ResearchPad - antimicrobial-resistance https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Substantial improvement of tetraene macrolide production in <i>Streptomyces diastatochromogenes</i> by cumulative drug resistance mutations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7861 Tetraene macrolides remain one of the most reliable fungicidal agents as resistance of fungal pathogens to these antibiotics is relatively rare. The modes of action and biosynthesis of polyene macrolides had been the focus of research over the past few years. However, few studies have been carried out on the overproduction of polyene macrolides. In the present study, cumulative drug-resistance mutation was used to obtain a quintuple mutant G5-59 with huge tetraene macrolide overproduction from the starting strain Streptomyces diastatochromogenes 1628. Through DNA sequence analysis, the mutation points in the genes of rsmG, rpsL and rpoB were identified. Additionally, the growth characteristic and expression level of tetrRI gene (belonging to the large ATP binding regulator of LuxR family) involved in the biosynthesis of tetraene macrolides were analyzed. As examined with 5L fermentor, the quintuple mutant G5-59 grew very well and the maximum productivity of tetramycin A, tetramycin P and tetrin B was as high as 1735, 2811 and 1500 mg/L, which was 8.7-, 16- and 25-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain 1628, respectively. The quintuple mutant G5-59 could be useful for further improvement of tetraene macrolides production at industrial level.

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<![CDATA[Abrogation of pathogenic attributes in drug resistant <i>Candida auris</i> strains by farnesol]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7651 Candida auris, a decade old Candida species, has been identified globally as a significant nosocomial multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogen responsible for causing invasive outbreaks. Biofilms and overexpression of efflux pumps such as Major Facilitator Superfamily and ATP Binding Cassette are known to cause multidrug resistance in Candida species, including C. auris. Therefore, targeting these factors may prove an effective approach to combat MDR in C. auris. In this study, 25 clinical isolates of C. auris from different hospitals of South Africa were used. All the isolates were found capable enough to form biofilms on 96-well flat bottom microtiter plate that was further confirmed by MTT reduction assay. In addition, these strains have active drug efflux mechanism which was supported by rhodamine-6-G extracellular efflux and intracellular accumulation assays. Antifungal susceptibility profile of all the isolates against commonly used drugs was determined following CLSI recommended guidelines. We further studied the role of farnesol, an endogenous quorum sensing molecule, in modulating development of biofilms and drug efflux in C. auris. The MIC for planktonic cells ranged from 62.5–125 mM, and for sessile cells was 125 mM (4h biofilm) and 500 mM (12h and 24h biofilm). Furthermore, farnesol (125 mM) also suppresses adherence and biofilm formation by C. auris. Farnesol inhibited biofilm formation, blocked efflux pumps and downregulated biofilm- and efflux pump- associated genes. Modulation of C. auris biofilm formation and efflux pump activity by farnesol represent a promising approach for controlling life threatening infections caused by this pathogen.

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<![CDATA[Virulence factors and antibiograms of <i>Escherichia coli</i> isolated from diarrheic calves of Egyptian cattle and water buffaloes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8462 Diarrhea caused by Escherichia coli in calves is an important problem in terms of survivability, productivity and treatment costs. In this study, 88 of 150 diarrheic animals tested positive for E. coli. Of these, 54 samples had mixed infection with other bacterial and/or parasitic agents. There are several diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes including enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and necrotoxigenic E. coli (NTEC). Molecular detection of virulence factors Stx2, Cdt3, Eae, CNF2, F5, Hly, Stx1, and ST revealed their presence at 39.7, 27.2, 19.3, 15.9, 13.6, 9.0, 3.4, and 3.4 percent, respectively. As many as 13.6% of the isolates lacked virulence genes and none of the isolate had LT or CNF1 toxin gene. The odds of isolating ETEC from male calves was 3.6 times (95% CI: 1.1, 12.4; P value = 0.042) that of female calves, whereas the odds of isolating NTEC from male calves was 72.9% lower (95% CI: 91.3% lower, 15.7% lower; P value = 0.024) than that in females. The odds of isolating STEC in winter was 3.3 times (95% CI: 1.1, 10.3; P value = 0.037) that of spring. Antibiograms showed 48 (54.5%) of the isolates to be multi-drug resistant. The percent resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was 79.5, 67.0, 54.5, and 43.0, respectively. Ceftazidime (14.8%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (13.6%) and aztreonam (11.3%) showed the lowest resistance, and none of the isolates was resistant to imipenem. The results of this study can help improve our understanding of the epidemiological aspects of E. coli infection and to devise strategies for protection against it. The prevalence of E. coli pathotypes can help potential buyers of calves to avoid infected premises. The antibiograms in this study emphasizes the risks associated with the random use of antibiotics.

