ResearchPad - anthropology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Modeling competitive evolution of multiple languages]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7854 Increasing evidence demonstrates that in many places language coexistence has become ubiquitous and essential for supporting language and cultural diversity and associated with its financial and economic benefits. The competitive evolution among multiple languages determines the evolution outcome, either coexistence, or decline, or extinction. Here, we extend the Abrams-Strogatz model of language competition to multiple languages and then validate it by analyzing the behavioral transitions of language usage over the recent several decades in Singapore and Hong Kong. In each case, we estimate from data the model parameters that measure each language utility for its speakers and the strength of two biases, the majority preference for their language, and the minority aversion to it. The values of these two biases decide which language is the fastest growing in the competition and what would be the stable state of the system. We also study the system convergence time to stable states and discover the existence of tipping points with multiple attractors. Moreover, the critical slowdown of convergence to the stable fractions of language users appears near and peaks at the tipping points, signaling when the system approaches them. Our analysis furthers our understanding of evolution of various languages and the role of tipping points in behavioral transitions. These insights may help to protect languages from extinction and retain the language and cultural diversity.

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<![CDATA[Human athletic paleobiology; using sport as a model to investigate human evolutionary adaptation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8243 The use of sport as a conceptual framework offers unprecedented opportunities to improve our understanding of what the body does, shedding new light on our evolutionary trajectory, our capacity for adaptation, and the underlying biological mechanisms. This approach has gained traction over recent years. To date, sport has facilitated exploration not only of the evolutionary history of our species as a whole, but also of human variation and adaptation at the interindividual and intraindividual levels. At the species level, analysis of lower and upper limb biomechanics and energetics with respect to walking, running and throwing have led to significant advances in the understanding of human adaptations relative to other hominins. From an interindividual perspective, investigation of physical activity patterns and endurance running performance is affording greater understanding of evolved constraints of energy expenditure, thermoregulatory energetics, signaling theory, and morphological variation. Furthermore, ultra‐endurance challenges provoke functional trade‐offs, allowing new ground to be broken in the study of life history trade‐offs and human adaptability. Human athletic paleobiology—the recruitment of athletes as study participants and the use of contemporary sports as a model for studying evolutionary theory—has great potential. Here, we draw from examples in the literature to provide a review of how the use of athletes as a model system is enhancing understanding of human evolutionary adaptation.

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<![CDATA[Phylogenetic network analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N87de2df2-e17d-447b-a2d2-d2d221ff8e49 In a phylogenetic network analysis of 160 complete human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) genomes, we find three central variants distinguished by amino acid changes, which we have named A, B, and C, with A being the ancestral type according to the bat outgroup coronavirus. The A and C types are found in significant proportions outside East Asia, that is, in Europeans and Americans. In contrast, the B type is the most common type in East Asia, and its ancestral genome appears not to have spread outside East Asia without first mutating into derived B types, pointing to founder effects or immunological or environmental resistance against this type outside Asia. The network faithfully traces routes of infections for documented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, indicating that phylogenetic networks can likewise be successfully used to help trace undocumented COVID-19 infection sources, which can then be quarantined to prevent recurrent spread of the disease worldwide.

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<![CDATA[Pandémie grippale A/H5N1 et niveau de préparation du Niger: une étude sur les connaissances des soignants et l’organisation générale des soins]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2abaef99-e1dc-4cad-ad79-2ee800ff2f12

Résumé

Dans les pays industrialisés, l’émergence de virus influenza à potentiel pandémique a suscité des réactions à la mesure de la menace que représentent ces agents infectieux. Cependant, à l’heure de la mondialisation, le contrôle des épidémies repose tout autant sur une coordination mondiale efficace des moyens de lutte que sur une préparation des systèmes de santé nationaux du Nord et du Sud, au centre desquels se trouvent les personnels soignants. Notre étude a pris place dans le principal hôpital nigérien, l’Hôpital national de Niamey. L’objectif était d’évaluer les connaissances des professionnels de soins en matière de pandémie grippale et de contrôle du risque infectieux. Sur la base d’un questionnaire, nous avons interrogé 178 soignants, médicaux et paramédicaux. Cette étude — la première à notre connaissance à explorer ces questions dans le contexte africain — a d’abord mis en lumière une certaine maîtrise des connaissances théoriques sur la grippe aviaire par les soignants. Cependant, au-delà des savoirs théoriques, l’enquête a également permis d’identifier des limites importantes compromettant les capacités de prévention et de lutte contre une pandémie grippale, notamment en termes d’organisation des soins et de contrôle du risque infectieux hospitalier.

