ResearchPad - animal-products https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Brazilian vegetarians diet quality markers and comparison with the general population: A nationwide cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7851 Vegetarianism is an increasingly common practice worldwide. Despite good evidence from other countries regarding vegetarians’ diet quality, data from the Brazilian population is still scarce.ObjectiveTo characterize the vegetarian Brazilian population and evaluate their diet quality compared to the general Brazilian population.MethodsWe performed a nationwide cross-sectional study using an online self-administered questionnaire, previously validated for the Brazilian population, to evaluate diet quality markers of vegetarians. The invitation to participate in the survey was spread nationwide, aimed at vegetarian communities. Individuals who considered themselves vegetarians and were at least 18 years old were eligible to participate. The results on regular intake and intake adequacy were compared among vegetarians and between genders using the Pearson’s chi-square test. The body mass index (BMI) were analyzed by the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey post-hoc test. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test verified normality. All analyses considered bilateral hypotheses and a significance level of 5% (p <0.05).ResultsBrazilian vegetarians presented better diet quality markers, such as higher regular weekly intake and adequate daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and lower regular intake of soft drinks when compared to the general Brazilian population. Vegetarians also presented a proportionally higher consumption of natural foods and lower consumption of processed foods. Among vegetarians, a higher proportion of vegans showed positive results regarding diet markers analysis, when compared to vegetarians, pesco-vegetarians, and semi-vegetarians.ConclusionsVegetarians showed better results of diet adequacy when compared to the general population in Brazil, and vegans fared better when compared with other vegetarians. Despite the good results found, a large proportion of the participants still did not achieve the fruits and vegetables daily intake, according to the World Health Organization recommendations. ]]> <![CDATA[Do parents counter-balance the carbon emissions of their children?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nea582d41-f072-4a93-882b-8bb6cca64243

It is well understood that adding to the population increases CO2 emissions. At the same time, having children is a transformative experience, such that it might profoundly change adult (i.e., parents’) preferences and consumption. How it might change is, however, unknown. Depending on if becoming a parent makes a person “greener” or “browner,” parents may either balance or exacerbate the added CO2 emissions from their children. Parents might think more about the future, compared to childless adults, including risks posed to their children from environmental events like climate change. But parenthood also adds needs and more intensive competition on your scarce time. Carbon-intensive goods can add convenience and help save time, e.g., driving may facilitate being in more places in one day, compared to public transportation or biking. Pre-prepared food that contain red meat may save time and satisfy more household preferences, relative to vegetarian food. We provide the first rigorous test of whether parents are greener or browner than other adults. We create a unique dataset by combining detailed micro data on household expenditures of all expenditure groups particularly important for CO2 emissions (transportation, food, and heating/electricity) with CO2 emissions, and compare emissions from Swedish adults with and without children. We find that parents emit more CO2 than childless adults. Only a small fraction of adults permanently choose not to have children, which means any meaningful self-selection into parenthood based on green preferences is unlikely. Our findings suggest that having children might increase CO2 emissions both by adding to the population and by increasing CO2 emissions from those choosing to have children.

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<![CDATA[Quality characteristics, fatty acid profiles, flavor compounds and eating quality of cull sow meat in comparison with commercial pork]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb3efa6c4-06e8-475f-a2c2-6ca9f557b053

Objective

Although the slaughter of cull sows (CS) for human consumption and meat products processing appears quite common throughout the world, relatively limited scientific information regarding the meat quality parameters of this pork type is available. The present study aimed at providing the technological quality characteristics and eating quality of CS meat, and comparing with those of commercial pork.

Methods

Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle samples of CS and finisher pigs (FP) at 24 h postmortem were collected and used for investigation of the meat quality traits (pH, color, shear force, cooking loss, water holding capacity), fatty acids, flavor compounds and sensory characteristics.

