ResearchPad - animal-breeding-and-genetics https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Mitochondrial DNA variation and phylogeography of native Mongolian goats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14456 Mongolia is one of a few countries that supports over 25 million goats, but genetic diversity, demographic history, and the origin of goat populations in Mongolia have not been well studied. This study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic status and population structure of Mongolian native goats, as well as to discuss their origin together with other foreign breeds from different countries using hypervariable region 1 (HV1) in mtDNA.MethodsIn this study, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogenetic status of Mongolian native goat populations using a 452 base-pair long fragment of HVI of mitochondrial DNA from 174 individuals representing 12 populations. In addition, 329 previously published reference sequences from different regions were included in our phylogenetic analyses.ResultsInvestigated native Mongolian goats displayed relatively high genetic diversities. After sequencing, we found a total of 109 polymorphic sites that defined 137 haplotypes among investigated populations. Of these, haplotype and nucleotide diversities of Mongolian goats were calculated as 0.997±0.001 and 0.0283±0.002, respectively. These haplotypes clearly clustered into four haplogroups (A, B, C, and D), with the predominance of haplogroup A (90.8%). Estimates of pairwise differences (Fst) and the analysis of molecular variance values among goat populations in Mongolia showed low genetic differentiation and weak geographical structure. In addition, Kazakh, Chinese (from Huanghuai and Leizhou), and Arabian (Turkish and Baladi breeds) goats had smaller genetic differentiation compared to Mongolian goats.ConclusionIn summary, we report novel information regarding genetic diversity, population structure, and origin of Mongolian goats. The findings obtained from this study reveal that abundant haplogroups (A to D) occur in goat populations in Mongolia, with high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity. ]]> <![CDATA[MiR-126-3p inhibits apoptosis and promotes proliferation by targeting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 in porcine ovarian granulosa cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14448 Numerous studies have indicated that the apoptosis and proliferation of granulosa cells (GCs) are closely related to the normal growth and development of follicles and ovaries. Previous evidence has suggested that miR-126-3p might get involved in the apoptosis and proliferation of GCs, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 (PIK3R2) gene has been predicted as one target of miR-126-3p. However, the molecular regulation of miR-126-3p on PIK3R2 and the effects of PIK3R2 on porcine GCs apoptosis and proliferation remain virtually unexplored.MethodsIn this study, using porcine GCs as a cellular model, luciferase report assay, mutation and deletion were applied to verify the targeting relationship between miR-126-3p and PIK3R2. Annexin-V/PI staining and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine assay were applied to explore the effect of PIK3R2 on GCs apoptosis and proliferation, respectively. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western Blot were applied to explore the regulation of miR-126-3p on PIK3R2 expression.ResultsWe found that miR-126-3p targeted at PIK3R2 and inhibited its mRNA and protein expression. Knockdown of PIK3R2 significantly inhibited the apoptosis and promoted the proliferation of porcine GCs, and significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression of several key genes of PI3K pathway such as insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), insulin receptor (INSR), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), and serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT1).ConclusionMiR-126-3p might target and inhibit the mRNA and protein expressions of PIK3R2, thereby inhibiting GC apoptosis and promoting GC proliferation by down-regulating several key genes of the PI3K pathway, IGF1R, INSR, PDK1, and AKT1. These findings would provide great insight into further exploring the molecular regulation of miR-126-3p and PIK3R2 on the functions of GCs during the folliculogenesis in female mammals. ]]> <![CDATA[Monitoring of genetically close Tsaiya duck populations using novel microsatellite markers with high polymorphism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14444 A set of microsatellite markers with high polymorphism from Tsaiya duck were used for the genetic monitoring and genetic structure analysis of Brown and White Tsaiya duck populations in Taiwan.MethodsThe synthetic short tandem repeated probes were used to isolate new microsatellite markers from the genomic DNA of Tsaiya ducks. Eight populations, a total of 566 samples, sourced from Ilan Branch, Livestock Research Institute were genotyped through novel and known markers. The population genetic variables were calculated using optional programs in order to describe and monitor the genetic variability and the genetic structures of these Tsaiya duck populations.ResultsIn total 24 primer pairs, including 17 novel microsatellite loci from this study and seven previously known loci, were constructed for the detection of genetic variations in duck populations. The average values for the allele number, the effective number of alleles, the observed heterozygosity, the expected heterozygosity, and the polymorphism information content were 11.29, 5.370, 0.591, 0.746, and 0.708, respectively. The results of analysis of molecular variance and principal component analysis indicated a contracting Brown Tsaiya duck cluster and a spreading White Tsaiya duck cluster. The Brown Tsaiya ducks and the White Tsaiya ducks with Pekin ducks were just split to six clusters and three clusters when K was set equal to 6 and 3 in the Bayesian cluster analysis. The individual phylogenetic tree revealed eight taxa, and each individual was assigned to its own population.ConclusionAccording to our study, the 24 novel microsatellite markers exhibited a high capacity to analyze relationships of inter- and intra-population in those populations with a relatively limited degree of genetic diversity. We suggest that duck farms in Taiwan could use the new (novel) microsatellite set to monitor the genetic characteristics and structures of their Tsaiya duck populations at various intervals in order to ensure quality breeding and conservation strategies. ]]> <![CDATA[Genome-wide scans for detecting the selection signature of the Jeju-island native pig in Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nec87a9ef-b489-4ffd-8838-79d514f4c6ce

