ResearchPad - antenatal-care https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Spatiotemporal trends and ecological determinants in maternal mortality ratios in 2,205 Chinese counties, 2010–2013: A Bayesian modelling analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14689 Information about the spatiotemporal trends of the maternal mortality ratio is helpful in the policymaking response to reducing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in developing areas.The study can help the government to preassess the effects of policy if the corresponding magnitudes of influence of the underlying determinants can be quantified.The quantitative statistical results of national and subnational influencing effects and patterns can help the government to create policies with precision.What did the researchers do and find?We employed a Bayesian space–time model to explore the spatiotemporal trends of the MMR in 2,205 Chinese counties from 2010 to 2013 and used Bayesian multivariable regression and GeoDetector models to address 3 main ecological determinants of MMR.The major determinants of the MMR in China are medical intervention factors. The MMR will decrease by 1.787 (95% CI 1.424–2.142, p < 0.001) and 0.623 (95% CI 0.436–0.798, p < 0.001) per 100,000 live births when the proportion of hospital births and the proportion of 5 or more antenatal care visits increase by 1.0%.The major determinants for the MMR in the western and southwestern regions of China are per capita income and antenatal care, while in the eastern and southern coastal regions, it is per capita income.What do these results mean?Many countries, and particularly developing countries, may learn from China’s dramatic improvement in maternal survival rates.This progress has profited from long-term strategies to enhance delivery care in healthcare facilities and the provision of professional maternity care in large hospitals. There are, however, a variety of policy effects that have occurred in different areas due to regional heterogeneity.We have revealed the dominant factors and their corresponding influencing magnitudes at the national and subnational level, and this evidence may help China or other developing countries to preassess policy effects. ]]> <![CDATA[Associations between recent intimate partner violence and receipt and quality of perinatal health services in Uttar Pradesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14572 India suffers some of the highest maternal and neonatal mortality rates in the world. Intimate partner violence (IPV) can be a barrier to utilization of perinatal care, and has been associated with poor maternal and neonatal health outcomes. However, studies that assess the relationship between IPV and perinatal health care often focus solely on receipt of services, and not the quality of the services received.Methods and findingsData were collected in 2016–2017 from a representative sample of women (15-49yrs) in Uttar Pradesh, India who had given birth within the previous 12 months (N = 5020), including use of perinatal health services and past 12 months experiences of physical and sexual IPV. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed whether physical or sexual IPV were associated with perinatal health service utilization and quality.Reports of IPV were not associated with odds of receiving antenatal care or a health worker home visit during the third trimester, but physical IPV was associated with fewer diagnostic tests during antenatal visits (beta = -0.30), and fewer health topics covered during home visits (beta = -0.44). Recent physical and recent sexual IPV were both associated with decreased odds of institutional delivery (physical IPV AOR 0.65; sexual IPV AOR 0.61), and recent sexual IPV was associated with leaving a delivery facility earlier than recommended (AOR = 1.87). Neither form of IPV was associated with receipt of a postnatal home visit, but recent physical IPV was associated with fewer health topics discussed during such visits (beta = -0.26).ConclusionsIn this study, reduced quantity and quality of perinatal health care were associated with recent IPV experiences. In cases where IPV was not related to care receipt, IPV remained associated with diminished care quality. Additional study to understand the mechanisms underlying associations between IPV and care qualities is required to inform health services. ]]> <![CDATA[Women’s empowerment as self-compassion?: Empirical observations from  India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13876 Although ICPD brought about an international consensus on the centrality of women’s empowerment and gender equity as desired national goals, the conceptualization and measurement of empowerment in demography and economics have been largely understood in a relational and in a family welfare context where women’s altruistic behaviour within the household is tied either to developmental or child health outcomes. The goals of this study were twofold: (1) to offer an empirical examination of the household level empowerment measure through the theoretical construct of self-compassion and investigate its association with antenatal health, and (2) to ensure robust psychometric quality for this new measure. Drawing data from the nationally representative, multi-topic dataset of 42, 152 households, India Human Development Survey, IHDS II (2011–2012), the study performed a confirmatory factor analysis followed by an OLS estimation to investigate the association between a self-compassionate based empowerment and antenatal care. Empowerment was shown to be positively and significantly associated with antenatal care with significant age and education gradient. A woman’s married status, her relation to the household head and joint family residence created conditions of restricted freedom in terms of her mobility, decision making and sociality. The empowerment measure showed inconsistent associations with social group affiliations and household wealth. The study provided an intellectual starting point to rethink the traditional formulations of empowerment by foregrounding its empirical measure within the relatively unexplored area of social psychology. In the process it addressed measurement gaps in the empowerment-health debate in India and beyond.