Results

The CS meat had significantly higher moisture content (p = 0.0312) and water holding capacity (p = 0.0213) together with lower cooking loss (p = 0.0366) compared to the FP meat. The CS meat also exhibited higher (p = 0.0409) contents of unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, p = 0.0213) and more desirable PUFA/total saturated fatty acids ratio (p = 0.0438) compared to the FP meat. A total of 56 flavor compounds were identified, amongst the amount of 16 compounds differed significantly between the two pork groups. Most of the PUFA-derived flavor compounds (e.g., hexanal, benzaldehyde, and hydrocarbons) showed higher amounts in the CS meat. While, 3-(methylthio)-propanal and 4-methylthiazole associated with pleasant aromas (meaty and roast odor notes) were only found in the FP meat. Furthermore, no differences were reported by panelists for flavor, juiciness, tenderness, and acceptability scores between the two pork groups studied.

Conclusion

The sow meat exhibited better technological quality and its eating quality could be comparable to the commercial pork. This study provides meat processors and traders with valuably scientific information which may help to improve the utilization and consumption level of sow meat.

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<![CDATA[Effects of red glasswort as sodium chloride substitute on the physicochemical properties of pork loin ham]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7e4f02fd-53b0-43ef-a702-b6c88b66976a

Objective

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of red glasswort (RG) (Salicornia herbacea L.) curing on the physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked pork loin ham (M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum).

Methods

All treatments were cured with different salt and RG powder levels. RG0 treatment was prepared with only 4% NaCl (w/w) as a control, and RG25, 3% NaCl:1% RG (w/w); RG50, 2% NaCl:2% RG (w/w); RG75, 1% NaCl:3% RG (w/w); RG100, 0% NaCl:4% RG (w/w) treatments were prepared sequentially. All samples were individually vacuum packaged in polyethylene bags and stored for 7 d at 3°C±1°C.

Results

The results showed that as the rate of RG substitution increased, pH value, redness, myofibrillar protein solubility, and myofibrillar fragmentation index increased (p<0.05), but salt concentration and shear force decreased (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in cooking loss and moisture content. In terms of sensory evaluation, RG100 exhibited higher scores in tenderness and juiciness than RG0 (p<0.05).

Conclusion

The partial substitution of NaCl by RG could improve the physicochemical properties, textural and sensory characteristics of cooked pork loin. Therefore, it is suggested that RG as a natural salt replacer could be an effective ingredient for developing low-sodium cured hams.

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<![CDATA[Chromium acetate stimulates adipogenesis through regulation of gene expression and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in bovine intramuscular or subcutaneous adipocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9e82a9b5-dd3b-4004-8898-6bde677b6440

Objective

We hypothesized that Cr source can alter adipogenic-related transcriptional regulations and cell signaling. Therefore, the objective of the study was to evaluate the biological effects of chromium acetate (CrAc) on bovine intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) adipose cells.

Methods

Bovine preadipocytes isolated from two different adipose tissue depots; IM and SC were used to evaluate the effect of CrAc treatment during differentiation on adipogenic gene expression. Adipocytes were incubated with various doses of CrAc: 0 (differentiation media only, control), 0.1, 1, and 10 μM. Cells were harvested and then analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in order to measure the quantity of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-α (AMPK-α), CCAAT enhancer binding protein-β (C/EBPβ), G protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41), GPR43, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) mRNA relative to ribosomal protein subunit 9 (RPS9). The ratio of phosphorylated-AMPK (pAMPK) to AMPK was determined using a western blot technique in order to determine changing concentration.

Results

The high dose (10 μM) of CrAc increased C/EBPβ, in both IM (p = 0.02) and SC (p = 0.02). Expression of PPARγ was upregulated by 10 μM of CrAc in IM but not in SC. Expression of SCD was also increased in both IM and SC with 10 μM of CrAc treatment. Addition of CrAc did not alter gene expression of glucose transporter 4, GPR41, or GPR43 in both IM and SC adipocytes. Addition of CrAc, resulted in a decreased pAMPKα to AMPKα ration (p<0.01) in IM.