Objective

The Jeju native pig (JNP) found on the Jeju Island of Korea is a unique black pig known for high-quality meat. To investigate the genetic uniqueness of JNP, we analyzed the selection signature of the JNP in comparison to commercial pigs such as Berkshire and Yorkshire pigs.

Methods

We surveyed the genetic diversity to identify the genetic stability of the JNP, using the linkage disequilibrium method. A selective sweep of the JNP was performed to identify the selection signatures. To do so, the population differentiation measure, Weir-Cockerham’s Fst was utilized. This statistic directly measures the population differentiation at the variant level. Additionally, we investigated the gene ontologies (GOs) and genetic features.

Results

Compared to the Berkshire and Yorkshire pigs, the JNP had lower genetic diversity in terms of linkage disequilibrium decays. We summarized the selection signatures of the JNP as GO. In the JNP and Berkshire pigs, the most enriched GO terms were epithelium development and neuron-related. Considering the JNP and Yorkshire pigs, cellular response to oxygen-containing compound and generation of neurons were the most enriched GO.

Conclusion

The selection signatures of the JNP were identified through the population differentiation statistic. The genes with possible selection signatures are expected to play a role in JNP’s unique pork quality.

]]>
<![CDATA[The domestication event of the Tibetan pig revealed to be in the upstream region of the Yellow River based on the mtDNA D-loop]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0d214ea2-9904-4d5b-ba3e-2e5f2cefda5f

Objective

Evidence from previous reports indicates that pig domestication in East Asia mainly occurred in the Mekong region and the middle and downstream regions of the Yangtze River. Further research identified two new origin centers for domestic pigs in the Tibetan Plateau and the islands of Southeast Asia. However, due to the small sample size of Tibetan pigs, details of the origin and spread of Tibetan pigs has not yet been established.

Methods

We analyzed mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop) variation in 1,201 individuals from nine Tibetan pig populations across five provinces. Comprehensive Tibetan pig samples were taken to perform the most detailed analysis of Tibetan pigs to date.

Results

The result indicate that Rkaze pigs had the lowest level of diversity, while Changdu pigs had the highest diversity. Interestingly, these two populations were both in the Tibetan Plateau area. If we calculate diversity in terms of each province, the Tibetan Plateau area had the lowest diversity, while the Chinese province of Gansu had the highest diversity. Diversity gradient analysis of major haplotypes suggested three domestication centers of Tibetan pigs in the Tibetan Plateau and the Chinese provinces of Gansu and Yunnan.

Conclusion

We found two new domestication centers for Tibetan pigs. One is in the Chinese province of Gansu, which lies in the upstream region of the Yellow River, and the other is in the Chinese province of Yunnan.

