ResearchPad - animal-genetics-and-genomics https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Breed- and trait-specific associations define the genetic architecture of calving performance traits in cattle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12669 Reducing the incidence of both the degree of assistance required at calving, as well as the extent of perinatal mortality (PM) has both economic and societal benefits. The existence of heritable genetic variability in both traits signifies the presence of underlying genomic variability. The objective of the present study was to locate regions of the genome, and by extension putative genes and mutations, that are likely to be underpinning the genetic variability in direct calving difficulty (DCD), maternal calving difficulty (MCD), and PM. Imputed whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data on up to 8,304 Angus (AA), 17,175 Charolais (CH), 16,794 Limousin (LM), and 18,474 Holstein-Friesian (HF) sires representing 5,866,712 calving events from descendants were used. Several putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions associated with calving performance both within and across dairy and beef breeds were identified, although the majority were both breed- and trait-specific. QTL surrounding and encompassing the myostatin (MSTN) gene were associated (P < 5 × 10−8) with DCD and PM in both the CH and LM populations. The well-known Q204X mutation was the fifth strongest association with DCD in the CH population and accounted for 5.09% of the genetic variance in DCD. In contrast, none of the 259 segregating variants in MSTN were associated (P > × 10−6) with DCD in the LM population but a genomic region 617 kb downstream of MSTN was associated (P < 5 × 10−8). The genetic architecture for DCD differed in the HF population relative to the CH and LM, where two QTL encompassing ZNF613 on Bos taurus autosome (BTA)18 and PLAG1 on BTA14 were identified in the former. Pleiotropic SNP associated with all three calving performance traits were also identified in the three beef breeds; 5 SNP were pleiotropic in AA, 116 in LM, and 882 in CH but no SNP was associated with more than one trait within the HF population. The majority of these pleiotropic SNP were on BTA2 surrounding MSTN and were associated with both DCD and PM. Multiple previously reported, but also novel QTL, associated with calving performance were detected in this large study. These also included QTL regions harboring SNP with the same direction of allele substitution effect for both DCD and MCD thus contributing to a more effective simultaneous selection for both traits.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of economic returns among genetic evaluation strategies in a 2-tiered Charolais-sired beef cattle production system1,2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0f22ecd5eed0c484f99c57

Abstract

The objective of this study was to estimate economic returns and costs associated with 4 scenarios of genetic evaluation that combine genotypes, phenotypes, and pedigree information from a vertically integrated purebred (PB) and commercial (CM) beef cattle system. Inference was to a genetic evaluation for a production system producing Charolais terminal sires for 10,000 CM cows. The first genetic evaluation scenario, denoted PB_A, modeled a genetic evaluation in which pedigree information and phenotypes are available for PB seedstock animals. Scenario PB_H contained the same information as PB_A with the addition of 25K density (GeneSeek Genomic Profiler LD) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes from PB animals. Scenario PBCM_A contained pedigree records and phenotypes from PB and CM cattle. Scenario PBCM_H contained phenotypes, pedigree, and genotypes from the PB and CM animals. Estimates of prediction error variance, (co)variance, and selection index parameters were used to estimate accuracy of selection candidates (rTI) and genetic gain resulting from selection on an economic index in US dollars (ΔG). Annual costs and incomes were used to determine the 30-yr cumulative net present value (CNPV) per CM calf resulting from selection in these genetic evaluation scenarios. Adding genotypes and CM production phenotypes to genetic evaluation increased the rTI of selection candidates and ΔG across all 4 scenarios. Scenario PBCM_H produced the highest annual ΔG in the PB herd at US$11.91 per head. Including CM phenotypes and parentage testing in the genetic evaluation increased the time to breakeven from 12 yr in PB_A to 19 years in PBCM_A after accounting for the cost of that information. Adding CM phenotypes and genotypes increased the breakeven time from 12 yr in PB_H to 18 yr in PBCM_H. Scenario PB_H produced the highest 30-yr CNPV per slaughtered CM calf at US$371.16. These results using field data indicate that economically relevant rTI and ΔG can be realized by adding 25K SNP genotypes and CM phenotypes to genetic evaluation, but the additional cost of that data significantly delays the economic return to the enterprise.

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