ResearchPad - antibacterials https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Two new sponge species (Demospongiae: Chalinidae and Suberitidae) isolated from hyperarid mangroves of Qatar with notes on their potential antibacterial bioactivity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14508 This study presents the taxonomic description of two new sponge species that are intimately associated with the hyperarid mangrove ecosystem of Qatar. The study includes a preliminary evaluation of the sponges’ potential bioactivity against pathogens. Chalinula qatari sp. nov. is a fragile thinly encrusting sponge with a vivid maroon colour in life, often with oscular chimneys and commonly recorded on pneumatophores in the intertidal and shallow subtidal zone. Suberites luna sp. nov. is a massive globular-lobate sponge with a greenish-black colour externally and a yellowish orange colour internally, recorded on pneumatophores in the shallow subtidal zone, with large specimens near the seagrass ecosystem that surrounds the mangrove. For both species, a drug extraction protocol and an antibacterial experiment was performed. The extract of Suberites luna sp. nov. was found to be bioactive against recognized pathogens such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, but no bioactive activity was recorded for Chalinula qatari sp. nov. This study highlights the importance of increasing bioprospecting effort in hyperarid conditions and the importance of combining bioprospecting with taxonomic studies for the identification of novel marine drugs.

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<![CDATA[Chitosan-propolis nanoparticle formulation demonstrates anti-bacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc122

Propolis obtained from bee hives is a natural substance with antimicrobial properties. It is limited by its insolubility in aqueous solutions; hence ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Malaysian propolis were prepared. Both the extracts displayed antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties against Enterococcus faecalis, a common bacterium associated with hospital-acquired infections. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of propolis revealed the presence of flavonoids like kaempferol and pinocembrin. This study investigated the role of propolis developed into nanoparticles with chitosan for its antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties against E. faecalis. Bacteria that grow in a slimy layer of biofilm are resistant to penetration by antibacterial agents. The use of nanoparticles in medicine has received attention recently due to better bioavailability, enhanced penetrative capacity and improved efficacy. A chitosan-propolis nanoformulation was chosen based on ideal physicochemical properties such as particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, encapsulation efficiency and the rate of release of the active ingredients. This formulation inhibited E. faecalis biofilm formation and reduced the number of bacteria in the biofilm by ~90% at 200 μg/ml concentration. When tested on pre-formed biofilms, the formulation reduced bacterial number in the biofilm by ~40% and ~75% at 200 and 300 μg/ml, respectively. The formulation not only reduced bacterial numbers, but also physically disrupted the biofilm structure as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Treatment of biofilms with chitosan-propolis nanoparticles altered the expression of biofilm-associated genes in E. faecalis. The results of this study revealed that chitosan-propolis nanoformulation can be deemed as a potential anti-biofilm agent in resisting infections involving biofilm formation like chronic wounds and surgical site infections.

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<![CDATA[Towards understanding the antagonistic activity of phytic acid against common foodborne bacterial pathogens using a general linear model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nee28f4e6-a119-4233-a9a2-0c085b39343b

The increasing challenge of antibiotic resistance requires not only the discovery of new antibiotics, but also the development of new alternative approaches. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated for the first time the antibacterial potential of phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, IP6), a natural molecule that is ‘generally recognized as safe’ (FDA classification), against the proliferation of common foodborne bacterial pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium. Interestingly, compared to citric acid, IP6 was found to exhibit significantly greater inhibitory activity (P<0.05) against these pathogenic bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration of IP6 varied from 0.488 to 0.97 mg/ml for the Gram-positive bacteria that were tested, and was 0.244 mg/ml for the Gram-negative bacteria. Linear and general models were used to further explore the antibacterial effects of IP6. The developed models were validated using experimental growth data for L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and S. Typhimurium. Overall, the models were able to accurately predict the growth of L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, and S. Typhimuriumin Polymyxin acriflavine lithium chloride ceftazidime aesculin mannitol (PALCAM), Chapman broth, and xylose lysine xeoxycholate (XLD) broth, respectively. Remarkably, the early logarithmic growth phase of S. Typhimurium showed a rapid and severe decrease in a period of less than one hour, illustrating the bactericidal effect of IP6. These results suggest that IP6 is an efficient antibacterial agent and can be used to control the proliferation of foodborne pathogens. It has promising potential for environmentally friendly applications in the food industry, such as for food preservation, food safety, and for prolonging shelf life.