]]>
<![CDATA[MiR-26a promotes apoptosis of porcine granulosa cells by targeting the 3β-hydroxysteroid-Δ24-reductase gene]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N62cc1693-0d6f-4958-9939-0c24407ef70e

Objective

Apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) affects mammalian follicular development and fecundity. This study aimed to explore the regulatory relationship between microRNA-26a (miR-26a) and the 3β-hydroxysteroid-Δ24-reductase gene (DHCR24) gene in porcine follicular granular cells (pGCs), and to provide empirical data for the development of methods to improve the reproductive capacity of pigs.

Methods

The pGCs were transfected with miR-26a mimic, miR-26a inhibitor and DHCR24-siRNA in vitro. The cell apoptosis rate of pGCs was detected by the flow cytometry. The secretion levels of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in pGCs were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Double luciferase validation system was used to detect the binding sites between miR-26a and DHCR24 3′-UTR region. Qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to verify the DHCR24 mRNA and protein expression in pGCs, respectively, after transfecting with miR-26a mimic and miR-26a inhibitor.

Results

Results showed that enhancement of miR-26a promoted apoptosis, and inhibited E2 and P secretion in pGCs. Meanwhile, inhibition of DHCR24 also upregulated the Caspase-3 expression, reduced the BCL-2 expression, promoted pGCs apoptosis, and inhibited E2 and P secretion in pGCs. There were the binding sites of miR-26a located within DHCR24 3′-UTR. Up-regulation of miR-26a inhibited DHCR24 mRNA and protein expression in pGCs.

Conclusion

This study demonstrates that miR-26a can promote cell apoptosis and inhibit E2 and P secretion by inhibiting the expression of DHCR24 in pGCs.

]]>
<![CDATA[Estimation of environmental effects and genetic parameters of carcass traits on Chikso (Korean brindle cattle)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na840d44b-7d89-44c6-a305-76c340b990ef

Objective

The purpose of this study was i) to identify the characteristics of carcass traits in Chikso by gender, region, age at slaughter, and coat color using the carcass data collected from the nationwide pedigree information and coat color investigation, and ii) to estimate genetic parameters for breed improvement.

Methods

A linear model was used to analyze the environmental effects on the carcass traits and to estimate genetic parameters. Analysis of variance was performed using TYPE III sum of squares for the unbalanced data provided by the general linear model procedure. Variance components for genetic parameters was estimated using REMLF90 of the BLUPF90 family programs.

Results

Phenotypic performance of carcass weight (CW), eye muscle area (EMA), and backfat thickness (BF) in Chikso were lower than those of Hanwoo. This is a natural outcome because Hanwoo have undergone significant efforts for improvement at the national level, a phenomenon not observed in Chikso. Another factor influencing the above outcome was the smaller population size of Chikso compared to that of Hanwoo’s. The heritabilities of CW, EMA, BF, and marbling score in Chikso were estimated as 0.50, 0.37, 0.35, and 0.53, respectively, which were was higher than those of Hanwoo.

Conclusion

Based on the genetic parameters that were estimated in this study, it is expected that the carcass traits will improve when the livestock research institutes at each province conduct small-scale performance tests and the semen is provided to farmers after selecting proven bulls using the state-of-art selection technique such as genomic selection.

]]>
<![CDATA[Relationship among porcine lncRNA TCONS_00010987, miR-323, and leptin receptor based on dual luciferase reporter gene assays and expression patterns]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8cf0d340-fcc1-4260-89d8-4ffda27edf60

Objective

Considering the physiological and clinical importance of leptin receptor (LEPR) in regulating obesity and the fact that porcine LEPR expression is not known to be controlled by lncRNAs and miRNAs, we aim to characterize this gene as a potential target of SSC-miR-323 and the lncRNA TCONS_00010987.

Methods

Bioinformatics analyses revealed that lncRNA TCONS_00010987 and LEPR have SSC-miR-323-binding sites and that LEPR might be a target of lncRNA TCONS_00010987 based on cis prediction. Wild-type and mutant TCONS_00010987-target sequence fragments and wild-type and mutant LEPR 3′-UTR fragments were generated and cloned into pmiR-RB-REPORTTM-Control vectors to construct respective recombinant plasmids. HEK293T cells were co-transfected with the SSC-miR-323 mimics or a negative control with constructs harboring the corresponding binding sites and relative luciferase activities were determined. Tissue expression patterns of lncRNA TCONS_00010987, SSC-miR-323, and LEPR in Anqing six-end-white (AQ, the obese breed) and Large White (LW, the lean breed) pigs were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction; backfat expression of LEPR protein was detected by western blotting.