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<![CDATA[Till Death (Or an Intruder) Do Us Part: Intrasexual-Competition in a Monogamous Primate]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daaaab0ee8fa60ba8f45

Polygynous animals are often highly dimorphic, and show large sex-differences in the degree of intra-sexual competition and aggression, which is associated with biased operational sex ratios (OSR). For socially monogamous, sexually monomorphic species, this relationship is less clear. Among mammals, pair-living has sometimes been assumed to imply equal OSR and low frequency, low intensity intra-sexual competition; even when high rates of intra-sexual competition and selection, in both sexes, have been theoretically predicted and described for various taxa. Owl monkeys are one of a few socially monogamous primates. Using long-term demographic and morphological data from 18 groups, we show that male and female owl monkeys experience intense intra-sexual competition and aggression from solitary floaters. Pair-mates are regularly replaced by intruding floaters (27 female and 23 male replacements in 149 group-years), with negative effects on the reproductive success of both partners. Individuals with only one partner during their life produced 25% more offspring per decade of tenure than those with two or more partners. The termination of the pair-bond is initiated by the floater, and sometimes has fatal consequences for the expelled adult. The existence of floaters and the sporadic, but intense aggression between them and residents suggest that it can be misleading to assume an equal OSR in socially monogamous species based solely on group composition. Instead, we suggest that sexual selection models must assume not equal, but flexible, context-specific, OSR in monogamous species.

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<![CDATA[La surveillance des personnes contacts pour Ébola : effets sociaux et enjeux éthiques au Sénégal]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N46ffdf34-dd9b-4726-807f-2c484a667777

Résumé

La surveillance des sujets contacts de personnes contaminées par le virus Ébola a pour objectif de contrôler les chaînes de transmission. Cette mesure soulève des questions d’éthique qui imposent de documenter ses modalités d’application et ses effets sociaux. L’étude a été menée au Sénégal sur la base d’entretiens approfondis auprès de 43 sujets contacts du cas survenu à Dakar d’une personne venue de Guinée contaminée par le virus Ébola, complétés par des observations. La surveillance avec confinement à domicile a été appliquée différemment aux co-résidents du malade et aux agents de santé. Les aides matérielles furent indispensables, la dimension relationnelle et la protection contre la stigmatisation étaient appréciées. Mais l’information a été insuffisante pour lever l’angoisse d’être contaminé ou de contaminer des proches, et certains ont éprouvé une souffrancemorale, la perte de leurs revenus et/ou de leur emploi. Les modalités de surveillance des sujets contacts devraient être plus acceptables et adaptées. Le rapport entre inconvénients et bénéfices reste à évaluer d’un point de vue de santé publique.

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<![CDATA[Origins of the Mesoamerican ballgame: Earliest ballcourt from the highlands found at Etlatongo, Oaxaca, Mexico]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc8d662fb-394a-4a5d-b8f6-093e0da99511

The earliest ballcourt in highland Mexico comes from Etlatongo, Oaxaca, challenging lowland paradigms on the ballgame’s origins.

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<![CDATA[Systematic scoping review of the concept of ‘genetic identity’ and its relevance for germline modification]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb5b3e5e6-9f74-4bf5-850c-740f6e227f81

EU legislation prohibits clinical trials that modify germ line ‘genetic identity’. ‘Genetic identity’ however, is left undefined. This study aims to identify the use of the term ‘genetic identity’ in academic literature, and investigate its relevance for debates on genetic modification. A total of 616 articles that contained the term were identified. Content analysis revealed that the term was used in various and contradicting ways and a clear understanding of the term is lacking. This review demonstrates that the EU legislation is open to interpretation, because of the diversity of meaning with which ‘genetic identity’ is currently used. Because of the diversity of meaning with which ‘genetic identity’ is used and understood, further reflection is needed. This requires further medical, legal, ethical and social debate and a coordinated response at both a European and a global level.