]]>
<![CDATA[Would you like to participate in this trial? The practice of informed consent in intrapartum research in the last 30 years]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na45ec8a9-d35b-4ecd-a654-0f10371697fd

Background

Informed consent is the cornerstone of the ethical conduct and protection of the rights and wellbeing of participants in clinical research. Therefore, it is important to identify the most appropriate moments for the participants to be informed and to give consent, so that they are able to make a responsible and autonomous decision. However, the optimal timing of consent in clinical research during the intrapartum period remains controversial, and currently, there is no clear guidance.

Objective

We aimed to describe practices of informed consent in intrapartum care clinical research in the last three decades, as reported in uterotonics for postpartum haemorrhage prevention trials.

Methods

This is a secondary analysis of the studies included in the Cochrane review entitled “Uterotonic agents for preventing postpartum haemorrhage: a network meta-analysis” published in 2018. All the reports included in the Cochrane network meta-analysis were eligible for inclusion in this analysis, except for those reported in languages other than English, French or Spanish. We extracted and synthesized data on the time each of the components of the informed consent process occurred.

Results

We assessed data from 192 studies, out of 196 studies included in the Cochrane review. The majority of studies (59.9%, 115 studies) reported that women were informed about the study, without specifying the timing. When reported, most studies informed women at admission to the facility for childbirth. Most of the studies reported that consent was sought, but only 59.9% reported the timing, which in most of the cases, was at admission for childbirth. Among these, 32 studies obtained consent in the active phase of labour, 17 in the latent phase and in 10 studies the labour status was unknown. Women were consented antenatally in 6 studies and in 8 studies the consent was obtained indistinctly during antenatal care or at admission. Most of the studies did not specified who was the person who sought the informed consent.

Conclusion

Practices of informed consent in trials on use of uterotonics for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage showed variability and substandard reporting. Informed consent sought at admission for childbirth was the most frequent approach implemented in these trials.

]]>
<![CDATA[Implementing the INTERGROWTH-21st gestational dating and fetal and newborn growth standards in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya: Provider experiences, uptake and clinical decision-making]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c1980d5eed0c484b4d7dd

Background

Perinatal and newborn complications are major risk factors for unfavorable fetal and neonatal outcomes. Gestational dating and growth monitoring can be instrumental in the identification and management of high-risk pregnancies and births. The INTERGROWTH-21st Project developed the first global standards for gestational dating and fetal and newborn growth monitoring, supplying a toolkit for clinicians. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the first known implementation study of these standards in a low resource setting.

Methods

The study was performed in two 12-month phases from March 2016 to March 2018 at Jacaranda Health, a private maternity hospital in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya. In-depth interviews, focus group discussions and a provider survey were utilized to evaluate providers’ experiences during implementation. Client chart data, for pregnant women attending antenatal care and/or delivering at Jacaranda Health along with their newborns, were captured to assess uptake and effect of the standards on clinical decision-making.

Results

Facility-level support and provider buy-in proved to be critical factors driving the success of implementing the standards. However, additional support was needed to strengthen capacity to conduct and interpret ultrasounds and maintain motivation among providers. We observed a significant increase in the uptake of obstetric ultrasounds, particularly gestational dating, during the implementation of the standards. Although no significant changes were detected in the identification of high-risk pregnancies, referrals and deliveries by Cesarean section during implementation, we did observe a significant reduction in inductions for post-date. No significant barriers were reported regarding the use of the newborn standards. Over 80% of providers advocated for the standards to remain in place with some enhancements related mainly to training, advocacy and procurement.

Conclusions

The findings are timely with increasing global adoption of the standards and the challenging and multi-faceted nature of translating new, evidence-based guidelines into routine clinical practice.

]]>
<![CDATA[An mHealth pilot designed to increase the reach of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) across the treatment cascade in a resource-constrained setting in Tanzania]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c70673ed5eed0c4847c6c88

Background

Data collection and integrated reporting between the multiple health facilities for supporting more efficient care linkages is an indispensable element for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) by fostering continuity of patient care and improving the treatment cascade for HIV-infected pregnant women. mHealth potentially presents timely solutions to the data challenges related to efficient and effective care delivery in resource-constrained settings, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.

Methods

This randomized controlled pilot study used stratified random sampling for the selection of seven intervention and seven control sites in Misungwi, Tanzania, a rural district in the northwestern region. Twenty-eight health workers at seven intervention health facilities used the Tanzania Health Information Technology (T-HIT) system during a 3-month period from February 23, 2015, through May 23, 2015, to capture antenatal, delivery, and postnatal patient visits.