Conclusion

These data may indicate that Cr source may influence lipid filling in IM adipocytes via inhibitory action of AMPK phosphorylation and upregulating expression of adipogenic genes.

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<![CDATA[Sugar, amino acid and inorganic ion profiling of the honeydew from different hemipteran species feeding on Abies alba and Picea abies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Neb889307-c28f-4dcd-8ba6-6ff5a5f28e34

Several hemipteran species feed on the phloem sap of plants and produce large amounts of honeydew that is collected by bees to produce honeydew honey. Therefore, it is important to know whether it is predominantly the hemipteran species or the host plant to influence the honeydew composition. This is particularly relevant for those botanical and zoological species from which the majority of honeydew honey originates. To investigate this issue, honeydew from two Cinara species located on Abies alba as well as from two Cinara and two Physokermes species located on Picea abies were collected. Phloem exudates of the host plants were also analyzed. Honeydew of all species contained different proportions of hexoses, sucrose, melezitose, erlose, and further di- and trisaccharides, whereas the phloem exudates of the host trees contained no trisaccharides. Moreover, the proportions of sugars differed significantly between hemipteran species feeding on the same tree species. Sucrose hydrolysis and oligosaccharide formation was shown in whole-body homogenates of aphids. The type of the produced oligosaccharides in the aphid-extracts correlated with the oligosaccharide composition in the honeydew of the different aphid species. The total contents of amino acids and inorganic ions in the honeydew were much lower than the sugar content. Glutamine and glutamate were predominant amino acids in the honeydew of all six hemipteran species and also in the phloem exudates of both tree species. Potassium was the dominant inorganic ion in all honeydew samples and also in the phloem exudate. Statistical analyses reveal that the sugar composition of honeydew is determined more by the hemipteran species than by the host plant. Consequently, it can be assumed that the sugar composition of honeydew honey is also more influenced by the hemipteran species than by the host tree.

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<![CDATA[MLST-based genetic relatedness of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from chickens and humans in Poland]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2eb0d267-f054-40f4-b445-0c8d9725ee43

Campylobacter jejuni infection is one of the most frequently reported foodborne bacterial diseases worldwide. The main transmission route of these microorganisms to humans is consumption of contaminated food, especially of chicken origin. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic relatedness of C. jejuni from chicken sources (feces, carcasses, and meat) and from humans with diarrhea as well as to subtype the isolates to gain better insight into their population structure present in Poland. C. jejuni were genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and sequence types (STs) were assigned in the MLST database. Among 602 isolates tested, a total of 121 different STs, including 70 (57.9%) unique to the isolates' origin, and 32 STs that were not present in the MLST database were identified. The most prevalent STs were ST464 and ST257, with 58 (9.6%) and 52 (8.6%) C. jejuni isolates, respectively. Isolates with some STs (464, 6411, 257, 50) were shown to be common in chickens, whereas others (e.g. ST21 and ST572) were more often identified among human C. jejuni. It was shown that of 47 human sequence types, 26 STs (106 isolates), 23 STs (102 isolates), and 29 STs (100 isolates) were also identified in chicken feces, meat, and carcasses, respectively. These results, together with the high and similar proportional similarity indexes (PSI) calculated for C. jejuni isolated from patients and chickens, may suggest that human campylobacteriosis was associated with contaminated chicken meat or meat products or other kinds of food cross-contaminated with campylobacters of chicken origin. The frequency of various sequence types identified in the present study generally reflects of the prevalence of STs in other countries which may suggest that C. jejuni with some STs have a global distribution, while other genotypes may be more restricted to certain countries.

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<![CDATA[Sensory profile and technological characterization of boneless dry-cured ham with lactulose added as a prebiotic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N809deb98-c38c-4c97-a480-13ad3f77fe19

Objective

This study investigates the technological and sensory profile of boneless dry-cured ham with different contents of lactulose added as a prebiotic ingredient.