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<![CDATA[The role of moral reasoning & personality in explaining lyrical preferences]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N58765145-20be-4ad7-966a-c2141b60fcef

Previous research has supported that personality traits can act to a precursor to media preferences. Due to the ongoing association between morality and media preferences in public and political discourse (e.g., blaming immoral behaviours on media preferences), this research sought to expand the knowledge about factors that contribute to media preferences by investigating if moral reasoning styles explain some of the variance that was not already explained by personality traits. A specific form of media preferences were chosen – lyrical preferences in metal music – as claims between metal lyrical themes and behaviour have been ongoing since the 1980s, despite a lack of empirical evidence to support these claims. A lyrical preferences scale was developed, and utilizing this scale, it was found that different types of metal fans exhibit different moral reasoning styles dependent on their metal sub-genre identification. Further, it was found that moral reasoning styles explain a portion of the variance in lyrical preferences that weren’t already explained by personality traits. In particular, lyrical preferences were often thematically consistent with moral reasoning content and personality traits, such as that individuals that preferred lyrics about celebrating metal culture and unity had higher levels of the group loyalty moral reasoning domain alongside being higher in extraversion. The implications of moral reasoning styles and personality traits as being precursors to media preferences are discussed.

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<![CDATA[Multi-isotope evidence for the emergence of cultural alterity in Late Neolithic Europe]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na0c5f8bb-e473-4c1d-837a-2330226bce2a

Multi-isotope analyses suggest cultural differentiation as the primary reason for Late Neolithic variability in burial location.

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<![CDATA[Role of climate in the rise and fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3ca9b198-897b-45ae-acb6-f75829a67feb

Climate change played an important causal role in the expansion and collapse of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.

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<![CDATA[Excluding indigenous bioethical concerns when regulating frozen embryo storage: An Aotearoa New Zealand case study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ca25d20d5eed0c4846d4c59

This article undertakes a close reading of the parliamentary debates associated with the topic of embryo cryopreservation in Aotearoa New Zealand. From our critical readings, we argue that there is a lack of transparency over the ethical reasons for enforcing a maximum storage limit. We demonstrate that arguments for the retention of this limit are associated (in New Zealand) with arguments based upon ‘build-up avoidance’ and ‘conflict avoidance’ as social goods based on Pākehā [New Zealander of European descent] cultural world views rather than identifiable universal ethical principles. We illustrate that the avoidance of embryo accumulation and related conflict was only achieved by the denial of indigenous spiritual and cultural concerns, while also shifting the ethical burdens of disposition on to clinic staff and those members of the public who protested against enforced cryopreserved embryo disposal. The Pākehā cultural concept of ‘tidy housekeeping’ emerges as a presumed ethical and social good in the New Zealand situation. This is despite abundant literature documenting the suffering created through forced decision-making upon disposition.

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<![CDATA[“Even if she’s really sick at home, she will pretend that everything is fine.”: Delays in seeking care and treatment for advanced HIV disease in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9efd5eed0c48452a55d

Introduction

HIV prevalence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is estimated to be 1.2%, and access to HIV testing and treatment remains low across the country. Despite advances in treatment, HIV continues to be one of the main reasons for hospitalisation and death in low- and middle-income countries, including DRC, but the reasons why people delay seeking health-care when they are extremely sick remain little understood. People in Kinshasa, DRC, continue to present to health-care facilities in an advanced stage of HIV when they are close to death and needing intensive treatment.

Methods

This qualitative study was conducted in one health-care facility in Kinshasa. A total of 24 in-depth interviews with purposively selected health-care workers, patients and care-givers were conducted. Patients were currently or previously hospitalised with advanced HIV, defined as CD4 count <200 cells/μl. Patients included those who had previously started antiretroviral treatment (ART), and those who had not. Participant observation was also carried out. Interviews were audio-recorded, translated from French and Lingala into English, transcribed, coded and thematically analysed using NVivo.

Results

The main reasons for delaying access to health-care were stigmatisation, religious beliefs and limited economic resources. Stigmatisation meant that people feared disclosing their HIV status and thus did not receive support from their families. Religious leaders were reported to have encouraged people not to take ART. Patients delayed seeking treatment as they could not afford it, and health-care workers believed that staff at other facilities in Kinshasa were delaying HIV diagnoses for economic benefit.

Conclusions

Delays in accessing care and treatment linked to stigma, religious beliefs and economic factors contribute to explaining the persistence of advanced HIV within this context. Access to free HIV-testing, ART and treatment of opportunistic infections; counselling; training of health-care workers; support for care-givers and stigma reduction strategies are urgently needed to prevent unnecessary deaths.

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<![CDATA[Barriers to effective uptake and provision of immunization in a rural district in Uganda]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f1537d5eed0c48467aee3

Introduction

Hoima, one of the largest districts in mid- western Uganda, has persistently performed poorly with low immunization coverage, high immunization drop outs rates and repeated outbreaks of vaccine preventable diseases especially measles. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the state of immunization services and to identify the gaps in immunization health systems that contribute to low uptake and completion of immunization schedules in Hoima District.