Results

T-HIT was designed for use on tablets with the goal to improve reporting, surveillance and monitoring of HIV rates and care delivery in the remote and rural settings. Health workers successfully recorded 2,453 visits. Of these, 1,594 were antenatal visits, 484 deliveries were recorded, and 375 were postnatal visits. Within the antenatal visits, 96% of women had a single visit (1474). Healthcare workers were unable to test 6.7% of women antenatally for HIV.

Conclusion

The T-HIT pilot demonstrated the feasibility for implementing an mHealth integrated solution in a rural, low-resource setting that links tablet-based surveillance, health worker capacity-building and patient reminders into a single robust and responsive system. Although the implementation phase was only three months, the pilot generated evidence that T-HIT has potential for improving patient outcomes by providing more comprehensive, linked, and timely PMTCT care data at the individual and clinic levels.

]]>
<![CDATA[Individual and community level factors associated with health facility delivery: A cross sectional multilevel analysis in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca09d5eed0c48452a6ef

Introduction

Improving maternal health remains one of the targets of sustainable development goals. A maternal death can occur at any time during pregnancy, but delivery is by far the most dangerous time for both the woman and her baby. Delivery at a health facility can avoid most maternal deaths occurring from preventable obstetric complications. The influence of both individual and community factors is critical to the use of health facility delivery services. In this study, we aim to examine the role of individual and community factors associated with health facility-based delivery in Bangladesh.

Methods

This cross-sectional study used data from the Bangladesh Maternal Mortality Survey. The sample size constitutes of 28,032 women who had delivered within five years preceding the survey. We fitted logistic random effects regression models with the community as a random effect to assess the influence of individual and community level factors on use of health facility delivery services.

Results

Our study observed substantial amount of variation at the community level. About 28.6% of the total variance in health facility delivery could be attributed to the differences across the community. At community level, place of residence (AOR 1.48; 95% CI 1.35–1.64), concentration of poverty (AOR 1.15; 95% CI 1.03–1.28), concentration of use of antenatal care services (AOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.00–1.23), concentration of media exposure (AOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.07–1.34) and concentration of educated women (AOR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02–1.23) were found to be significantly associated with health facility delivery. At individual level, maternal age, educational status of the mother, religion, parity, delivery complications, individual exposure to media, individual access to antenatal care and household socioeconomic status showed strong association with health facility-based delivery.

Conclusion

Our results strongly suggest factors at both Individual, and community level influenced the use of health facility delivery services in Bangladesh. Thus, any future strategy to improve maternal health in Bangladesh must consider community contexts and undertake multi-sectorial approach to address barriers at different levels. At the individual level the programs should also focus on the need of the young mother, the multiparous the less educated and women in the poorest households.

]]>
<![CDATA[Prevalence and determinants of antenatal depression in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac84d5eed0c484d0895e

Background

Maternal depression is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder during pregnancy, can alter fetal development and have a lasting impact on the offspring's neurological and behavioral development. However, no review has been conducted to report the consolidated magnitude of antenatal depression (AND) in Ethiopia. Therefore, this review aimed to systematically summarize the existing evidence on the epidemiology of AND in Ethiopia.

Methods

Using PRISMA guideline, we systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed studies that examined the prevalence and associated factors of AND from three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and SCOPUS). We used predefined inclusion criteria to screen identified studies. A qualitative and quantitative analysis was employed. Heterogeneity across the studies was evaluated using Q and the I² test. Publication bias was assessed by funnel plot and Egger’s regression test.

Results

In this review, a total of 193 studies were initially identified and evaluated. Of these, five eligible articles were included in the final analysis. In our meta-analysis, the pooled prevalence of AND in Ethiopia was 21.28% (95% CI; 15.96–27.78). The prevalence of AND was highest in the third trimester of pregnancy at 32.10% and it was 19.13% in the first trimester and 18.86% in the second trimester of pregnancy. The prevalence of AND was 26.48% and 18.28% as measured by Beck depression inventory (BDI) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), respectively. Moreover, the prevalence of AND was 15.50% for the studies conducted in the community setting and it was 25.77% for the studies conducted in the institution-based setting. In our qualitative synthesis, we found that those pregnant women who had a history of stillbirth, complications during pregnancy, previous history of depression, no ANC follow-up, irregular ANC follow-up, not satisfied by ANC follow-up, and monthly income <1500 Ethiopian birr were linked with a greater risk of developing ANC. We also found that those women who experienced partner violence during pregnancy, food insecurity, medium and low social support, and those who were unmarried, age group 20–29, house wives and farmers were associated with a higher risk of developing ANC.