Results

Target gene fragments were successfully cloned, and the four recombinant vectors were constructed. Compared to the negative control, SSC-miR-323 mimics significantly inhibited luciferase activity from the wild-type TCONS_00010987-target sequence and wild-type LEPR-3′-UTR (p<0.01 for both) but not from the mutant TCONS_00010987-target sequence and mutant LEPR-3′-UTR (p>0.05 for both). Backfat expression levels of TCONS_ 00010987 and LEPR in AQ pigs were significantly higher than those in LW pigs (p<0.01), whereas levels of SSC-miR-323 in AQ pigs were significantly lower than those in LW pigs (p<0.05). LEPR protein levels in the backfat tissues of AQ pigs were markedly higher than those in LW pigs (p<0.01).

Conclusion

LEPR is a potential target of SSC-miR-323, and TCONS_00010987 might act as a sponge for SSC-miR-323 to regulate LEPR expression.

]]>
<![CDATA[Selection signature reveals genes associated with susceptibility loci affecting respiratory disease due to pleiotropic and hitchhiking effect in Chinese indigenous pigs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne138b7bd-947f-44f9-8d4b-ae5e6dea3a3e

Objective

Porcine respiratory disease is one of the most important health problems causing significant economic losses. To understand the genetic basis for susceptibility to swine enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs, we detected 102,809 single nucleotide polymorphisms in a total of 249 individuals based on genome-wide sequencing data.

Methods

Genome comparison of susceptibility to swine EP in three pig breeds (Jinhua, Erhualian, and Meishan) with two western lines that are considered more resistant (Duroc and Landrace) using cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity and F-statistic (FST) statistical approaches identified 691 positively selected genes. Based on quantitative trait loci, gene ontology terms and literature search, we selected 14 candidate genes that have convincible biological functions associated with swine EP or human asthma.

Results

Most of these genes were tested by several methods including transcription analysis and candidate genes association study. Among these genes: cytochrome P450 1A1 and catenin beta 1 (CTNNB1) are involved in fertility; transforming growth factor beta receptor 3 plays a role in meat quality traits; Wnt family member 2, CTNNB1 and transcription factor 7 take part in adipogenesis and fat deposition simultaneously; plasminogen activator, urokinase receptor (completely linked to AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, r2 = 1) plays an essential role in the successful ovulation of matured oocytes in pigs; colipase like 2 (strongly linked to SAM pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor, r2 = 0.848) is involved in male fertility.

Conclusion

These adverse genes susceptible to swine EP may be selected while selecting for economic traits (especially reproduction traits) due to pleiotropic and hitchhiking effect of linked genes. Our study provided a completely new point of view to understand the genetic basis for susceptibility or resistance to swine EP in pigs thereby, provides insight for designing sustainable breed selection programs. Finally, the candidate genes are crucial due to their potential roles in respiratory diseases in a large number of species, including human.

]]>
<![CDATA[Genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in a mouse model reveals two novel genes associated with Staphylococcus aureus mastitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N436241f5-9b40-4116-92ab-c8a297ad6fbd

Objective

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the major microorganisms responsible for subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. The present study was designed with the aim to explore the DNA methylation patterns using the Fluorescence-labeled methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (F-MSAP) techniques in a S. aureus-infected mouse model.

Methods

A total of 12 out-bred Institute of Cancer Research female mice ranging from 12 to 13 weeks-old were selected to construct a mastitis model. F-MSAP analysis was carried out to detect fluctuations of DNA methylation between control group and S. aureus mastitis group.

