔP (10±1 vs. 12±1 cmH2O) and ΔPL (5±1 vs. 7±1 cmH2O), but a significant decrease of Cstat (43±1 vs. 37±1 ml/cmH2O; p<0.05). Histological lung injury score was lowest in group B.

Conclusions

A moderate elevated IAP of 10 mmHg leads to relevant changes in lung mechanics during mechanical ventilation. In our study, a PEEP of 10 cmH2O was associated with a lower lung injury score and was able to overcome the IAP induced alterations of EELV.

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<![CDATA[Towards a fully automated surveillance of well-being status in laboratory mice using deep learning: Starting with facial expression analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N201121b9-bfe0-423d-91d1-e349ea424365

Assessing the well-being of an animal is hindered by the limitations of efficient communication between humans and animals. Instead of direct communication, a variety of parameters are employed to evaluate the well-being of an animal. Especially in the field of biomedical research, scientifically sound tools to assess pain, suffering, and distress for experimental animals are highly demanded due to ethical and legal reasons. For mice, the most commonly used laboratory animals, a valuable tool is the Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS), a coding system for facial expressions of pain in mice. We aim to develop a fully automated system for the surveillance of post-surgical and post-anesthetic effects in mice. Our work introduces a semi-automated pipeline as a first step towards this goal. A new data set of images of black-furred laboratory mice that were moving freely is used and provided. Images were obtained after anesthesia (with isoflurane or ketamine/xylazine combination) and surgery (castration). We deploy two pre-trained state of the art deep convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures (ResNet50 and InceptionV3) and compare to a third CNN architecture without pre-training. Depending on the particular treatment, we achieve an accuracy of up to 99% for the recognition of the absence or presence of post-surgical and/or post-anesthetic effects on the facial expression.

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<![CDATA[Resting state networks of the canine brain under sevoflurane anaesthesia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0f88adec-494f-4799-9601-5a30499e23df

Resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) has become an established technique in humans and reliably determines several resting state networks (RSNs) simultaneously. Limited data exist about RSN in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the RSNs in 10 healthy beagle dogs using a 3 tesla MRI scanner and subsequently perform group-level independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functionally connected brain networks. Rs-fMRI sequences were performed under steady state sevoflurane inhalation anaesthesia. Anaesthetic depth was titrated to the minimum level needed for immobilisation and mechanical ventilation of the patient. This required a sevoflurane MAC between 0.8 to 1.2. Group-level ICA dimensionality of 20 components revealed distributed sensory, motor and higher-order networks in the dogs’ brain. We identified in total 7 RSNs (default mode, primary and higher order visual, auditory, two putative motor-somatosensory and one putative somatosensory), which are common to other mammals including humans. Identified RSN are remarkably similar to those identified in awake dogs. This study proves the feasibility of rs-fMRI in anesthetized dogs and describes several RSNs, which may set the basis for investigating pathophysiological characteristics of various canine brain diseases.

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<![CDATA[Perioperative Considerations for a Patient with a Left Ventricular Assist Device Undergoing Thyroidectomy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2911abb6-14e5-4645-994d-1f357da21762

As the population ages, ventricular assist devices (VADs) are becoming more prevalent, even in the outpatient perioperative setting. Patients with VADs present unique challenges for the anesthesiologist, who needs to have a thorough understanding of device physiology and design an appropriate anesthetic plan. This case report demonstrates an alternative monitored anesthesia care (MAC) anesthetic technique for a patient with a left VAD undergoing total thyroidectomy. This alternative provided a safe comfortable anesthetic and can be used successfully in patients with circulatory support devices.

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<![CDATA[Use of a Triple Prophylactic Strategy to Prevent Post-dural Puncture Headache: An Observational Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6a9ba11b-1446-4274-a38c-64fb395333e0

Objective

Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) after an accidental dural puncture is a very common complication of epidural analgesia/anesthesia. We observed the ability of a triple prophylactic method (epidural saline, morphine, and intravenous (IV) cosyntropin) to prevent PDPH and the need for a blood patch. 