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<![CDATA[Graphene oxide in zinc alginate films: Antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity, zinc release, water sorption/diffusion, wettability and opacity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c990314d5eed0c484b98c1a

Alginate is considered an exceptional biomaterial due to its hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, nontoxicity and low-cost in comparison with other biopolymers. We have recently demonstrated that the incorporation of 1% graphene oxide (GO) into alginate films crosslinked with Ca2+ cations provides antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, and no cytotoxicity for human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. However, many other reports in literature have shown controversial results about the toxicity of GO demanding further investigation. Furthermore, the synergic effect of GO with other divalent cations with intrinsic antibacterial and cytotoxic activity such as Zn2+ has not been explored yet. Thus, here, two commercially available sodium alginates were characterised and utilized in the synthesis of zinc alginate films with GO following the same chemical route reported for the calcium alginate/GO composites. The results of this study showed that zinc release, water sorption/diffusion and wettability depended significantly on the type of alginate utilized. Furthermore, Zn2+ and GO produced alginate films with increased water diffusion, wettability and opacity. However, neither the combination of GO with Zn2+ nor the use of different types of sodium alginates modified the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of the zinc alginates against these Gram-positive pathogens and human cells respectively.

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<![CDATA[Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa inhibits pedestal induction by enteropathogenic E. coli and promotes bacterial filamentation in vitro]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c197bd5eed0c484b4d750

Diarrheic diseases account for the annual death of approximately 1.9 million children under the age of 5 years, and it is a major cause of work absenteeism in developed countries. As diarrheagenic bacteria, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) attach to cells in the small intestine, causing local disappearance of microvilli and inducing the formation of actin-rich pedestals that disrupt the intestinal barrier and help EPEC adhere to and infect intestinal cells. Antibiotics and other bioactive compounds can often be found by analyzing traditional medicines. Here a crude aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa, which typically grows in subtropical and tropical areas and is a popular medicinal tisane in many countries, was analyzed for antibacterial activity against EPEC. In standard microdilution assays, the extract showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 6.5 mg/ml against EPEC growth. Time-kill kinetics assays demonstrated significant 24 h bactericidal activity at 25 mg/ml. The extract is able to impede pedestal induction. Not only did the extract inhibit preformed pedestals but it prevented pedestal induction as well. Remarkably, it also promoted the formation of EPEC filaments, as observed with other antibiotics. Our results in vitro support the potential of Hibiscus sabdariffa as an antimicrobial agent against EPEC.

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<![CDATA[Flow cytometry, a powerful novel tool to rapidly assess bacterial viability in metal working fluids: Proof-of-principle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df33bd5eed0c484580f75

Metalworking fluids (MWF) are water- or oil-based liquids to cool and lubricate tools, work pieces and machines, inhibit corrosion and remove swarf. One of the major problems in the MWF industry is bacterial growth as bacterial enzymes can cause MWF degradation. In addition, bacteria can form biofilms which hamper the functioning of machines. Last but not least, some bacterial by-products are toxic (e.g. endotoxins) and present potential health risks for metalworking machine operators via the formation of aerosols. Therefore, a novel fast yet accurate analytical method to evaluate and predict the antibacterial capacity of MWF would be an important asset. As such a tool is currently lacking, the present study aimed to develop a protocol based on flow cytometry (FCM) to assess the antibacterial potential of newly developed MWF independent of bacterial growth. Results of this novel method were compared to a biochallenge test currently used in MWF industry and also to traditional plate counts. Our results represent a proof-of-principle that FCM can reliably predict the antibacterial capacity of MWF already within one day of incubation with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis, being substantially faster than the current growth-based methods.