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<![CDATA[Chitosan-propolis nanoparticle formulation demonstrates anti-bacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc122

Propolis obtained from bee hives is a natural substance with antimicrobial properties. It is limited by its insolubility in aqueous solutions; hence ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Malaysian propolis were prepared. Both the extracts displayed antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties against Enterococcus faecalis, a common bacterium associated with hospital-acquired infections. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of propolis revealed the presence of flavonoids like kaempferol and pinocembrin. This study investigated the role of propolis developed into nanoparticles with chitosan for its antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties against E. faecalis. Bacteria that grow in a slimy layer of biofilm are resistant to penetration by antibacterial agents. The use of nanoparticles in medicine has received attention recently due to better bioavailability, enhanced penetrative capacity and improved efficacy. A chitosan-propolis nanoformulation was chosen based on ideal physicochemical properties such as particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, encapsulation efficiency and the rate of release of the active ingredients. This formulation inhibited E. faecalis biofilm formation and reduced the number of bacteria in the biofilm by ~90% at 200 μg/ml concentration. When tested on pre-formed biofilms, the formulation reduced bacterial number in the biofilm by ~40% and ~75% at 200 and 300 μg/ml, respectively. The formulation not only reduced bacterial numbers, but also physically disrupted the biofilm structure as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Treatment of biofilms with chitosan-propolis nanoparticles altered the expression of biofilm-associated genes in E. faecalis. The results of this study revealed that chitosan-propolis nanoformulation can be deemed as a potential anti-biofilm agent in resisting infections involving biofilm formation like chronic wounds and surgical site infections.

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<![CDATA[Nosocomial transmission of extensively drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains in a tertiary level hospital]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9f3b656c-39ce-49ef-bced-db8369f1110d

Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic infectious agent that affects primarily immunocompromised individuals. A. baumannii is highly prevalent in hospital settings being commonly associated with nosocomial transmission and drug resistance. Here, we report the identification and genetic characterization of A. baumannii strains among patients in a tertiary level hospital in Mexico. Whole genome sequencing analysis was performed to establish their genetic relationship and drug resistance mutations profile. Ten genetically different, extensively drug resistant strains were identified circulating among seven wards. The genetic profiles showed resistance primarily against aminoglycosides and beta-lactam antibiotics. Importantly, no mutants conferring resistance to colistin were observed. The results highlight the importance of implementing robust classification schemes for advanced genetic characterization of A. baumannii clinical isolates and simultaneous detection of drug resistance markers for adequate patient’s management in clinical settings.

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<![CDATA[Antibiotic use for Australian Aboriginal children in three remote Northern Territory communities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N999fa4e6-a15c-456a-862e-2e1ce88316a9

Objective

To describe antibiotic prescription rates for Australian Aboriginal children aged <2 years living in three remote Northern Territory communities.

Design

A retrospective cohort study using electronic health records.

Setting

Three primary health care centres located in the Katherine East region.

Participants

Consent was obtained from 149 mothers to extract data from 196 child records. There were 124 children born between January 2010 and July 2014 who resided in one of the three chosen communities and had electronic health records for their first two years of life.

Main outcome measures

Antibiotic prescription rates, factors associated with antibiotic prescription and factors associated with appropriate antibiotic prescription.

Results

There were 5,675 Primary Health Care (PHC) encounters for 124 children (median 41, IQR 25.5, 64). Of the 5,675 PHC encounters, 1,542 (27%) recorded at least one infection (total 1,777) and 1,330 (23%) had at least one antibiotic prescription recorded (total 1,468). Children had a median five (IQR 2, 9) prescriptions in both their first and second year of life, with a prescription rate of 5.99/person year (95% CI 5.35, 6.63). Acute otitis media was the most common infection (683 records, 38%) and Amoxycillin was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic (797 prescriptions, 54%). Of the 1,468 recorded prescriptions, 398 (27%) had no infection recorded and 116 (8%) with an infection recorded were not aligned with local treatment guidelines.