Conclusion and recommendations

Our meta-analysis found that the pooled prevalence of AND in Ethiopia was 21.28%. The prevalence of AND was high in the third trimester of pregnancy as compared to the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. The prevalence of AND was high in studies conducted using BDI than EPDS. Studies on the magnitude of AND as well as the possible determinants in each trimester of pregnancy with representative sample size are recommended. Screening of depression in a pregnant woman in perinatal setting might be considered backed by integration of family planning and mental health services. The use of validated and a standard instrument to assess AND is warranted.

Systematic review registration

The protocol for this systematic review and meta-analysis was registered at PROSPERO (record ID=CRD42017076521, 06 December 2017)

]]>
<![CDATA[Prevalence of malaria and hepatitis B among pregnant women in Northern Ghana: Comparing RDTs with PCR]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d4fd5eed0c484c8250b

Background

High prevalence of malaria and hepatitis B has been reported among pregnant women in Ghana. In endemic areas, the diagnoses of malaria and hepatitis B among pregnant women on antenatal visits are done using histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), respectively, which are, however, reported to give some false positive results. Also, socio-economic determinants have been drawn from these RDTs results which may have questionable implications. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating the prevalence of malaria and hepatitis B by comparing RDTs with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) outcomes, and relating the PCR prevalence with socio-economic status among pregnant women in Northern Ghana.

Methods

We screened 2071 pregnant women on their first antenatal visit for Plasmodium falciparum and hepatitis B virus (HBV) using HRP2 and HBsAg RDTs, and confirming the infections with PCR. Socio-economic and obstetric information were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire, and associations with the infections were determined using Pearson’s chi-square and multinomial logistic regression analyses at a significance level of p<0.05.

Results

The prevalence of the infections by RDTs/PCR was: 14.1%/13.4% for P. falciparum mono-infection, 7.9%/7.5% for HBV mono-infection, and 1.9%/1.7% for P. falciparum/HBV co-infection. No statistical difference in prevalence rates were observed between the RDTs and PCRs (χ2  =  0.119, p = 0.73 for malaria and χ2  =  0.139, p = 0.709 for hepatitis B). Compared with PCRs, the sensitivity/specificity of the RDTs was 97.5%/99.1% and 97.9%/99.4% for HRP2 and HBsAg respectively. Socio-economic status was observed not to influence HBV mono-infection among the pregnant women (educational status: AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.52–1.16, p = 0.222; economic status: AOR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.72–1.56, p = 0.739; financial status: AOR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.44–1.00, p = 0.052). However, pregnant women with formal education were at a lower risk for P. falciparum mono-infection (AOR = 0.48, 95% CI  =  0.32–0.71, p<0.001) and P. falciparum/HBV co-infection (AOR = 0.27, 95% CI  =  0.11–0.67, p = 0.005). Also those with good financial status were also at a lower risk for P. falciparum mono-infection (AOR = 0.52, 95% CI  =  0.36–0.74, p<0.001).

Conclusion

Our data has shown that, the RDTs are comparable to PCR and can give a representative picture of the prevalence of malaria and hepatitis B in endemic countries. Also, our results support the facts that improving socio-economic status is paramount in eliminating malaria in endemic settings. However, socio-economic status did not influence the prevalence of HBV mono-infection among pregnant women in Northern Ghana.

]]>
<![CDATA[Regional disparities in maternal and child health indicators: Cluster analysis of districts in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d13d5eed0c484c81eed

Efforts to mitigate public health concerns are showing encouraging results over the time but disparities across the geographic regions still exist within countries. Inadequate researches on the regional disparities of health indicators based on representative and comparable data create challenges to develop evidence-based health policies, planning and future studies in developing countries like Bangladesh. This study examined the disparities among districts on various maternal and child health indicators in Bangladesh. Cluster analysis–an unsupervised learning technique was used based on nationally representative dataset originated from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), 2012–13. According to our results, Bangladesh is classified into two clusters based on different health indicators with substantial variations in districts per clusters for different sets of indicators suggesting regional variation across the indicators. There is a need to differentially focus on community-level interventions aimed at increasing maternal and child health care utilization and improving the socioeconomic position of mothers, especially in disadvantaged regions. The cluster analysis approach is unique in terms of the use of health care metrics in a multivariate setup to study regional similarity and dissimilarity in the context of Bangladesh.