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<![CDATA[Intraoperative loading of calcium phosphate-coated implants with gentamicin prevents experimental Staphylococcus aureus infection in vivo]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df36bd5eed0c48458127d

Orthopedic device-related infection (ODRI) is a potentially devastating complication arising from the colonization of the device with bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus. The aim of this study was to determine if intraoperative loading of a clinically approved calcium phosphate (CaP) coating with gentamicin can protect from ODRI in vivo. First, CaP-coated titanium aluminium niobium (TAN) discs were used to investigate the adsorption and release kinetics of gentamicin in vitro. Gentamicin loading and subsequent release from the coating were both rapid, with maximum loading occurring following one second of immersion, and >95% gentamicin released within 15 min in aqueous solution, respectively. Second, efficacy of the gentamicin-loaded CaP coating for preventing ODRI in vivo was investigated using a CaP-coated unicortical TAN screw implanted into the proximal tibia of skeletally mature female Wistar rats, following inoculation of the implant site with S. aureus. Gentamicin-loading prevented ODRI in 7/8 animals, whereas 9/9 of the non-gentamicin treated animals were infected after 7 days. In conclusion, gentamicin can be rapidly and simply loaded onto, and released from, CaP-based implant coatings, and this is an effective strategy for preventing peri-operative S. aureus-induced ODRI in vivo.

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<![CDATA[Cyclodextrins as multifunctional excipients: Influence of inclusion into β-cyclodextrin on physicochemical and biological properties of tebipenem pivoxil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e6e3d5eed0c484ef418c

A novel approach for drug design based on the oral carbapenem analog tebipenem pivoxil (TP) has been proposed. The formation of the tebipenem pivoxil-β-cyclodextrin (TP-β-CD) complex resulted in changes concerning physicochemical properties of TP, which is significant for planning the development of an innovative pharmaceutical formulation as well as in the modifications of biological activity profile of the studied delivery system. The inclusion of TP into β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was confirmed by spectral (infrared and Raman spectroscopies) and thermal method (differential scanning calorimetry). Precise indications of TP domains responsible for interaction with β-CD were possible through a theoretical approach. The most important physicochemical modifications obtained as an effect of TP inclusion were changes in solubility and its rate depending on acceptor fluids, and an increase in chemical stability in the solid state. Biologically essential effects of TP and β-CD interactions were decreased TP permeability through Caco–2 cell monolayers with the use of efflux effect inhibition and increased antibacterial activity. The proposed approach is an opportunity for development of the treatment in resistant bacterial infections, in which along with physicochemical modifications induced by a drug carrier impact, a carrier synergy with a pharmacological potential of an active pharmaceutical substance could be used.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of in vitro static and dynamic assays to evaluate the efficacy of an antimicrobial drug combination against Staphylococcus aureus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c52184dd5eed0c484797b05

An easily implementable strategy to reduce treatment failures in severe bacterial infections is to combine already available antibiotics. However, most in vitro combination assays are performed by exposing standard bacterial inocula to constant concentrations of antibiotics over less than 24h, which can be poorly representative of clinical situations. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of static and dynamic in vitro Time-Kill Studies (TKS) to identify the potential benefits of an antibiotic combination (here, amikacin and vancomycin) on two different inoculum sizes of two S. aureus strains. In the static TKS (sTKS), performed by exposing both strains over 24h to constant antibiotic concentrations, the activity of the two drugs combined was not significantly different the better drug used alone. However, the dynamic TKS (dTKS) performed over 5 days by exposing one strain to fluctuating concentrations representative of those observed in patients showed that, with the large inoculum, the activities of the drugs, used alone or in combination, significantly differed over time. Vancomycin did not kill bacteria, amikacin led to bacterial regrowth whereas the combination progressively decreased the bacterial load. Thus, dTKS revealed an enhanced effect of the combination on a large inoculum not observed in sTKS. The discrepancy between the sTKS and dTKS results highlights that the assessment of the efficacy of a combination for severe infections associated with a high bacterial load could be demanding. These situations probably require the implementation of dynamic assays over the entire expected treatment duration rather than the sole static assays performed with steady drug concentrations over 24h.