Results

Visible changes were observed in white cell counts in milk, percentage of granulocytes, percentage of lymphocytes, CD4+/CD8+ ratio (CD4+/CD8+), and histopathology of mice pre- and post-challenge with S. aureus. These findings showed the suitability of the S. aureus-infected mouse model. A total of 369 fragments was amplified from udder tissue samples from the two groups (S. aureus-infected mastitis group and control group) using eight pairs of selective primers. Results indicated that the methylation level of mastitis mouse group was higher than that in the control group. In addition, NCK-associated protein 5 (Nckap5) and transposon MTD were identified to be differentially methylated through secondary polymerase chain reaction and sequencing in the mastitis group. These observations might play an important role in the development of S. aureus mastitis.

Conclusion

Collectively, our study suggests that the methylation modification in Nckap5 and transposon MTD might be considered as epigenetic markers in resistance to S. aureus-infected mastitis and provided a new insight into S. aureus mastitis research in dairy industry and public health.

]]>
<![CDATA[Evaluation of the genetic structure of indigenous Okinawa Agu pigs using microsatellite markers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7358e7ee-75d4-43cb-b439-abc85d39d11d

Objective

Agu pigs are indigenous to the Okinawa prefecture, which is the southernmost region of Japan. Agu pigs were exposed to a genetic bottleneck during the 20th century, due to the introduction of European pig breeds. The objective of this study was to elucidate the genetic structure of Agu pigs and to determine their relationships with those of five European breeds, two Chinese breeds and Ryukyu wild boar using microsatellite markers.

Methods

A total of 203 DNA samples from 8 pig breeds were used in this study. Genotyping was performed using 21 microsatellite markers distributed across 17 chromosomes.

Results

Numbers of effective alleles in Agu pigs were fewer than in European breeds and Ryukyu wild boar. Among domestic pigs, Agu pigs had the lowest heterozygosity (0.423) and highest inbreeding coefficient (FIS = 0.202), indicating a severe loss of heterozygosity in Agu pigs possibly due to inbreeding. Neighbor-joining tree analysis was performed based on Reynolds’ genetic distances, which clustered Agu pigs with Duroc pigs. However, principal component analysis revealed a unique genetic position of the Agu pig, and the second principal component separated Agu pigs from all other breeds. Structure analysis with the optimal assumption of seven groups (K = 7) indicated that Agu pigs form an independent cluster from the other breeds. In addition, high and significant FST values (0.235 to 0.413) were identified between Agu pigs and the other breeds.

Conclusion

This study revealed a substantial loss of genetic diversity among Agu pigs due to inbreeding. Our data also suggest that Agu pigs have a distinctive genetic structure, although gene flows from European breeds were observed.

]]>
<![CDATA[Genetics of heifer reproductive traits in Japanese Black cattle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N639ca5bf-53ae-472f-ad1c-046aba2fe5e4

Objective

The objective of this study was to identify environmental factors strongly associated with and to estimate genetic parameters of reproductive traits in Japanese Black heifers.

Methods

Data included reproduction records of Japanese Black heifers born between 2004 and 2014. First service non-return rate (NRR) to 56 days from first to successful insemination (FS), number of services per conception (IN), age at first calving (AFC) and gestation length were analyzed with the use of the general linear model. Genetic parameters were estimated with the use of the univariate animal model of the residual maximum likelihood.

Results

Averages of reproductive traits over eleven years were assessed, and the effects of farm, year, month, artificial insemination technician and interaction of farm×year on the traits were determined. Estimated heritability of FS was very low and that of AFC was higher than that of the other traits. A close genetic relation was observed among NRR, IN, and FS; however, their heritabilities were very low. AFC shows favorable genetic correlation with IN and FS.

Conclusion

Low heritabilities of most reproductive traits in Japanese Black heifers are strongly influenced by farm management practices, and that large residual variances make genetic evaluation difficult. Among the reproductive traits, AFC is potentially more useful for genetic improvement of heifer reproductive traits because it has high heritability and favorable genetic correlations with IN and FS.

]]>
<![CDATA[Selection on milk production and conformation traits during the last two decades in Japan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c63703dd5eed0c484b29be1

Objective

The purpose of this study was to compare intended and actual yearly genetic gains for milk production and conformation traits and to investigate the simple selection criterion practiced among milk production and conformation traits during the last two decades in Japan. Learning how to utilize the information on intended and actual genetic gains during the last two decades into the genomic era is vital.