Methods

This was a cross sectional mixed methods study, utilizing both qualitative and quantitative approaches. A situation analysis of the immunization services was carried out using in-depth interviews with vaccinators, focus group discussions and key informant interviews with ethno-videography. Secondary data was sourced from records at headquarters and vaccination centres within Hoima District. The quantitative component utilized cluster random sampling with sample size estimated using the World Health Organization’s 30 cluster sampling technique.

Results

A total of 311 caretaker/child pairs were included in the study. Immunization completion among children of age at least 12 months was 95% for BCG, 96% for OPV0, 93% for DPT1, 84.5% for DPT2, 81% for DPT3 and 65.5% for measles vaccines. Access to immunization centres is difficult due to poor road terrain, which affects effectiveness of outreach program, support supervision, mentorship and timely delivery of immunization program support supplies especially refrigerator gas and vaccines. Some facilities are under-equipped to effectively support the program. Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) identification, reporting and management is poorly understood.

Conclusion

Immunization services in Hoima District require urgent improvement in the following areas: vaccine supply, expanding service delivery points, more health workers, transport and tailored mechanisms to ensure adequate communication between health workers and caretakers.

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<![CDATA[Individual and community level factors associated with health facility delivery: A cross sectional multilevel analysis in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca09d5eed0c48452a6ef

Introduction

Improving maternal health remains one of the targets of sustainable development goals. A maternal death can occur at any time during pregnancy, but delivery is by far the most dangerous time for both the woman and her baby. Delivery at a health facility can avoid most maternal deaths occurring from preventable obstetric complications. The influence of both individual and community factors is critical to the use of health facility delivery services. In this study, we aim to examine the role of individual and community factors associated with health facility-based delivery in Bangladesh.

Methods

This cross-sectional study used data from the Bangladesh Maternal Mortality Survey. The sample size constitutes of 28,032 women who had delivered within five years preceding the survey. We fitted logistic random effects regression models with the community as a random effect to assess the influence of individual and community level factors on use of health facility delivery services.

Results

Our study observed substantial amount of variation at the community level. About 28.6% of the total variance in health facility delivery could be attributed to the differences across the community. At community level, place of residence (AOR 1.48; 95% CI 1.35–1.64), concentration of poverty (AOR 1.15; 95% CI 1.03–1.28), concentration of use of antenatal care services (AOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.00–1.23), concentration of media exposure (AOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.07–1.34) and concentration of educated women (AOR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02–1.23) were found to be significantly associated with health facility delivery. At individual level, maternal age, educational status of the mother, religion, parity, delivery complications, individual exposure to media, individual access to antenatal care and household socioeconomic status showed strong association with health facility-based delivery.

Conclusion

Our results strongly suggest factors at both Individual, and community level influenced the use of health facility delivery services in Bangladesh. Thus, any future strategy to improve maternal health in Bangladesh must consider community contexts and undertake multi-sectorial approach to address barriers at different levels. At the individual level the programs should also focus on the need of the young mother, the multiparous the less educated and women in the poorest households.

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<![CDATA[The prevalence of religiosity and association between religiosity and alcohol use, other drug use, and risky sexual behaviours among grade 8-10 learners in Western Cape, South Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca34d5eed0c48452a8c1

Background

Alcohol and other drug use (AOD) and risky sexual behaviours remain high among adolescents in South Africa and globally. Religiosity influences, mitigates and provides resilience against engaging in risky behaviours among young people but few South African studies have explored potential associations between religiosity, AOD use and risky sex. We report the prevalence of religiosity and association between religiosity and AOD use and risky sexual behaviours among learners in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Methods

Between May and August 2011, a cross sectional survey was conducted among 20 227 learners from 240 public schools randomly selected through a stratified multistage sampling design to determine the prevalence of AOD use and sexual risk behaviours. We performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the association between religiosity, AOD use and risky sexual behaviours.

Results

The learners were aged 10–23 years. Almost three quarters (74%) of learners reported high religiosity (defined as attending religious services or activities at least 1–2 times a month). More female than male learners had high religiosity. The prevalence of past 30 day reported alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use was 23%, 19% and 8% respectively. Compared to learners with low religiosity, those with high religiosity were less likely to engage in AOD use: specifically alcohol use, (AOR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.76–0.97), tobacco use (AOR = 0.76, 95%CI: 0.67–0.87), cannabis use (AOR = 0.57, 95%CI: 0.48–0.68) in the last 30 days. They were also less likely to engage in risky sexual behaviours (AOR = 0.90, 95%CI: 0.81–0.99).