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<![CDATA[Novel anti-biofouling bioactive calcium silicate-based cement containing 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61b7ded5eed0c4849380ad

Calcium silicate-based cements (CSCs) are commonly used for endodontic procedures; however, their antibacterial effects are limited. The objective of this study was to develop a 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC)-incorporated CSC with improved antibacterial properties, while maintaining the original advantageous features of CSC. MPC was incorporated into a commercial CSC (Endocem MTA) at 0 wt% (control), 1.5%, 3.0 wt%, 5.0 wt%, 7.5 wt%, and 10 wt%. The setting time, compressive strength, water sorption, and glycerol contact angle were measured. Protein absorption was measured and bacterial adhesion on the surface was evaluated using Enterococcus faecalis. The bactericidal effect was examined by the disc diffusion test. Mineralization ability was assessed based on calcium ion deposition, as assessed by alizarin red staining, after immersion into Hank’s balanced salt solution for 7 days. High concentrations of MPC in CSC (7.5 wt% and 10 wt%) increased the setting time, reduced compressive strength, and reduced wettability. MPC (3 wt%) had greater protein repellent and anti-biofouling effects than those of control and test materials (P < 0.001). However, no bactericidal effect was observed for any control or test materials. There was greater calcium ion deposition on the surface of MPC-supplemented CSC than on the control (P < 0.001). The addition of 3 wt% MPC polymer to CSC confers protein-repellent properties and reduced bacterial attachment, with the potential for improved mineralization.

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<![CDATA[Characterization of the antibacterial activity of Bald’s eyesalve against drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c084213d5eed0c484fcbaf4

Bald’s eyesalve is an Anglo-Saxon medicinal remedy that has been used through ancient times to treat eye sty infections and may represent a source of ancientbiotics. This study assessed the efficacy of Bald’s eyesalve against several strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including a multi-drug resistant phenotype, and identified the principal compound conveying antibacterial activity. Bald’s eyesalve formulations were produced by combining garlic, onion or leek, wine, bovine bile, and brass, with specific ingredient omissions in several formulations, followed by incubation at 4 °C for 9 days. Bald’s eyesalve formulation ES-GBBr exhibited the greatest antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Fractionation of ES-GBBr using molecular size exclusion and organic solvent partitioning isolated its antibacterial activity to the small molecule nonpolar fraction, and 1D 1H NMR revealed the identity of the antibacterial agent to be allicin. Depletion of allicin from this fraction by addition of exogenous cysteine established that all observable growth inhibition originated from allicin. Quantification of allicin demonstrated that its concentration was significantly greater in ES-GBBr compared to the ES-O formulation; however, this was not due to greater yield. The antibacterial activity of allicin against S. aureus was antagonized by other ingredients within Bald’s eyesalve, whereas they were additive or synergistic against P. aeruginosa. These results suggest that neither leek nor onion is necessary for the antibacterial efficacy of Bald’s eyesalve against S. aureus or P. aeruginosa, and while allicin was identified as the principal antibacterial agent present, its activity is influenced differentially in the presence of additional Bald’s eyesalve ingredients when used against S. aureus compared to P. aeruginosa. Ancientbiotics may provide a source of promising antibacterials; however, identifying the source of activity and assessing distinct formulations for cooperative effects are essential to using ancient remedies, such as Bald’s eyesalve, effectively against drug resistant pathogens.