]]>
<![CDATA[Demand and supply factors of iron-folic acid supplementation and its association with anaemia in North Indian pregnant women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b529cd5eed0c4842bcc9d

Anaemia prevalence in pregnant women of India declined from 57.9% to 50.3% from National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-3 to NFHS-4. However, over the course of that decade, the uptake of iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation for 100 days of pregnancy improved by only 15%. To understand demand side risk factors of anaemia specifically related to IFA intake, an in-depth survey was conducted on pregnant women (n = 436) in 50 villages and wards of Sirohi district of Rajasthan, India. At the demand side, consistent IFA consumption in the previous trimester was inversely and strongly associated with anaemia (OR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.55). Reasons for inconsistent consumption included not registering to antenatal clinic, not receiving IFA tablets from the health worker and perceived lack of need. At the supply side, an analysis of IFA stock data at various levels of the health care (n = 168) providers from primary to tertiary levels showed that 14 out of 52 villages surveyed did not have access to IFA tablets. The closest availability of an IFA tablet for 16 villages, was more than 5 km away. To improve the uptake of IFA supplementation and thereby reduce iron deficiency anaemia in pregnant women, a constant supply of IFA at the village or sub-centre level, where frontline workers can promote uptake, should be ensured.

]]>
<![CDATA[District-level health management and health system performance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df34ad5eed0c4845810c0

Strengthening district-level management may be an important lever for improving key public health outcomes in low-income settings; however, previous studies have not established the statistical associations between better management and primary healthcare system performance in such settings. To explore this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 36 rural districts and 226 health centers in Ethiopia, a country which has made ambitious investment in expanding access to primary care over the last decade. We employed quantitative measure of management capacity at both the district health office and health center levels and used multiple regression models, accounting for clustering of health centers within districts, to estimate the statistical association between management capacity and a key performance indicator (KPI) summary score based on antenatal care coverage, contraception use, skilled birth attendance, infant immunization, and availability of essential medications. In districts with above median district management capacity, health center management capacity was strongly associated (p < 0.05) with KPI performance. In districts with below median management capacity, health center management capacity was not associated with KPI performance. Having more staff at the district health office was also associated with better KPI performance (p < 0.05) but only in districts with above median management capacity. The results suggest that district-level management may provide an opportunity for improving health system performance in low-income country settings.

]]>
<![CDATA[Quality of routine facility data for monitoring priority maternal and newborn indicators in DHIS2: A case study from Gombe State, Nigeria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e705d5eed0c484ef490d

Introduction

Routine health information systems are critical for monitoring service delivery. District Heath Information System, version 2 (DHIS2) is an open source software platform used in more than 60 countries, on which global initiatives increasingly rely for such monitoring. We used facility-reported data in DHIS2 for Gombe State, north-eastern Nigeria, to present a case study of data quality to monitor priority maternal and neonatal health indicators.

Methods

For all health facilities in DHIS2 offering antenatal and postnatal care services (n = 497) and labor and delivery services (n = 486), we assessed the quality of data for July 2016-June 2017 according to the World Health Organization data quality review guidance. Using data from DHIS2 as well as external facility-level and population-level household surveys, we reviewed three data quality dimensions—completeness and timeliness, internal consistency, and external consistency—and considered the opportunities for improvement.

Results

Of 14 priority maternal and neonatal health indicators that could be tracked through facility-based data, 12 were included in Gombe’s DHIS2. During July 2016-June 2017, facility-reported data in DHIS2 were incomplete at least 40% of the time, under-reported 10%-60% of the events documented in facility registers, and showed inconsistencies over time, between related indicators, and with an external data source. The best quality data elements were those that aligned with Gombe’s health program priorities, particularly older health programs, and those that reflected contact indicators rather than indicators related to the provision of commodities or content of care.

Conclusion

This case study from Gombe State, Nigeria, demonstrates the high potential for effective monitoring of maternal and neonatal health using DHIS2. However, coordinated action at multiple levels of the health system is needed to maximize reporting of existing data; rationalize data flow; routinize data quality review, feedback, and supervision; and ensure ongoing maintenance of DHIS2.

]]>
<![CDATA[Satisfaction with obstetric care in a population of low-educated native Dutch and non-western minority women. Focus group research]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2f3d5eed0c48441ee44

Background

Low-educated native Dutch and non-western minority women have inadequate access to obstetric care. Moreover, the care they receive lacks responsiveness to their needs and cultural competences. Gaining a deeper understanding of their experiences and satisfaction with antenatal, birthing and maternity care will help to adjust healthcare responsiveness to meet their needs during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period.