Methods

In addition to the control samples (without the addition of lactulose), three treatments were formulated to contain 2%, 4%, or 6% lactulose. Technological (lactulose content, instrumental color and texture profile analysis) and sensory (acceptance and check-all-that-applies tests) analyses were performed on the final product.

Results

The lactulose content in the finished product (1.86%±0.23%, 3.16%±0.18%, and 2.51%±1.35%) was lower than the lactulose originally added (2%, 4%, and 6%, respectively). The addition of 4% and 6% lactulose made (p<0.05) the products darker (lower L*) and redder (lower h) with higher hardness and chewiness values, when compared to control samples. The additions of 2% and 4% lactulose reduce the appearance acceptability of the products, but overall the treatments were well accepted.

Conclusion

The use of up to 4% lactulose as a prebiotic in the production of boneless dry-cured hams provides an alternative to improving its nutritional value with little alteration in the technological characteristics and still meeting the sensory characteristics desired by consumers.

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<![CDATA[Augmenting yogurt quality attributes through hydrocolloidal gums]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5678d9ca-33df-49cd-8484-9f83fafdc274

Objective

The present work was undertaken to determine the possibility of using xanthan and guar gums as stabilizers to enhance the yogurt quality.

Methods

Yogurt was manufactured from standardized milk (3.5% fat, 8.5% solid-not-fat contents) with the addition of 2% to 3% starter culture. Enzyme-hydrolyzed xanthan gum (0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%) and guar gum (0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%) were added to the yogurt as stabilizers. Prepared yogurt samples were kept at refrigeration temperature (4°C±2°C) for 21 days and various quality and sensory parameters were studied at regular intervals (7 days).

Results

Results showed that yogurt with 0.5% xanthan gum (T5) was best in terms of preventing syneresis and improving the viscosity, water holding capacity and texture of the product. Additionally, adding gums did not adversely affect the sensorial attributes of the product.

Conclusion

Modified gums were found useful in augmenting yogurt quality and therefore addition of gums is highly recommended for manufacturing yogurt.

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<![CDATA[Influence of freeze-dried acid whey addition on biogenic amines formation in a beef and deer dry fermented sausages without added nitrite]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na826c124-7c9f-4230-abf6-e9e7a42d7673

Objective

Aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of freeze-dried acid whey addition and the use a game meat (fallow deer) on a microbial content and the biogenic amines formation in dry fermented sausages.

Methods

The experiment involved dry fermented sausages made in two variants from beef and from fallow deer. Each variant was divided into five groups: control (with a curing mixture), reference (with a sea salt), sample with a liquid acid whey and two samples with the addition of reconstituted freeze-dried acid whey in different concentrations. Changes in lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae content and biogenic amines content were determined.

Results

The microbial content changes suggest that addition of acid whey slightly affected LAB content in comparison with the control and reference sample, but the addition of freeze-dried acid whey resulted in a reduction of Enterobacteriaceae content in the sausages from fallow deer or a similar level in the beef sausages compared with the control and reference sample. Both changes in LAB and Enterobacteriaceae content were more evident in case of sausages made from fallow deer. Addition of acid whey (liquid and a higher amount of freeze-dried) and use of fallow deer meat to produce the sausages resulted in a significant reduction of total biogenic amines content.

Conclusion

The addition of acid whey (liquid and higher amount of freeze-dried) resulted in a significant reduction of total biogenic amines content in dry fermented sausages made from fallow deer meat.