Conclusion

Prescription rates for Australian Aboriginal children in these communities are significantly higher than that reported nationally for non-Aboriginal Australians. Prescriptions predominantly aligned with treatment guidelines in this setting where there is a high burden of infectious disease.

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<![CDATA[Potential combinations of endocannabinoid/endocannabinoid-like compounds and antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne8a72c2e-13c7-43d3-9f49-0ed6410d9d0b

Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus have reached epidemic proportions globally. Our previous study showed antimicrobial effects of anandamide (AEA) and arachidonoyl serine (AraS) against methicillin (MET)-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, proposing the therapeutic potential of these endocannabinoid/endocannabinoid-like (EC/EC-like) agents for the treatment of MRSA. Here, we investigated the potential synergism of combinations of AEA and AraS with different types of antibiotics against MRSA grown under planktonic growth or biofilm formation. The most effective combinations under planktonic conditions were mixtures of AEA and ampicillin (AMP), and of AraS and gentamicin (GEN). The combination with the highest synergy in the biofilm formation against all tested bacterial strains was AEA and MET. Moreover, the combination of AraS and MET synergistically caused default of biofilm formation. Slime production of MRSA was also dramatically impaired by AEA or AraS combined with MET. Our data suggest the novel potential activity of combinations of EC/EC-like agents and antibiotics in the prevention of MRSA biofilm formation.

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<![CDATA[lptG contributes to changes in membrane permeability and the emergence of multidrug hypersusceptibility in a cystic fibrosis isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8a8e5c5e-3061-454a-b1a8-5ba72ded88f1

Abstract

Purpose

In the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is exposed to a myriad of antibiotics leading to alterations in antibiotic susceptibility. This study identifies mutations resulting in hypersusceptibility in isogenic mutants of a P. aeruginosa clinical isolate, PA34.

Methods

PA34 was exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of doripenem or meropenem during growth to mid‐log phase. Antibiotic susceptibility of surviving colonies was determined by agar dilution. Two carbapenem‐resistant colonies hypersusceptible to non‐carbapenem antibiotics were selected for further analysis. Antibiotic resistance gene expression was evaluated by RT‐rtPCR and OprD production by SDS‐PAGE. PA34 and isogenic mutants were evaluated with whole genome sequencing. Sequence variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing, and cognate genes in eight carbapenem‐resistant clinical isolates hypersusceptible to non‐carbapenem antibiotics were sequenced. Lipopolysaccharide preparations of PA34 and hypersusceptible mutants were evaluated with ProQ‐Emerald stain.

Results

Isogenic mutants showed 4‐ to 8‐fold MIC increase for imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem. However, they were hypersusceptible (≥4‐fold MIC decrease) to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and non‐carbapenem β‐lactams. Expression of ampC or mexopr efflux pumps was unchanged, but OprD production was decreased. Mutations causing Q86H AlgU and G77C LptG amino acid substitutions and nonsense mutations within OprD were observed in both mutants. Lipopolysaccharide modifications were observed between isogenic mutants and PA34. Non‐synonymous mutations in LptF or LptG were observed in 6/8 hypersusceptible clinical isolates resistant to carbapenem antibiotics.

Conclusion

Evaluation of hypersusceptible mutants identified the association between lptG and a hypersusceptible phenotype. Modifications in lipopolysaccharide profiles suggests LptG modification interferes with lipopolysaccharide transport and contributes to hypersusceptibility.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence and proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes in the subtropical mangrove wetland ecosystem of South China Sea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4cba31cb-3f64-4ee8-83a2-39d89604c1b1

Abstract

The emerging pollutants antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are prevalent in aquatic environments such as estuary. Coastal mangrove ecosystems always serve as natural wetlands for receiving sewage which always carry ARGs. Currently, the research considering ARG distribution in mangrove ecosystems gains more interest. In this work, we investigated the diversity of ARGs in an urban estuary containing mangrove and nonmangrove areas of the South China Sea. A total of 163 ARGs that classified into 22 resistance types and six resistance mechanisms were found. ARG abundance of the samples in the estuary is between 0.144 and 0.203. This is within the general range of Chinese estuaries. The difference analysis showed that abundances of total ARGs, six most abundant ARGs (mtrA, rpoB, rpoC, rpsL, ef‐Tu, and parY), the most abundant resistance types (elfamycin, multidrug, and peptide), and the most abundant resistance mechanism (target alteration) were significantly lower in mangrove sediment than that in nonmangrove sediment (p < 0.05). Network and partial redundancy analysis showed that sediment properties and mobile genetic elements were the most influential factors impacting ARG distribution rather than microbial community. The two factors collectively explain 51.22% of the differences of ARG distribution. Our study indicated that mangrove sediments have the capacity to remove ARGs. This work provides a research paradigm for analysis of ARG prevalence and proliferation in the subtropical marine coastal mangrove ecosystem.