Methods

Genetic superiority for each trait for four paths of selection (sires to breed bulls [SB], sires to breed cows [SC], dams to breed bulls [DB], and dams to breed cows [DC]) was estimated. Actual practiced simple selection criteria were investigated among milk production and conformation traits and relative emphasis on milk production and conformation traits was compared.

Results

Selection differentials in milk production traits were greater than those of conformation traits in all four paths of selection. Realized yearly genetic gain was less than that intended for milk production traits. Actual annual genetic gain for conformation traits was equivalent to or greater than intended. Retrospective selection weights of milk production and conformation traits were 0.73:0.27 and 0.56:0.44 for intended and realized genetic gains, respectively.

Conclusion

Selection was aimed more toward increasing genetic gain in milk production than toward conformation traits over the past two decades in Japan. In contrast, actual annual genetic gain for conformation traits was equivalent to or greater than intended. Balanced selection between milk production and conformation traits tended to be favored during actual selection. Each of four paths of selection (SB, SC, DB, and DC) has played an individual and important role. With shortening generation interval in the genomic era, a young sire arises before the completion of sire’s daughters’ milk production records. How to integrate these four paths of selection in the genomic era is vital.

]]>
<![CDATA[Effects of preselection of genotyped animals on reliability and bias of genomic prediction in dairy cattle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c637044d5eed0c484b29cd8

Objective

Models for genomic selection assume that the reference population is an unselected population. However, in practice, genotyped individuals, such as progeny-tested bulls, are highly selected, and the reference population is created after preselection. In dairy cattle, the intensity of selection is higher in males than in females, suggesting that cows can be added to the reference population with less bias and loss of accuracy. The objective is to develop formulas applied to any genomic prediction studies or practice with preselected animals as reference population.

Methods

We developed formulas for calculating the reliability and bias of genomically enhanced breeding values (GEBV) in the reference population where individuals are preselected on estimated breeding values. Based on the formulas presented, deterministic simulation was conducted by varying heritability, preselection percentage, and the reference population size.

Results

The number of bulls equal to a cow regarding the reliability of GEBV was expressed through a simple formula for the reference population consisting of preselected animals. The bull population was vastly superior to the cow population regarding the reliability of GEBV for low-heritability traits. However, the superiority of reliability from the bull reference population over the cow population decreased as heritability increased. Bias was greater for bulls than cows. Bias and reduction in reliability of GEBV due to preselection was alleviated by expanding reference population.

Conclusion

Cows are easier in expanding reference population size compared with bulls and alleviate bias and reduction in reliability of GEBV of bulls which are highly preselected than cows by expanding the cow reference population.

]]>
<![CDATA[Gene expression and promoter methylation of porcine uncoupling protein 3 gene]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c63704ed5eed0c484b29db8

Objective

Uncoupling protein 3 gene (UCP3) is a candidate gene associated with the meat quality of pigs. The aim of this study was to explore the regulation mechanism of UCP3 expression and provide a theoretical basis for the research of the function of porcine UCP3 gene in meat quality.

Methods

Bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) were used to analyze the methylation of UCP3 5′-flanking region and UCP3 mRNA expression in the adipose tissue or skeletal muscle of three pig breeds at different ages (1, 90, 210-day-old Putian Black pig; 90-day-old Duroc; and 90-day-old Dupu).

Results

Results showed that two cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) islands are present in the promoter region of porcine UCP3 gene. The second CpG island located in the core promoter region contained 9 CpG sites. The methylation level of CpG island 2 was lower in the adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of 90-day-old Putian Black pigs compared with 1-day-old and 210-day-old Putian Black pigs, and the difference also existed in the skeletal muscle among the three 90-day-old pig breeds. Furthermore, the obvious changing difference of UCP3 mRNA expression was observed in the skeletal muscle of different groups. However, the difference of methylation status and expression level of UCP3 gene was not significant in the adipose tissue.

Conclusion

Our data indicate that UCP3 mRNA expression level was associated with the methylation status of UCP3 promoter in the skeletal muscle of pigs.