Methods

We retrospectively evaluated the effect of the combination of epidural saline, IV cosyntropin, and epidural morphine in parturients who had an accidental dural puncture with regard to the PDPH rate and the need for an epidural blood patch. We report a case series of patients with accidental dural puncture who underwent triple prophylaxis and other methods.

Results

Thirty-one patients were included in the study. Fourteen cases received triple prophylaxis (45%). Three patients in this group developed PDPH (21%), with two of them requiring a blood patch (14%). Nine patients underwent preventive measures other than triple prophylaxis with a PDPH rate of 55% and one needing a blood patch (11%). Conservative management was used in eight patients with PDPH and blood patch rates of 100% and 62%, respectively.

Conclusion

The triple prophylactic regimen of epidural saline, IV cosyntropin, and epidural morphine used after accidental dural puncture exhibits great potential to reduce the incidence of PDPH and the need for blood patch in obstetric patients.

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<![CDATA[Let’s talk about pain catastrophizing measures: an item content analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0761d7d6-f628-497b-9302-933eb994db6c

Background

Concerns have been raised about whether self-report measures of pain catastrophizing reflect the construct as defined in the cognitive-behavioral literature. We investigated the content of these self-report measures; that is, whether items assess the construct ‘pain catastrophizing’ and not other theoretical constructs (i.e., related constructs or pain outcomes) using the discriminant content validity method.

Method

Items (n = 58) of six pain catastrophizing measures were complemented with items (n = 34) from questionnaires measuring pain-related worrying, vigilance, pain severity, distress, and disability. Via an online survey, 94 participants rated to what extent each item was relevant for assessing pain catastrophizing, defined as “to view or present pain or pain-related problems as considerably worse than they actually are” and other relevant constructs (pain-related worrying, vigilance, pain severity, distress, and disability).

Results

Data were analyzed using Bayesian hierarchical models. The results revealed that the items from pain-related worrying, vigilance, pain severity, distress, and disability questionnaires were distinctively related to their respective constructs. This was not observed for the items from the pain catastrophizing questionnaires. The content of the pain catastrophizing measures was equally well, or even better, captured by pain-related worrying or pain-related distress.

Conclusion

Based upon current findings, a recommendation may be to develop a novel pain catastrophizing questionnaire. However, we argue that pain catastrophizing cannot be assessed by self-report questionnaires. Pain catastrophizing requires contextual information, and expert judgment, which cannot be provided by self-report questionnaires. We argue for a person-centered approach, and propose to rename ‘pain catastrophizing’ measures in line with what is better measured: ‘pain-related worrying’.

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<![CDATA[The Effect of Increased Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio on Mortality in Patients Operated on Due to Hip Fracture]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N50ef1c08-75a5-4ce1-80b8-b702d3e6d211

Introduction

In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) on mortality and morbidity in elderly patients over the age of 65 who presented to our clinic and were operated on due to hip fracture.

Methods

The study included patients over the age of 65 who were operated on in our hospital between January 2014 and December 2018 due to hip fracture. Those with multiple fractures and those who were operated on due to cancer-related fracture were excluded. Patients' age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, preoperative waiting time, type of anesthesia, operation duration, amount of erythrocyte suspension used, and duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay were recorded. The effect of increased preoperative and postoperative 5th day neutrophil-lymphocyte ratios (NLR 1 and NLR 5, respectively) on mortality and morbidity was investigated.

Results

We examined 132 patients operated on due to hip fracture. NLR 5 was higher among patients who were admitted to the ICU (p = 0.007) and among those who died (p = 0.007). Additionally, the rate of increase of NLR 5 was higher among patients who were admitted to the ICU (p = 0.044) and among those died (p = 0.009).

Conclusion

The rate of increase of NLR in the postoperative period can be used as a criterion for predicting mortality in patients who are operated on due to hip fracture.