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<![CDATA[Antimicrobial resistant and extended‐spectrum β‐lactamase producing Escherichia coli in common wild bird species in Switzerland]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2e8b47d0-90d1-4347-8be6-1304fe255584

Abstract

A total of 294 fecal swabs from 294 wild birds in Switzerland were cultivated for antimicrobial resistant (AMR) Escherichia coli. Samples were also subcultivated to detect E. coli with extended‐spectrum β‐lactamases (ESBL), carbapenemases, and plasmid‐mediated aminoglycoside or colistin resistance, respectively. Samples from 17 (5.8%) of the birds contained 19 AMR E. coli, whereof 26.3% were multidrug resistant. Five (1.7%) ESBL‐producing E. coli were detected. The isolates harbored bla CTX‐M‐1 (two isolated from carrion crows and from one great spotted woodpecker, respectively), bla CTX‐M‐15 (originating from a grey heron), bla CTX‐M‐55 (from a carrion crow), and bla CTX‐M‐65 (from a common blackbird). Phylogenetic analysis assigned three isolates to commensal phylogroups A and B1, one to extraintestinal pathogenic group B2, and one to phylogroup F. Multilocus sequence typing identified sequence types (STs) that have been found previously in ESBL E. coli in wild birds (ST58, ST205, ST540). One isolate harboring bla CTX‐M‐55 was assigned to the recently emerged fluoroquinolone‐resistant, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli clone ST1193. Wild birds have the potential to disperse AMR, including clinically important resistance genes, from anthropogenic‐influenced habitats to diverse areas, including vulnerable natural environments such as surface waters or mountain regions.

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<![CDATA[Bioactivities and genome insights of a thermotolerant antibiotics‐producing Streptomyces sp. TM32 reveal its potentials for novel drug discovery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N147f6889-530d-42e0-9140-5d0e38218569

Abstract

A way to defeat antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis is to supply novel drugs to the pharmaceutical industry. This effort leads to a global call for seeking the beneficial microbes from underexplored habitats. To support this call, we isolated Streptomyces sp. TM32 from the rhizosphere soil of a medicinal plant, turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). TM32 exhibited strong antimicrobial activities against both human and plant pathogens, including an AMR pathogen, Staphylococcus haemolyticus MR‐CoNS. Surprisingly, such antimicrobial results of TM32's autoclaved crude extract remained the same. Based on the genome data analysis, TM32 belongs to the same genomic species with Streptomyces sioyaensis DSM 40032T, supported by the relatively high‐average nucleotide identity values (ANIb: 96.80% and OrthoANIu: 97.14%) and in silico DNA–DNA relatedness value of 75.40%. Importantly, the gene annotation analyses revealed that TM32's genome contains various genes encoding the biosynthesis of either known or unknown antibiotics and some metabolites involved in plant growth‐promoting traits. However, bioactivities and genome data comparison of TM32 and DSM 40032T showed a set of apparent differences, for example, antimicrobial potentials, genome size, number, and occurrence of coding DNA sequences in the chromosomes. These findings suggest that TM32 is a new strain of S. sioyaensis and serves as an emerging source for further discovery of valuable and novel bioactive compounds.