]]>
<![CDATA[Assessment of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of Limousin herds in Hungary using microsatellite markers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c637031d5eed0c484b29ad2

Objective

This study was conducted to investigate basic information on genetic structure and characteristics of Limousin population in Hungary. Obtained results will be taken into consideration when adopting the new breeding strategy by the Association of Hungarian Limousin and Blonde d’Aquitaine Breeders (AHLBB).

Methods

Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of 3,443 Limousin cattle from 16 different herds were investigated by performing genotyping using 18 microsatellite markers. Amplified DNA was genotyped using an automated genetic analyzer.

Results

Mean of effective alleles (ne) of the populations was 3.77. Population C had the lowest number of effective alleles (3.01) and the lowest inbreeding coefficient (FIS) value (−0.15). Principal component analysis of estimated genetic distance (FST) values (p<0.000) revealed two herds (C and E) distinct from the majority of other Limousin herds. The pairwise FST values of population C compared to the others (0.066 to 0.120) fell into the range of moderate genetic distance: 0.050 to 0.150, while population E displayed also moderate genetic distance (FST values in range 0.052 to 0.064) but only to six populations (G, H, J, L, N, and P). FST(C-E) was 0.148, all other pairs -excluding C and E herds- displayed low genetic distance (FST<0.049). Population D, F, I, J, K, L, N, O, and P carried private alleles, which alleles belonged to 1.1% of the individuals. Most probable number of clusters (K) were 2 and 7 determined by Structure and BAPS software.

Conclusion

This study showed useful genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship data that can be utilized for the development of a new breeding strategy by AHLBB. The results presented could also contribute to the proper selection of animals for further whole genome scan studies of Limousins.

]]>
<![CDATA[Expression of fox-related genes in the skin follicles of Inner Mongolia cashmere goat]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4c1d49463d7e045e4d949c

Objective

This study investigated the expression of genes in cashmere goats at different periods of their fetal development.

Methods

Bioinformatics analysis was used to evaluate data obtained by transcriptome sequencing of fetus skin samples collected from Inner Mongolia cashmere goats on days 45, 55, and 65 of fetal age.

Results

We found that FoxN1, FoxE1, and FoxI3 genes of the Fox gene family were probably involved in the growth and development of the follicle and the formation of hair, which is consistent with previous findings. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction detecting system and Western blot analysis were employed to study the relative differentially expressed genes FoxN1, FoxE1, and FoxI3 in the body skin of cashmere goat fetuses and adult individuals.

Conclusion

This study provided new fundamental information for further investigation of the genes related to follicle development and exploration of their roles in hair follicle initiation, growth, and development.

]]>
<![CDATA[Variance components estimation for farrowing traits of three purebred pigs in Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b42d58a463d7e1d8afaea89

Objective

This study was conducted to estimate breed-specific variance components for total number born (TNB), number born alive (NBA) and mortality rate from birth through weaning including stillbirths (MORT) of three main swine breeds in Korea. In addition, the importance of including maternal genetic and service sire effects in estimation models was evaluated.

Methods

Records of farrowing traits from 6,412 Duroc, 18,020 Landrace, and 54,254 Yorkshire sows collected from January 2001 to September 2016 from different farms in Korea were used in the analysis. Animal models and the restricted maximum likelihood method were used to estimate variances in animal genetic, permanent environmental, maternal genetic, service sire and residuals.

Results

The heritability estimates ranged from 0.072 to 0.102, 0.090 to 0.099, and 0.109 to 0.121 for TNB; 0.087 to 0.110, 0.088 to 0.100, and 0.099 to 0.107 for NBA; and 0.027 to 0.031, 0.050 to 0.053, and 0.073 to 0.081 for MORT in the Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire breeds, respectively. The proportion of the total variation due to permanent environmental effects, maternal genetic effects, and service sire effects ranged from 0.042 to 0.088, 0.001 to 0.031, and 0.001 to 0.021, respectively. Spearman rank correlations among models ranged from 0.98 to 0.99, demonstrating that the maternal genetic and service sire effects have small effects on the precision of the breeding value.

Conclusion

Models that include additive genetic and permanent environmental effects are suitable for farrowing traits in Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire populations in Korea. This breed-specific variance components estimates for litter traits can be utilized for pig improvement programs in Korea.

]]>