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<![CDATA[Tanzawaic Acids, a Chemically Novel Set of Bacterial Conjugation Inhibitors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da09ab0ee8fa60b770e3

Bacterial conjugation is the main mechanism for the dissemination of multiple antibiotic resistance in human pathogens. This dissemination could be controlled by molecules that interfere with the conjugation process. A search for conjugation inhibitors among a collection of 1,632 natural compounds, identified tanzawaic acids A and B as best hits. They specially inhibited IncW and IncFII conjugative systems, including plasmids mobilized by them. Plasmids belonging to IncFI, IncI, IncL/M, IncX and IncH incompatibility groups were targeted to a lesser extent, whereas IncN and IncP plasmids were unaffected. Tanzawaic acids showed reduced toxicity in bacterial, fungal or human cells, when compared to synthetic conjugation inhibitors, opening the possibility of their deployment in complex environments, including natural settings relevant for antibiotic resistance dissemination.

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<![CDATA[Effective Design of Multifunctional Peptides by Combining Compatible Functions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da89ab0ee8fa60b9d6aa

Multifunctionality is a common trait of many natural proteins and peptides, yet the rules to generate such multifunctionality remain unclear. We propose that the rules defining some protein/peptide functions are compatible. To explore this hypothesis, we trained a computational method to predict cell-penetrating peptides at the sequence level and learned that antimicrobial peptides and DNA-binding proteins are compatible with the rules of our predictor. Based on this finding, we expected that designing peptides for CPP activity may render AMP and DNA-binding activities. To test this prediction, we designed peptides that embedded two independent functional domains (nuclear localization and yeast pheromone activity), linked by optimizing their composition to fit the rules characterizing cell-penetrating peptides. These peptides presented effective cell penetration, DNA-binding, pheromone and antimicrobial activities, thus confirming the effectiveness of our computational approach to design multifunctional peptides with potential therapeutic uses. Our computational implementation is available at http://bis.ifc.unam.mx/en/software/dcf.

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<![CDATA[Metal Ions, Not Metal-Catalyzed Oxidative Stress, Cause Clay Leachate Antibacterial Activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad0ab0ee8fa60bb6176

Aqueous leachates prepared from natural antibacterial clays, arbitrarily designated CB-L, release metal ions into suspension, have a low pH (3.4–5), generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and H2O2, and have a high oxidation-reduction potential. To isolate the role of pH in the antibacterial activity of CB clay mixtures, we exposed three different strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to 10% clay suspensions. The clay suspension completely killed acid-sensitive and acid-tolerant E. coli O157:H7 strains, whereas incubation in a low-pH buffer resulted in a minimal decrease in viability, demonstrating that low pH alone does not mediate antibacterial activity. The prevailing hypothesis is that metal ions participate in redox cycling and produce ROS, leading to oxidative damage to macromolecules and resulting in cellular death. However, E. coli cells showed no increase in DNA or protein oxidative lesions and a slight increase in lipid peroxidation following exposure to the antibacterial leachate. Further, supplementation with numerous ROS scavengers eliminated lipid peroxidation, but did not rescue the cells from CB-L-mediated killing. In contrast, supplementing CB-L with EDTA, a broad-spectrum metal chelator, reduced killing. Finally, CB-L was equally lethal to cells in an anoxic environment as compared to the aerobic environment. Thus, ROS were not required for lethal activity and did not contribute to toxicity of CB-L. We conclude that clay-mediated killing was not due to oxidative damage, but rather, was due to toxicity associated directly with released metal ions.