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<![CDATA[The Relationship Between Hematological Parameters and Mortality in Cardiovascular Patients With Postcardiac Arrest Syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbb4b009f-3b90-440d-8aff-f03ffdbcd266

Background: Post-cardiac arrest syndrome is the insufficiency of cardiac and cerebral functions caused by ischemia after sudden cardiac arrest. We aimed to determine the hematological parameters associated with mortality in the intensive care follow-up of patients with post-cardiac arrest syndrome.

Methods: The hematological parameters of 285 cardiovascular patients who were admitted to the emergency department of Harran University Medical Faculty between 2013 and 2018 and followed up in the intensive care unit with post-cardiac arrest syndrome were examined. A total of 85 patients were included in the study. These parameters were recorded as the time of arrival to the emergency department (0 hour) and hematological parameters at the 24th and 48th hours of intensive care follow-up.

Results: In the mortality group, albumin (P:0.030), hemoglobin (Hg) (P: 0.049), and hematocrit (HCT) (P: 0.020) values ​​in the blood parameters, at the time of admission to the emergency department, were significantly lower than those in the survival group. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) (P: 0.009) and urea (P <0.001) values ​​at the time of arrival were higher than the survival group. In the 24th and 48th hours, mean hemoglobin (MCHC) (P <0.05) values ​​were lower and RDW (P <0.05) values ​​were higher in the mortality group compared to the survival group.

Conclusions: In this retrospective validation, low albumin, Hg, HCT, MCHC, and high RDW and urea levels may increase mortality in cardiovascular patients who develop post-cardiac arrest syndrome within the first 48 hours. Correcting these values ​​early may reduce mortality.

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<![CDATA[Ultrasound-guided Percutaneous Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for the Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 Following a Crush Injury to the Fifth Digit: A Rare Case Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbe0eb686-cf4c-4000-bc8e-b0bfb38b6c90

This case report presents an application of percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation to the left ulnar nerve to treat a patient with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 following a crush injury to the left fifth digit. Conventional treatment had failed to ameliorate the patient's condition. After a successful seven-day trial with an ulnar peripheral nerve catheter, which followed an unsuccessful capsulectomy of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints of the left fifth digit with tenolysis of the flexor tendons, the patient underwent an uneventful implantation of a percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulator parallel with the trajectory of the left ulnar nerve just distal to the ulnar tunnel. Two weeks after implantation of the percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulator, the patient reported a reduction in the pain, with the intensity score coming down from 7 out of 10 to 0-1 out of 10 on the numeric rating scale (NRS). The patient was able to initiate pain-free active motion of her left fifth digit. At the 3-month follow-up consultation, the patient reported maintenance of the reduction of pain in her left upper extremity with the implanted percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulator, as well as improved performance in her daily activities. Despite the success achieved in this particular case, further clinical series involving larger numbers of patients are warranted in order to assess the definitive role of percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation for the treatment of neuropathic pain of the upper and lower extremities, which has been previously unresponsive to medical and/or surgical treatment.

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<![CDATA[Light Conscious Sedation in Patients with Previous Acute Myocardial Infarction Needing Exodontia: An Observational Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3cbecd80-2b74-487b-a844-9e6cf9dfbb7d

Aim

This study evaluated a protocol of light conscious sedation for multimodal analgesia in patients with a clinical history of acute myocardial infarction requiring tooth extraction and to assess postoperative pain by using the quantity intake of acetaminophen as the indicator.

Material and methods

All 50 patients received preliminary anxiolysis via oral chlordemethyldiazepam administration. After 15 to 20 minutes, only patients reporting they were not fully relaxed received additional intravenous diazepam before tooth extraction. Acetaminophen 1000 mg was suggested as the preferred postoperative analgesic drug.