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<![CDATA[Probabilistic model for the estimation of the consumer exposure to methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus due to cross‐contamination and recontamination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf4ba2382-b55a-4c28-a354-760b026cb7a6

Abstract

The presence of multidrug‐resistant bacteria like methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in retail meat is one of the current concerns of the public health authorities. Bacterial cross‐contamination and recontamination during household food preparation could play an important role in the dissemination of such bacteria, and therefore could contribute to a serious health problem, more specifically for immunocompromised people. In order to evaluate the importance of such events, a probabilistic model was developed to estimate the likelihood and extent of cross‐contamination and recontamination and the burden of MRSA from contaminated raw chicken meat via hands and kitchen utensils in a serving (consisting on a slice of bread and a piece of grilled chicken meat) during a household barbecue in Germany. A modular design was used, taking into account the chronological order of the routines during the barbecue event, and Monte Carlo simulations were applied. Available data on the prevalence and burden of MRSA in chicken meat at retail in Germany were used as starting point and were incorporated in the model as probability distributions. The probabilities and extent of bacterial transfer between food items and kitchen utensils (referred to as “Objects”) and the routines performed during food preparation (referred to as “Actions”) specified by their probabilities of occurrence were incorporated as the main input parameters. The model was set up in R 3.5.0 and converted to a standardized format (FSKX file). Therefore, the code can be easily accessed, evaluated, modified, and reused for different purposes. The present study contributes to the quantification of consumer exposure to MRSA through food consumption once contaminated food has entered the household kitchen. Even when the MRSA prevalence and bacterial load in retail chicken meat in Germany are low, resistant bacteria can reach the consumer due to cross‐contamination and recontamination events. The results show that the probability of one CFU to be transferred from the contaminated raw chicken meat to the final serving and the number of MRSA bacteria transferred due to cross‐contamination and recontamination events are in general low, being the contamination of the final serving more likely to occur via bread, rather than via grilled chicken. The results show that the prevalence of MRSA at retail highly influences the probability of the final serving to be contaminated. However, this study also highlights the importance of keeping good hygiene practices during the household food manipulation for reducing the spread of MRSA. The provision of the model in a standardized data format will allow an easy incorporation of the developed model into a complete quantitative microbial risk assessment model that will greatly help to estimate the risk of consumer exposure to MRSA through the consumption of contaminated food.

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<![CDATA[Identification and characterization of OmpT‐like proteases in uropathogenic Escherichia coli clinical isolates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N00597571-a719-4f88-a1a0-ac3666a14116

Abstract

Bacterial colonization of the urogenital tract is limited by innate defenses, including the production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) resist AMP‐killing to cause a range of urinary tract infections (UTIs) including asymptomatic bacteriuria, cystitis, pyelonephritis, and sepsis. UPEC strains have high genomic diversity and encode numerous virulence factors that differentiate them from non‐UTI‐causing strains, including ompT. As OmpT homologs cleave and inactivate AMPs, we hypothesized that UPEC strains from patients with symptomatic UTIs have high OmpT protease activity. Therefore, we measured OmpT activity in 58 clinical E. coli isolates. While heterogeneous OmpT activities were observed, OmpT activity was significantly greater in UPEC strains isolated from patients with symptomatic infections. Unexpectedly, UPEC strains exhibiting the greatest protease activities harbored an additional ompT‐like gene called arlC (ompTp). The presence of two OmpT‐like proteases in some UPEC isolates led us to compare the substrate specificities of OmpT‐like proteases found in E. coli. While all three cleaved AMPs, cleavage efficiency varied on the basis of AMP size and secondary structure. Our findings suggest the presence of ArlC and OmpT in the same UPEC isolate may confer a fitness advantage by expanding the range of target substrates.

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<![CDATA[Targeting microbial pathogens by expression of new recombinant dermaseptin peptides in tobacco]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3f1f13c9-2107-4b45-b5b7-ec3ab6bf484d

Abstract

Dermaseptin B1 (DrsB1), an antimicrobial cationic 31 amino acid peptide, is produced by Phyllomedusa bicolor. In an attempt to enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of DrsB1, the DrsB1 encoding 93 bp sequence was either fused to the N or C terminus of sequence encoding chitin‐binding domain (CBD) of Avr4 gene from Cladosporium fulvum. Tobacco leaf disk explants were inoculated with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring pGSA/CBD‐DrsB1 and pGSA/DrsB1‐CBD expression vectors to produce hairy roots (HRs). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to screen putative transgenic tobacco lines. Semi‐quantitative RT‐PCR and western blotting analysis indicated that the expression of recombinant genes were significantly higher, and recombinant proteins were produced in transgenic HRs. The recombinant proteins were extracted from the tobacco HRs and used against Pectobacterium carotovorum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas campestris pathogenic bacteria and Alternaria alternata and Pythium sp. fungi. Two recombinant proteins had a statistically significant (p < 0.01) inhibitory effect on the growth and development of plant pathogens. The CBD‐DrsB1 recombinant protein demonstrated a higher antibacterial effect, whereas the DrsB1‐CBD recombinant protein demonstrated greater antifungal activity. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the structure of the fungal mycelia appeared segmented, adhered to each other, and crushed following the antimicrobial activity of the recombinant proteins. Due to the high antimicrobial activity of the recombinant proteins against plant pathogens, this strategy can be used to generate stable transgenic crop plants resistant to devastating plant pathogens.