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<![CDATA[Socioeconomic vulnerability associated to Toxoplasma gondii exposure in southern Brazil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f14bed5eed0c48467a799

Human toxoplasmosis, a protozoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, has been described as a worldwide foodborne disease with important public health impact. Despite infection has reportedly varied due to differences in alimentary, cultural and hygienic habits and geographic region, social vulnerability influence on toxoplasmosis distribution remains to be fully established. Accordingly, the present study has aimed to assess T. gondii seroprevalence and factors associated to social vulnerability for infection in households of Ivaiporã, southern Brazil, with 33.6% population making half minimum wage or less, ranked 1,055th in population (31,816 habitants), 1,406th in per capita income (U$ 211.80 per month) and 1,021st in HDI (0.764) out of 5,570 Brazilian cities. Serum samples and epidemiological questionnaires were obtained from citizen volunteers with official City Secretary of Health assistance in 2015 and 2016. In overall, serosurvey has revealed 526/715 (73.57%) positive samples for anti-T. gondii antibodies by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Logistic regression has shown a significant increase associated to adults (p = 0.021) and elderly (p = 0.014) people, illiterates (p = 0.025), unemployment (p <0.001) and lack of household water tank (p = 0.039). On the other hand, sex (male or female), living area (urban or rural), yard hygiene, meat ingestion, sand or land contact, owning pets (dog, cat or both) were not significant variables of positivity for anti-T. gondii antibodies in the surveyed population. Although no significant spatial cluster was found, high intensity areas of seropositive individuals were located in the Kernel map where the suburban neighborhoods are located. In conclusion, socioeconomic vulnerability determinants may be associated to Toxoplasma gondii exposure. The increased risk due to illiteracy, adult or elderly age, unemployment and lack of household water tank were confirmed by multivariate analysis and the influence of low family income for seropositivity by the spatial analysis.

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<![CDATA[Effects of increased space allowance on animal welfare, meat and ham quality of heavy pigs slaughtered at 160Kg]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c706779d5eed0c4847c70a2

Sixty barrows (Body Weight–BW- range: 23.9–160 kg) were allotted to two experimental groups (6 pens of 5 pigs each): the control group was kept at a space allowance of 1m2/head; the second group was kept at 1.3m2/head. Behaviour, growth parameters, carcass and meat quality were assessed, as well as fat and cured ham quality. Results showed that pigs raised at 1.3m2/head spent more time laying (particularly in lateral recumbency, P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively) compared to pigs kept at lower space allowance. They also reduced the aimless exploration of the slatted pen floor (P<0.001) and increased overall expression of other, mainly active, behaviors (e.g., drinking, walking and standing, P<0.01). Pigs raised at 1.3m2/head showed higher final BW (P = 0.02), more favourable Average Daily Gain (ADG) and gain-to-Feed ratio (G:F) both during the last period of the trial (P<0.05 for both parameters) and over the entire trial (P = 0.01 for both parameters). No significant difference was observed between groups for carcass traits and the main meat quality attributes. Subcutaneous fat from green hams had higher α-linolenic acid content (P<0.01) in the group reared at greater space allowance. Green hams from this group lost less weight at trimming (P<0.01) and the resulting cured hams received better sensory evaluations (P<0.05). No difference was observed in fatty acid composition and unsaturation levels of the subcutaneous fat from cured hams. Our data suggest that heavy pigs intended for Parma ham would benefit from the adoption of higher individual floor space allowances, both in terms of animal welfare (increased possibility to rest) and of productive parameters, without having any detrimental effect on the suitability of the thighs for dry-curing or on the quality of the final product.

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<![CDATA[Small-scale and backyard livestock owners needs assessment in the western United States]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f14bdd5eed0c48467a78c