Results

The studied patients included 39 women and 11 men with a mean age of 69.4 ± 17.1 years. They were classified according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status classification system as follows: 12 patients belonging to class II, 32 patient to class III, and the remaining six to class IV. Based on the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, six patients were phobic and seven anxious. Nevertheless, intravenous conscious sedation was needed in 23 patients via diazepam. The first day after surgery, 76% of patients took acetaminophen, and 58% took acetaminophen the second day, with a mean two-day total intake of acetaminophen of 1020 ± 789 mg/day. Stratified statistical analysis was performed and revealed that 60.87% of patients receiving intravenous diazepam needed to take acetaminophen on the first day after dental extraction in contrast to the 88.89% of patients who did not receive intravenous diazepam (χ2 test; P = .021).

Conclusions

Our data suggest that anxiety related to dental procedures is widespread, although often unmentioned by patients. Moreover, the percentage of patients needing analgesics during the first 24 hours following surgery demonstrated that overall perioperative pain might be controlled by the light conscious sedation protocol for patients with previous acute myocardial infarction proposed in the current study.

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<![CDATA[Effect of Pharmacological Agents Administered for Attenuating the Extubation Response on the Quality of Extubation: A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf82bb1a0-c9c1-4c3c-b2e8-b7425a5a5f8b

Background

Several drugs have been tried to obtund the hemodynamic extubation response but all have variable side effects that may affect the quality of short-term recovery.

Objective

Our primary objective was to evaluate the effect of pharmacological agents, such as dexmedetomidine, local anesthetics, and so on, administered for attenuating the extubation response on the quality of extubation, as judged by the presence or absence of cough, sedation, and laryngospasm/bronchospasm in adult patients who had undergone general anesthesia. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of these drugs on other immediate post-extubation complications such as respiratory depression, desaturation, bradycardia, hypotension, and nausea and vomiting (PONV).

Methods

This is a systematic review of (randomized controlled trials) RCTs with meta-analysis. The Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched for RCTs on the effect of pharmacological agents on both the hemodynamic extubation response as well as the quality of extubation.

Results

Fourteen out of 24 included studies were subjected to a meta-analysis. The risk of cough was less likely in the intervention group as compared to control groups (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.46, p<0.00001, I2=35%). Sedation, hypotension (OR= 10.47; 95% CI: 1.86, 58.80, p=0.008, I2=0%), and bradycardia (OR= 6.57; 95% CI: 2.09, 20.64, p=0.001, I2=0%) were reported with dexmedetomidine. Only one study reported laryngospasm with dexmedetomidine and two studies with opioids.

Conclusion

Dexmedetomidine 0.4 to 0.5 ug/kg was associated with smooth extubation, minimal coughing, no laryngospasm/ bronchospasm, and with stable hemodynamics, without causing respiratory depression, PONV, and desaturation. However, in higher doses (more than 0.5 ug/kg), it caused bradycardia, hypotension, and sedation. Other pharmacological agents, such as local anesthetics, calcium channel blockers, and opioids, did not attenuate cough associated with extubation.

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<![CDATA[Iatrogenic Dural Puncture-induced Abducens Nerve Palsy: Treatment with Epidural Blood Patch]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4a7b9eb6-1e0e-4c6b-af59-af7f4e27854e

Iatrogenic dural puncture (IDP) is a known complication of epidural anesthesia. While operator experience is certainly critical in preventing inadvertent dural punctures, it can happen even in the hands of a skilled operator. Often, IDP presents as post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) without the involvement of cranial nerves; however, infrequent excessive loss of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can lead to intracranial hypotension causing compression of the cranial nerves, in particular, the abducens nerve. Here, we describe the case of a patient who suffered from an atypical headache with neurological sequalea from an IDP. Epidural blood patch (EBP) is an effective treatment for PDPH, especially in cases that are not responsive to conservative therapy. However, it may be the first line of defense in patients with neurological symptoms arising from low intracranial hypotension. In our case report, as well as others reported in the literature, there was a complete resolution of the neurological symptoms after the EBP was placed.

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<![CDATA[Intravenous Dexmedetomidine Has Synergistic Effect on Subarachnoid Block with Hyperbaric Bupivacaine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne98a9b90-d7d7-41fc-a03f-993deb713811

Objective

To assess the effect of intravenous dexmedetomidine on subarachnoid anesthesia with the help of hyperbaric bupivacaine when administered as a bolus or as an infusion.