Methods

We combined the World Health Organization conceptual framework of healthcare responsiveness with focus group research to measure satisfaction with antenatal, birthing and maternity care of women with a low-educated native Dutch and non-western ethnic background.

Results

From September 2011 until December 2013, 106 women were recruited for 20 focus group sessions. Eighty-five percent of the women had a non-western immigrant background and 89% a low or intermediate educational attainment. The study population was mostly positive about the provided care during the antenatal phase. They were less positive about the other two phases of care. Moreover, the obstetric healthcare systems’ responsiveness in all phases of care (antenatal, birthing and maternity) did not meet these women’s needs. The ‘respect for persons’ domains ‘autonomy’, ‘communication’ and ‘dignity’ and the ‘client orientation’ domain ‘prompt attention’ were judged most negatively.

Conclusions

The study findings give contextual meaning and starting points for improvement of responsiveness in the provision of obstetric care within a multi-ethnic women’s population.

]]>
<![CDATA[Access to and use of preventive intermittent treatment for Malaria during pregnancy: A qualitative study in the Chókwè district, Southern Mozambique]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5369e6d5eed0c484a46a0d

Background

Malaria remains a significant health problem in Mozambique, particularly in the case of pregnant women and children less than five years old. Intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPT-SP) is recommended for preventing malaria in pregnancy (MiP). Despite the widespread use and cost-effectiveness of IPTp-SP, coverage remains low. In this study, we explored factors limiting access to and use of IPTp-SP in a rural part of Mozambique.

Methods and findings

We performed a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews to collect data from 46 pregnant women and four health workers in Chókwè, a rural area of southern Mozambique. Data were transcribed, translated where appropriate, manually coded, and the content analyzed according to key themes. The women interviewed were not aware of the risks of MiP or the benefits of its prevention. Delays in accessing antenatal care, irregular attendance of visits, and insufficient time for proper antenatal care counselling by health workers were driving factors for inadequate IPTp delivery.

Conclusions

Pregnant women face substantial barriers in terms of optimal IPTp-SP uptake. Health system barriers and poor awareness of the risks and consequences of MiP and of the measures available for its prevention were identified as the main factors influencing access to and use of IPTp-SP. Implementation of MiP prevention strategies must be improved through intensive community health education and increased access to other sources of information. Better communication between health workers and ANC clients and better knowledge of national ANC and IPTp policies are important.

]]>
<![CDATA[A qualitative exploration of women’s experiences of antenatal and intrapartum care: The need for a woman-centred approach in the Peruvian Amazon]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d0180d5eed0c48403befb

Objective

To explore women’s experiences and perceptions of antenatal and intrapartum care in the Peruvian Amazon, including their perceived motivators, enablers and barriers to accessing care.

Design

Interpretive descriptive qualitative study using semi-structured face-to-face interviews.

Setting

Primary healthcare centre, Iquitos, Peru.

Participants

Women (n = 20) attending the healthcare centre who had given birth in the past 6 months.

Measures

Interviews were conducted using a female interpreter, transcribed clean verbatim and thematically analysed.

Findings

Four core themes relating to antenatal care were interpreted. (1) Perceived knowledge of antenatal care and its importance: women generally understood the importance of care, mainly for their baby’s health rather than their own. (2) Appointments and information received: women wanted more appointments to facilitate greater depth of information relating to their pregnancy. (3) Interaction with healthcare practitioners: women felt they received inadequate attention, care lacked continuity and they were often uncomfortable with male practitioners. (4) Perceived motivators, barriers and enablers to accessing antenatal care: Knowledge of the importance of care acted as the main motivator. Few direct barriers were identified, other than employment. Free care and ease of access enabled attendance. Two core themes were interpreted relating to intrapartum care. (1) Expectations and preferences for labour and delivery: the need for a safe environment for childbirth was acknowledged. (2) Actual experiences of labour and delivery: for most women labour and delivery experiences were not as they had expected. Women objected less to male professionals during labour than antenatal care.

Conclusions and implications for practice

Women reported negative experiences of both antenatal and intrapartum care. There is clearly a need for a more woman-centred approach to care and service provision. Ideally, this would involve employing more staff, acknowledging the implications on resources, improving attitudes towards women, facilitating continuity of care, and allowing patient choice to give women greater involvement.