The number of small-scale and backyard livestock and poultry owners in urban and peri-urban areas has increased greatly over the last 10 years in the U.S. However, these animal owners may live in areas without access to livestock and/or poultry veterinary care. The purpose of this study was to identify potential veterinary service needs of these animal owners in the western US, assess their use of management and husbandry practices with regards to disease prevention, and assess their attitudes about animal health and food safety. A semi-structured survey was made available to small-scale and backyard livestock and poultry owners in Washington State, California, Colorado and Oregon. The survey instrument included questions about types of animals reared, uses of the animals, veterinary services and information-seeking behaviors of owners, attitudes on animal health and food safety, and management practices. Four hundred thirty-five individuals completed at least some portion of the survey. Most described themselves as living in rural areas (76%). Most (86%) owned chickens, 53% owned small ruminants, and 31% owned cattle. Many individuals owned more than one species and most had fewer than 20 animals of a given species. About 74% of respondents utilized their animals’ products for their own consumption but 48% sold animal products (primarily through internet sales (35%) or farmers’ markets (25%)). Overwhelmingly, respondents gained information about animal health (82%) and animal treatment procedures (71%) from the internet. Respondents reported their veterinarian’s practice type as companion animal (26%) or a mixed animal or food animal predominant (66%). Overall, respondents were very satisfied with the level of care (82%), but 43% had not sought animal health care in last 12 months. However, the veterinarian’s primary practice type and owner’s satisfaction with veterinary care were associated with their location (state), species owned, and urban or peri-urban setting. Livestock species type (cattle, small ruminants and swine), and use (personal or commercial) were associated with implementation of different biosecurity practices. The results of this survey highlight some of the needs of these animal owners for veterinary care and information which are location- and species-specific. Veterinary care for these small-scale and backyard animals is vital to the health and welfare of the animals as well as for identification of zoonoses and assurance of the food safety of animal products.

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<![CDATA[Variance components for bovine tuberculosis infection and multi-breed genome-wide association analysis using imputed whole genome sequence data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f1539d5eed0c48467af0c

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an infectious disease of cattle generally caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a bacterium that can elicit disease humans. Since the 1950s, the objective of the national bTB eradication program in Republic of Ireland was the biological extinction of bTB; that purpose has yet to be achieved. Objectives of the present study were to develop the statistical methodology and variance components to undertake routine genetic evaluations for resistance to bTB; also of interest was the detection of regions of the bovine genome putatively associated with bTB infection in dairy and beef breeds. The novelty of the present study, in terms of research on bTB infection, was the use of beef breeds in the genome-wide association and the utilization of imputed whole genome sequence data. Phenotypic bTB data on 781,270 animals together with imputed whole genome sequence data on 7,346 of these animals’ sires were available. Linear mixed models were used to quantify variance components for bTB and EBVs were validated. Within-breed and multi-breed genome-wide associations were undertaken using a single-SNP regression approach. The estimated genetic standard deviation (0.09), heritability (0.12), and repeatability (0.30) substantiate that genetic selection help to eradicate bTB. The multi-breed genome-wide association analysis identified 38 SNPs and 64 QTL regions associated with bTB infection; two QTL regions (both on BTA23) identified in the multi-breed analysis overlapped with the within-breed analyses of Charolais, Limousin, and Holstein-Friesian. Results from the association analysis, coupled with previous studies, suggest bTB is controlled by an infinitely large number of loci, each having a small effect. The methodology and results from the present study will be used to develop national genetic evaluations for bTB in the Republic of Ireland. In addition, results can also be used to help uncover the biological architecture underlying resistance to bTB infection in cattle.

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<![CDATA[The continuing evolution of ownership]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c7577d5eed0c4843cfddd

The evolution in animals of a first possession convention, in which individuals retain what they are the first to acquire, has often been taken as a foundation for the evolution of human ownership institutions. However, among humans, individuals actually only seldom retain an item they have acquired from the environment, instead typically transferring what they possess to other members of the community, to those in command, or to those who hold a contractual title. This paper presents a novel game-theoretic model of the evolution of ownership institutions as rules governing resource transfers. Integrating existing findings, the model contributes a new perspective on the emergence of communal transfers among hominin large game hunters around 200,000 years ago, of command ownership among sedentary humans in the millennia prior to the transition to agriculture, and of titled property ownership around 5,500 years ago. Since today’s property institutions motivate transfers through the promise of future returns, the analysis presented here suggests that these institutions may be placed under considerable pressure should resources become significantly constrained.