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<![CDATA[A Diverse Family of Host-Defense Peptides (Piscidins) Exhibit Specialized Anti-Bacterial and Anti-Protozoal Activities in Fishes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db34ab0ee8fa60bd2850

Conventional antibiotics and other chemical-based drugs are currently one of the most common methods used to control disease-related mortality in animal agriculture. Use of the innate immune system to decrease disease related mortalities is a novel alternative to conventional drugs. One component of the innate immune system is the host-defense peptides, also known as antimicrobial peptides. Host-defense peptides are typically small, amphipathic, α-helical peptides with a broad-spectrum of action against viral, bacterial, fungal, and/or protozoal pathogens. Piscidins are host-defense peptides first discovered in the hybrid striped bass (white bass, Morone chrysops, x striped bass, M. saxatilis). In this paper we identify four new piscidin isoforms in the hybrid striped bass and describe their tissue distributions. We also determine the progenitor species of origin of each piscidin (orthology) and propose a revised nomenclature for this newly described piscidin family based on a three class system. The Class I piscidins (22 amino acids in length; striped bass and white bass piscidin 1 and piscidin 3) show broad-spectrum activity against bacteria and ciliated protozoans, while the Class III piscidins (55 amino acids in length; striped bass and white bass piscidin 6 and striped bass piscidin 7) primarily show anti-protozoal activity. The Class II piscidins (44–46 amino acids in length; striped bass and white bass piscidin 4 and white bass piscidin 5) have a level of activity against bacteria and protozoans intermediate to Classes I and III. Knowledge of piscidin function and activity may help in the future development of disease-resistant lines of striped bass and white bass that could be used to produce superior hybrids for aquaculture.

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<![CDATA[The Determinants of Reported Personal and Household Hygiene Behaviour: A Multi-Country Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7aab0ee8fa60b98040

A substantial proportion of the total infectious disease burden world-wide is due to person-to-person spread of pathogens within households. A questionnaire-based survey on the determinants of hand-washing with soap and cleaning of household surfaces was conducted in at least 1000 households in each of twelve countries across the world (N = 12,239). A structural equation model of hygiene behaviour and its consequences derived from theory was then estimated on this dataset for both behaviours, using a maximum likelihood procedure. The analysis showed that the frequency of handwashing with soap is significantly related to how automatically it is performed, and whether or not someone is busy, or tired. Surface cleaning was strongly linked to possessing a cleaning routine, the perception that one is living in a dirty environment and that others are doing the behaviour, whether one has a strong sense of contamination, as well as a felt need to keep one’s surroundings tidy. Being concerned with good manners is also linked to the performance of both behaviours. This study is the first to identify the role of manners, orderliness and routine on hygiene behaviours globally. Such findings should prove helpful in designing programs to improve domestic hygiene practices.

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<![CDATA[The Antibacterial Activity of Australian Leptospermum Honey Correlates with Methylglyoxal Levels]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7dab0ee8fa60b995a8

Most commercially available therapeutic honey is derived from flowering Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) plants from New Zealand. Australia has more than 80 Leptospermum species, and limited research to date has found at least some produce honey with high non-peroxide antibacterial activity (NPA) similar to New Zealand manuka, suggesting Australia may have a ready supply of medical-grade honey. The activity of manuka honey is largely due to the presence of methylglyoxal (MGO), which is produced non-enzymatically from dihydroxyacetone (DHA) present in manuka nectar. The aims of the current study were to chemically quantify the compounds contributing to antibacterial activity in a collection of Australian Leptospermum honeys, to assess the relationship between MGO and NPA in these samples, and to determine whether NPA changes during honey storage. Eighty different Leptospermum honey samples were analysed, and therapeutically useful NPA was seen in samples derived from species including L. liversidgei and L. polygalifolium. Exceptionally high levels of up to 1100 mg/kg MGO were present in L. polygalifolium honey samples sourced from the Northern Rivers region in NSW and Byfield, QLD, with considerable diversity among samples. There was a strong positive relationship between NPA and MGO concentration, and DHA was present in all of the active honey samples, indicating a potential for ongoing conversion to MGO. NPA was stable, with most samples showing little change following seven years of storage in the dark at 4°C. This study demonstrates the potential for Australian Leptospermum honey as a wound care product, and argues for an extension of this analysis to other Leptospermum species.