]]>
<![CDATA[Feeding practices and nutritional status of children age 6-23 months in Myanmar: A secondary analysis of the 2015-16 Demographic and Health Survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3667a3d5eed0c4841a5e7d

Nutritional deficiencies are a major problem among developing countries including Myanmar. They can occur in all age groups, but the impact is more severe among children age 6–23 months as this period is critical for child development, and irreversible damages can occur due to nutritional deficiencies. Proper infant and young child feeding practices are pivotal to tackle nutritional problems and to prevent irreversible consequences among children. To assess the current feeding practices and associations with nutritional status, we conducted a secondary data analysis using the 2015–16 Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done adjusting for covariates and the results were presented by adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. A total of 1,222 children age 6–23 months were included in this analysis. Twenty percent were stunted and 43% were moderately anemic. Only 16% of children received a minimum acceptable diet, 25% received diverse food groups, 58% were fed with minimum meal frequency, 85% currently breastfed, and 59% consumed iron-rich foods. Breastfeeding reduced the odds of being stunted. Male sex, perceived small birth size, mother with short stature, and working mother were significant predictors of stunting. Iron-rich food consumption was inversely associated with moderate anemia. Male sex and maternal anemia were also significant predictors of moderate anemia. The study concluded that stunting and anemia among young children in Myanmar are major public health challenges that need urgent action. While further prospective research is needed to determine the effect of feeding practice on linear growth, interventions such as iron supplementation, and nutritional education programs according to the World Health Organization complementary feeding guidelines could help prevent stunting and childhood anemia and might reduce their prevalence in Myanmar.

]]>
<![CDATA[Effectiveness of home-based records on maternal, newborn and child health outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3667f2d5eed0c4841a6a78

Home-based records (HBRs) may improve the health of pregnant women, new mothers and their children, and support health care systems. We assessed the effectiveness of HBRs on maternal, newborn and child health reporting, care seeking and self-care practice, mortality, morbidity and women’s empowerment in low-, middle- and high-income countries. We conducted a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Health Systems Evidence, CINAHL, HTA database, NHS EED, and DARE from 1950 to 2017. We also searched the WHO, CDC, ECDC, JICA and UNAIDS. We included randomised controlled trials, prospective controlled trials, and cost-effectiveness studies. We used the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool to appraise studies. We extracted and analyzed data for outcomes including maternal, newborn and child health, and women’s empowerment. We synthesized and presented data using GRADE Evidence Profiles. We included 14 studies out of 16,419 identified articles. HBRs improved antenatal care and reduced likelihood of pregnancy complications; improved patient–provider communication and enhanced women’s feelings of control and empowerment; and improved rates of vaccination among children (OR: 2·39, 95% CI: 1.45–3·92) and mothers (OR 1·98 95% CI:1·29–3·04). A three-year follow-up shows that HBRs reduced risk of cognitive delay in children (p = 0.007). HBRs used during the life cycle of women and children in Indonesia showed benefits for continuity of care. There were no significant effects on healthy pregnancy behaviors such as smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. There were no statistically significant effects on newborn health outcomes. We did not identify any formal studies on cost or economic evaluation. HBRs show modest but important health effects for women and children. These effects with minimal-to-no harms, multiplied across a population, could play an important role in reducing health inequities in maternal, newborn, and child health.

]]>
<![CDATA[HIV self-testing alone or with additional interventions, including financial incentives, and linkage to care or prevention among male partners of antenatal care clinic attendees in Malawi: An adaptive multi-arm, multi-stage cluster randomised trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3667b1d5eed0c4841a609f

Background

Conventional HIV testing services have been less comprehensive in reaching men than in reaching women globally, but HIV self-testing (HIVST) appears to be an acceptable alternative. Measurement of linkage to post-test services following HIVST remains the biggest challenge, yet is the biggest driver of cost-effectiveness. We investigated the impact of HIVST alone or with additional interventions on the uptake of testing and linkage to care or prevention among male partners of antenatal care clinic attendees in a novel adaptive trial.