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<![CDATA[Novel polyclonal antibody-based rapid gold sandwich immunochromatographic strip for detecting the major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1) in honey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac8fd5eed0c484d08a41

Honey adulteration is becoming increasingly alarming incidents in food safety. Monitoring and detecting adulteration face greater challenges. Honey contains the major royal jelly proteins (MRJP) secreted by bee workers. To detect honey adulteration fast and accurately, a rapid gold sandwich immunochromatographic strip (GSIS) was developed based on two specific polyclonal antibodies (PoAbs) against the MRJP1, the most abundant protein of all MRJPs. We determined the best of pH value (pH 8.6) and PoAb SP-1 amount (5 μg/mL) in conjunction with colloidal. The cut-off value (sensitivity) of GSIS in detecting MRJP1 is 2.0 μg/mL in solution. Validation analysis with RJ, milk vetch honey, acacia honey and honey adulteration containing rice syrup and corn syrup with different ratios demonstrated that the GSIS could show consistent Test line (T line) when the test samples contain more than 30% pure honey or MRJP1 0.4 mg/g. The validation results by isotope ratio mass spectrometry on the same pure and all adulteration milk vetch honey samples showed the same information of GSIS test. The qualitative assay GSIS provided a valuable new way for honey authenticity and laid the foundation for the future application of GSIS with monoclonal antibodies in honey authentication.

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<![CDATA[Pesticide distribution and depletion kinetic determination in honey and beeswax: Model for pesticide occurrence and distribution in beehive products]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe5bd5eed0c484e5b94e

Beehive products such as honey, beeswax and recently pollen have been regarded for many years as appropriate sentinels for environmental pesticide pollutions. However, despite yearly application of hundreds of approved pesticides in agricultural fields, only a minor fraction of these organic compounds were actually detected in honey and beeswax samples. This observation has led us to question the general suitability of beehive products as a sentinel for synthetic organic pesticides applied in the field. The aim of the present study was to experimentally determine the distribution (logarithmic ratio of beeswax to honey pesticide concentration, LogD) and depletion kinetics (half-life) of selected pesticides in honey and beeswax as a measure of the latter matrixes to serve as a pesticide sentinel. The obtained parameters were used to extrapolate to pesticide burden in honey and beeswax samples collected from German and Israeli apiaries. In addition, we aimed to establish a mathematical model, enabling us to predict distribution of selected pesticides between honey to beeswax, by utilizing simple substance descriptors, namely, octanol/water partitioning coefficient, molar weight and Henry coefficient. Based on the present results, it appears that pesticides with LogD values > 1 and half-life in beeswax > 1 day, were likely to accumulate and detected in beeswax samples, and less likely to be found in honey. On the other hand, pesticides with negative LogD values were highly likely to be found in honey and less so in beeswax samples. Finally, pesticides with LogD values between 0–1 were expected to be found in both matrixes. The developed model was successfully applied to predict LogD values, thereby identifying octanol/water partitioning and molar weight as the most prominent substance descriptors, which affect pesticide distribution between honey and beeswax.

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<![CDATA[Prevention of tooth extraction-triggered bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws with basic fibroblast growth factor: An experimental study in rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c67306cd5eed0c484f37ad3