Conclusion

Religiosity was associated with lower odds of reported AOD use and risky sexual behaviours among learners in the Western Cape. This calls for further exploration on how to incorporate religiosity into AOD use and risky sexual behaviour interventions.

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<![CDATA[Routine allomaternal nursing in a free-ranging Old World monkey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c854009d5eed0c484228497

We found that most infant golden snub-nosed monkeys were nursed by females other than their mothers during the first 3 months.

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<![CDATA[Large-scale micron-order 3D surface correlative chemical imaging of ancient Roman concrete]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d0ed5eed0c484c81e67

There has been significant progress in recent years aimed at the development of new analytical techniques for investigating structure-function relationships in hierarchically ordered materials. Inspired by these technological advances and the potential for applying these approaches to the study of construction materials from antiquity, we present a new set of high throughput characterization tools for investigating ancient Roman concrete, which like many ancient construction materials, exhibits compositional heterogeneity and structural complexity across multiple length scales. The detailed characterization of ancient Roman concrete at each of these scales is important for understanding its mechanics, resilience, degradation pathways, and for making informed decisions regarding its preservation. In this multi-scale characterization investigation of ancient Roman concrete samples collected from the ancient city of Privernum (Priverno, Italy), cm-scale maps with micron-scale features were collected using multi-detector energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and confocal Raman microscopy on both polished cross-sections and topographically complex fracture surfaces to extract both bulk and surface information. Raman spectroscopy was used for chemical profiling and phase characterization, and data collected using EDS was used to construct ternary diagrams to supplement our understanding of the different phases. We also present a methodology for correlating data collected using different techniques on the same sample at different orientations, which shows remarkable potential in using complementary characterization approaches in the study of heterogeneous materials with complex surface topographies.

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<![CDATA[Cultural transmission modes of music sampling traditions remain stable despite delocalization in the digital age]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633933d5eed0c484ae6217

Music sampling is a common practice among hip-hop and electronic producers that has played a critical role in the development of particular subgenres. Artists preferentially sample drum breaks, and previous studies have suggested that these may be culturally transmitted. With the advent of digital sampling technologies and social media the modes of cultural transmission may have shifted, and music communities may have become decoupled from geography. The aim of the current study was to determine whether drum breaks are culturally transmitted through musical collaboration networks, and to identify the factors driving the evolution of these networks. Using network-based diffusion analysis we found strong evidence for the cultural transmission of drum breaks via collaboration between artists, and identified several demographic variables that bias transmission. Additionally, using network evolution methods we found evidence that the structure of the collaboration network is no longer biased by geographic proximity after the year 2000, and that gender disparity has relaxed over the same period. Despite the delocalization of communities by the internet, collaboration remains a key transmission mode of music sampling traditions. The results of this study provide valuable insight into how demographic biases shape cultural transmission in complex networks, and how the evolution of these networks has shifted in the digital age.

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<![CDATA[Role of insurance in determining utilization of healthcare and financial risk protection in India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633943d5eed0c484ae6374

Background

Universal health coverage has become a policy goal in most developing economies. We assess the association of health insurance (HI) schemes in general, and RSBY (National Health Insurance Scheme) in particular, on extent and pattern of healthcare utilization. Secondly, we assess the relationship of HI and RSBY on out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures and financial risk protection (FRP).

Methods

A cross-sectional study was undertaken to interview 62335 individuals among 12,134 households in 8 districts of three states in India i.e. Gujarat, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh (UP). Data on socio-demographic characteristics, assets, education, occupation, consumption expenditure, illness in last 15 days or hospitalization during last 365 days, treatment sought and its OOP expenditure was collected. We computed catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) as indicator for FRP. Hospitalization rate, choice of care provider and CHE were regressed to assess their association with insurance status and type of insurance scheme, after adjusting for other covariates.

Results

Mean OOP expenditures for outpatient care among insured and uninsured were INR 961 (USD 16) and INR 840 (USD 14); and INR 32573 (USD 543) and INR 24788 (USD 413) for an episode of hospitalization respectively. The prevalence of CHE for hospitalization was 28% and 26% among the insured and uninsured population respectively. No significant association was observed in multivariate analysis between hospitalization rate, choice of care provider or CHE with insurance status or RSBY in particular.

Conclusion

Health insurance in its present form does not seem to provide requisite improvement in access to care or financial risk protection.

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