Methods and findings

An adaptive multi-arm, 2-stage cluster randomised trial was conducted between 8 August 2016 and 30 June 2017, with antenatal care clinic (ANC) days (i.e., clusters of women attending on a single day) as the unit of randomisation. Recruitment was from Ndirande, Bangwe, and Zingwangwa primary health clinics in urban Blantyre, Malawi. Women attending an ANC for the first time for their current pregnancy (regardless of trimester), 18 years and older, with a primary male partner not known to be on ART were enrolled in the trial after giving consent. Randomisation was to either the standard of care (SOC; with a clinic invitation letter to the male partner) or 1 of 5 intervention arms: the first arm provided women with 2 HIVST kits for their partners; the second and third arms provided 2 HIVST kits along with a conditional fixed financial incentive of $3 or $10; the fourth arm provided 2 HIVST kits and a 10% chance of receiving $30 in a lottery; and the fifth arm provided 2 HIVST kits and a phone call reminder for the women’s partners. The primary outcome was the proportion of male partners who were reported to have tested for HIV and linked into care or prevention within 28 days, with referral for antiretroviral therapy (ART) or circumcision accordingly. Women were interviewed at 28 days about partner testing and adverse events. Cluster-level summaries compared each intervention versus SOC using eligible women as the denominator (intention-to-treat). Risk ratios were adjusted for male partner testing history and recruitment clinic. A total of 2,349/3,137 (74.9%) women participated (71 ANC days), with a mean age of 24.8 years (SD: 5.4). The majority (2,201/2,233; 98.6%) of women were married, 254/2,107 (12.3%) were unable to read and write, and 1,505/2,247 (67.0%) were not employed. The mean age for male partners was 29.6 years (SD: 7.5), only 88/2,200 (4.0%) were unemployed, and 966/2,210 (43.7%) had never tested for HIV before. Women in the SOC arm reported that 17.4% (71/408) of their partners tested for HIV, whereas a much higher proportion of partners were reported to have tested for HIV in all intervention arms (87.0%–95.4%, p < 0.001 in all 5 intervention arms). As compared with those who tested in the SOC arm (geometric mean 13.0%), higher proportions of partners met the primary endpoint in the HIVST + $3 (geometric mean 40.9%, adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 3.01 [95% CI 1.63–5.57], p < 0.001), HIVST + $10 (51.7%, aRR 3.72 [95% CI 1.85–7.48], p < 0.001), and phone reminder (22.3%, aRR 1.58 [95% CI 1.07–2.33], p = 0.021) arms. In contrast, there was no significant increase in partners meeting the primary endpoint in the HIVST alone (geometric mean 17.5%, aRR 1.45 [95% CI 0.99–2.13], p = 0.130) or lottery (18.6%, aRR 1.43 [95% CI 0.96–2.13], p = 0.211) arms. The lottery arm was dropped at interim analysis. Overall, 46 male partners were confirmed to be HIV positive, 42 (91.3%) of whom initiated ART within 28 days; 222 tested HIV negative and were not already circumcised, of whom 135 (60.8%) were circumcised as part of the trial. No serious adverse events were reported. Costs per male partner who attended the clinic with a confirmed HIV test result were $23.73 and $28.08 for the HIVST + $3 and HIVST + $10 arms, respectively. Notable limitations of the trial included the relatively small number of clusters randomised to each arm, proxy reporting of the male partner testing outcome, and being unable to evaluate retention in care.

Conclusions

In this study, the odds of men’s linkage to care or prevention increased substantially using conditional fixed financial incentives plus partner-delivered HIVST; combinations were potentially affordable.

Trial registration

ISRCTN 18421340.

]]>
<![CDATA[Women's (health) work: A population-based, cross-sectional study of gender differences in time spent seeking health care in Malawi]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c269724d5eed0c48470ebb4

Background

There has been a notable expansion in routine health care in sub-Saharan Africa. While heath care is nominally free in many contexts, the time required to access services reflects an opportunity cost that may be substantial and highly gendered, reflecting the gendered nature of health care guidelines and patterns of use. The time costs of health care use, however, have rarely been systematically assessed at the population-level.

Methods

Data come from the 2015 wave of a population-based cohort study of young adults in southern Malawi during which 1,453 women and 407 men between the ages of 21 and 31 were interviewed. We calculated the time spent seeking health care over a two-month period, disaggregating findings by men, recently-pregnant women, mothers with children under two years old, and “other women”. We then extrapolated the time required for specific services to estimate the time that would be needed for each subpopulation to meet government recommendations for routine health services over the course of a year.

Results

Approximately 60% of women and 22% of men attended at least one health care visit during the preceding two months. Women spent six times as long seeking care as did men (t = -4.414, p<0.001), with an average 6.4 hours seeking care over a two-month period compared to 1 hour for men. In order to meet government recommendations for routine health services, HIV-negative women would need to spend between 19 and 63 hours annually seeking health care compared to only three hours for men. An additional 40 hours would be required of HIV-positive individuals initiating antiretroviral care.

Conclusions

Women in Malawi spend a considerable amount of time seeking routine health care services, while men spend almost none. The substantial time women spend seeking health care exacerbates their time poverty and constrains opportunities for other meaningful activities. At the same time, few health care guidelines pertain to men who thus have little interaction with the health care system. Additional public health strategies such as integration of services for those services frequently used by women and specific guidelines and outreach for men are urgently needed.

]]>