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<![CDATA[Epigenetic Activation of Antibacterial Property of an Endophytic Streptomyces coelicolor Strain AZRA 37 and Identification of the Induced Protein Using MALDI TOF MS/MS]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da85ab0ee8fa60b9bed1

The endophytic Streptomyces coelicolor strain AZRA 37 was isolated from the surface sterilized root of Azadirachta indica A. Juss., commonly known as neem plant in India. Since only a few reports are available regarding epigenetic modulations of microbial entities, S. coelicolor was treated with different concentrations of 5-azacytidine for this purpose and evaluated for its antibacterial potential against five human pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila IMS/GN11, Enterococcus faecalis IMS/GN7, Salmonella typhi MTCC 3216, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923). The crude extract obtained from cultures treated with 25 μM concentration of 5-azacytidine, was found effective against all five pathogenic bacteria tested while the untreated control was only active against 3 pathogenic bacteria. HPLC analysis of crude compounds from treated cultures showed a greater number of compounds than that of the control. Extraction of whole cell protein and its SDS PAGE analysis showed an additional major protein band in 25 μM 5-azacytidine treated culture and MALDI TOF MS/MS analysis revealed that this protein belongs to the porin family.

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<![CDATA[Importance of Tryptophan in Transforming an Amphipathic Peptide into a Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Targeted Antimicrobial Peptide]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da70ab0ee8fa60b94a16

Here, we found that simple substitution of amino acids in the middle position of the hydrophobic face of an amphipathic peptide RI16 with tryptophan (T9W) considerably transformed into an antimicrobial peptide specifically targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) results demonstrated that T9W had a strong and specifically antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, including antibiotic-resistant strains, but was not active against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphyfococcus epidermidis. Fluorescent spectroscopic assays indicated that T9W interacted with the membrane of P. aeruginosa, depolarizing the outer and the inner membrane of bacterial cells. Salt susceptibility assay showed that T9W still maintained its strong anti-pseudomonas activity in the presence of salts at physiological concentrations, and in hemolytic and MTT assays T9W also showed no toxicity against human blood cells and macrophages. In vivo assay demonstrated that T9W also displayed no toxicity to Chinese Kun Ming (KM) mice. Furthermore, the strong antibiofilm activity was also observed with the peptide T9W, which decreased the percentage of biomass formation in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, these findings indicated that design of single-pathogen antimicrobial agents can be achieved by simple amino acid mutation in naturally occurring peptide sequences and this study suggested a model of optimization/design of anti-pseudomonas drugs in which the tryptophan residue was a conserved element.

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<![CDATA[Small Molecule Deubiquitinase Inhibitors Promote Macrophage Anti-Infective Capacity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf7ab0ee8fa60bc35e5

The global spread of anti-microbial resistance requires urgent attention, and diverse alternative strategies have been suggested to address this public health concern. Host-directed immunomodulatory therapies represent one approach that could reduce selection for resistant bacterial strains. Recently, the small molecule deubiquitinase inhibitor WP1130 was reported as a potential anti-infective drug against important human food-borne pathogens, notably Listeria monocytogenes and noroviruses. Utilization of WP1130 itself is limited due to poor solubility, but given the potential of this new compound, we initiated an iterative rational design approach to synthesize new derivatives with increased solubility that retained anti-infective activity. Here, we test a small library of novel synthetic molecules based on the structure of the parent compound, WP1130, for anti-infective activity in vitro. Our studies identify a promising candidate, compound 9, which reduced intracellular growth of L. monocytogenes at concentrations that caused minimal cellular toxicity. Compound 9 itself had no bactericidal activity and only modestly slowed Listeria growth rate in liquid broth culture, suggesting that this drug acts as an anti-infective compound by modulating host-cell function. Moreover, this new compound also showed anti-infective activity against murine norovirus (MNV-1) and human norovirus, using the Norwalk virus replicon system. This small molecule inhibitor may provide a chemical platform for further development of therapeutic deubiquitinase inhibitors with broad-spectrum anti-infective activity.

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