Materials and methods

This randomized control trial was conducted at the Department of Anesthesia, Nishtar Hospital, Multan, Pakistan, from January 2017 to December 2018. Seventy patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were segregated into three groups. At the T10 level, a sensory blockade was noted. The motor blockade was also periodically measured until a modified Bromage score of three was achieved. The depth of sedation was measured with the help of the Ramsay Sedation Scale score. Oxygen saturation and other factors were also measured and recorded. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and pruritus were the adverse effects noted during the study. To check and compare the statistical differences among the variables from different groups, the Chi-square test and analysis of variance test were performed. A probability (p) value of <.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

The duration of the sensory blockade was shortest in the control group receiving only bupivacaine (Group B) and longest in the group receiving bupivacaine plus dexmedetomidine as a single bolus (Group BDexB; p: <.001). The time of complete sensory and motor recovery was longest in Group BDexB and shortest in Group B. The difference was statistically significant (p: <.001). The Ramsay score was >2 (i.e., 3 or 4) in five patients from Group B, 19 from Group BDexB, and 17 from the group receiving intrathecal bupivacaine plus dexmedetomidine as an infusion (Group BDexI). Between these groups, a statistically significant difference was found (p: <.001).

Conclusions

Intravenous administration of dexmedetomidine as either a bolus or infusion prolonged the duration of the sensory and motor blockade.

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<![CDATA[Construction of an Affordable Lumbar Neuraxial Block Model Using 3D Printed Materials]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0a2a1cc1-615b-42f6-aa83-ae0abbe5a21c

Access to affordable 3D printing technology has resulted in increased interest in the creation of medical phantom task trainers. Recent research has validated the use of these trainers in simulation education. However, task trainers remain expensive, limiting their availability to medical training programs. We describe the construction of a low-cost task trainer using fused filament fabrication (FFF) printed spinal vertebrae placed in a synthetic gelatin matrix. Additionally, our model contains a realistic simulated ligamentum flavum, a removable silicone skin, as well as spinal fluid reservoir that provides a positive endpoint for intrathecal blocks. The total cost of this model was less than $400 USD. The time to 3D print the bony anatomic parts was approximately 26 hours. While we have not formally validated our model, initial impressions of tactile feel and realism were deemed positive by experienced anesthesia providers. Future work will focus on continued refinement of the model features and construction.

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<![CDATA[Paravertebral Block with Compound Betamethasone in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc829cb3d-b73a-4c80-81f9-6f04630925aa

Backgrounds

The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of unilateral single injection thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) with and without the addition of betamethasone for the acute pain management of patient’s undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).

Methods

Eligible patients were allocated randomly to three groups: (A) general anesthesia followed by surgeon infiltration at port sites with ropivacaine (n = 48), (B) general anesthesia after single injection TPVB at right T7-8 level with ropivacaine only, Ropi_TPVB (n = 43), and (C) general anesthesia after single injection TPVB with ropivacaine plus betamethasone, Ropi_Betamet_TPVB (n = 45). Primary outcome was TPVB duration assessed by the number of dermatomes at regular intervals up to 72 hours (h). Secondary outcomes included pain scores, analgesics consumption, and perioperative functional outcomes.

Results

The addition of betamethasone to ropivacaine in TPVB resulted in similar onset but significantly slower block regression between 4 h and 72 h as compared to ropivacaine alone (P < 0.001). When compared to the surgeon infiltration group, Ropi_TPVB and Ropi_Betamet_TPVB group had significantly lower pain scores for 24 h and 48 h, respectively, P ≤ 0.001. Both TPVB groups had less frequency of analgesics administration for 72 h, P < 0.001, and earlier mobilization, P < 0.001.

Conclusions

The addition of betamethasone to TPVB significantly prolonged block duration as compared to local anesthetic alone. TPVB both with and without the addition of betamethasone resulted in better perioperative analgesia and improved functional status when compared to surgical site local anesthetic infiltration.

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