Osteonecrosis of the jaw induced by administration of bisphosphonates (BPs), BP-related osteonecrosis (BRONJ), typically develops after tooth extraction and is medically challenging. As BPs inhibit oral mucosal cell growth, we hypothesized that suppression of the wound healing-inhibiting effects could prevent BRONJ onset after tooth extraction. Since basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) promotes wound healing, but has a short half-life, we examined whether the initiation of BRONJ could be prevented by applying a bFGF-containing gelatin hydrogel over the extraction sockets of BRONJ model rats. Forty-three rats, received two intravenous injections of zoledronic acid 60 μg/kg, once per week for a period of 2 weeks, underwent extraction of a unilateral lower first molar. The rats here were randomly assigned to the bFGF group (n = 15 rats, gelatin hydrogel sheets with incorporated bFGF applied over the sockets); the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group (n = 14 rats, gelatin hydrogel sheets without bFGF applied over the sockets); or the control group (n = 14 rats, nothing applied over the sockets). One rat in the bFGF group was sacrificed immediately after tooth extraction. Twenty-one rats were sacrificed at 3 weeks, and the remaining 21 rats were sacrificed at 8 weeks after tooth extractions. The harvested mandibles were analyzed using micro-computed tomography and sections were evaluated qualitatively for mucosal disruption and osteonecrosis. The incidence of osteonecrosis at 8 weeks after tooth extraction was 0% in the bFGF group, 100% in the PBS group, and 85.7% in the control group. The frequency of complete coverage of the extraction socket by mucosal tissue was significantly greater in the bFGF group than in the other groups. These results suggest that application of bFGF in the extraction socket promoted socket healing, which prevented BRONJ development. The growth-stimulating effects of bFGF may have offset the inhibition of wound healing by BP.

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<![CDATA[Dual role of iodine, silver, chlorhexidine and octenidine as antimicrobial and antiprotease agents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2e7d5eed0c48441ece4

Objectives

The majority of human chronic wounds contain bacterial biofilms, which produce proteases and retard the resolution of inflammation. This in turn leads to elevated patient protease activity. Chronic wounds progressing towards closure show a reduction in proteolytic degradation. Therefore, the modulation of protease activity may lead to the faster healing of chronic wounds. Antimicrobials are used to control biofilm-based infection; however, some of them also exhibit the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases and bacterial proteases. We investigated the antimicrobial agents used in wound healing for their potential to inhibit bacterial and host proteases relevant to chronic wounds.

Methods

Using in vitro zymography, we tested the ability of povidone-iodine, silver lactate, chlorhexidine digluconate, and octenidine hydrochloride to inhibit selected human proteases and proteases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, and Serratia liquefaciens. We investigated penetration and skin protease inhibition by means of in situ zymography.

Results

All the tested antimicrobials inhibited both eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteases in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. The tested compounds were also able to penetrate into skin ex vivo and inhibit the resident proteases. Silver lactate and chlorhexidine digluconate showed an inhibitory effect ex vivo even in partial contact with skin in Franz diffusion cells.

Conclusions

Our in vitro and ex vivo results suggest that wound healing devices which contain iodine, silver, chlorhexidine, and octenidine may add value to the antibacterial effect and also aid in chronic wound healing. Antiprotease effects should be considered in the design of future antimicrobial wound healing devices.

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<![CDATA[Soybean isoflavones improve the health benefits, flavour quality indicators and physical properties of grass carp (Ctenopharygodon idella)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b5246d5eed0c4842bc5d5

Health benefits, flavour quality indicators and physical properties were analysed after feeding grass carp graded concentrations of soybean isoflavones (SIF) (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 mg/kg) for 60 days. The results demonstrated that optimal dietary SIF supplementation improved the protein and total PUFA content, especially healthcare n-3 PUFA (C18: 3n-3, EPA and DHA), and increased the flavour-related free amino acid [especially umami amino acid] and 5'-inosine monophosphate content, improving the health benefits and flavour quality indicators in the muscle of grass carp. In addition, optimal dietary SIF supplementation (25 or 50 mg SIF/kg diet) enhanced some physical properties [water-holding capacity and tenderness] and increased the collagen content; however, it reduced cathepsin activity and apoptosis. SIF supplementation enhanced the glutathione content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (except CuZnSOD) by regulating their gene expression. The gene expression could be regulated by NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signalling in the muscle of grass carp. We demonstrated that optimal dietary SIF supplementation elevated the health benefits, flavour quality indicators and physical properties of fish muscle.

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