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<![CDATA[The evolution and genetic diversity of avian influenza A(H9N2) viruses in Cambodia, 2015 – 2016]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncf402c92-86f9-4684-b431-03c7c64bd7da

Low pathogenic A(H9N2) subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were originally detected in Cambodian poultry in 2013, and now circulate endemically. We sequenced and characterised 64 A(H9N2) AIVs detected in Cambodian poultry (chickens and ducks) from January 2015 to May 2016. All A(H9) viruses collected in 2015 and 2016 belonged to a new BJ/94-like h9-4.2.5 sub-lineage that emerged in the region during or after 2013, and was distinct to previously detected Cambodian viruses. Overall, there was a reduction of genetic diversity of H9N2 since 2013, however two genotypes were detected in circulation, P and V, with extensive reassortment between the viruses. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between A(H9N2) AIVs detected in Cambodian and Vietnamese poultry, highlighting cross-border trade/movement of live, domestic poultry between the countries. Wild birds may also play a role in A(H9N2) transmission in the region. Some genes of the Cambodian isolates frequently clustered with zoonotic A(H7N9), A(H9N2) and A(H10N8) viruses, suggesting a common ecology. Molecular analysis showed 100% of viruses contained the hemagglutinin (HA) Q226L substitution, which favours mammalian receptor type binding. All viruses were susceptible to the neuraminidase inhibitor antivirals; however, 41% contained the matrix (M2) S31N substitution associated with resistance to adamantanes. Overall, Cambodian A(H9N2) viruses possessed factors known to increase zoonotic potential, and therefore their evolution should be continually monitored.

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<![CDATA[Quantitative dynamics of Salmonella and E. coli in feces of feedlot cattle treated with ceftiofur and chlortetracycline]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd45d35d0-8623-4716-b387-5e4fac70c4ad

Antibiotic use in beef cattle is a risk factor for the expansion of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella populations. However, actual changes in the quantity of Salmonella in cattle feces following antibiotic use have not been investigated. Previously, we observed an overall reduction in Salmonella prevalence in cattle feces associated with both ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) and chlortetracycline (CTC) use; however, during the same time frame the prevalence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella increased. The purpose of this analysis was to quantify the dynamics of Salmonella using colony counting (via a spiral-plating method) and hydrolysis probe-based qPCR (TaqMan® qPCR). Additionally, we quantified antibiotic-resistant Salmonella by plating to agar containing antibiotics at Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoint concentrations. Cattle were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups across 16 pens in 2 replicates consisting of 88 cattle each. Fecal samples from Days 0, 4, 8, 14, 20, and 26 were subjected to quantification assays. Duplicate qPCR assays targeting the Salmonella invA gene were performed on total community DNA for 1,040 samples. Diluted fecal samples were spiral plated on plain Brilliant Green Agar (BGA) and BGA with ceftriaxone (4 μg/ml) or tetracycline (16 μg/ml). For comparison purposes, indicator non-type-specific (NTS) E. coli were also quantified by direct spiral plating. Quantity of NTS E. coli and Salmonella significantly decreased immediately following CCFA treatment. CTC treatment further decreased the quantity of Salmonella but not NTS E. coli. Effects of antibiotics on the imputed log10 quantity of Salmonella were analyzed via a multi-level mixed linear regression model. The invA gene copies decreased with CCFA treatment by approximately 2 log10 gene copies/g feces and remained low following additional CTC treatment. The quantities of tetracycline or ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella were approximately 4 log10 CFU/g feces; however, most of the samples were under the quantification limit. The results of this study demonstrate that antibiotic use decreases the overall quantity of Salmonella in cattle feces in the short term; however, the overall quantities of antimicrobial-resistant NTS E. coli and Salmonella tend to remain at a constant level throughout.

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<![CDATA[Candida lusitaniae in Kuwait: Prevalence, antifungal susceptibility and role in neonatal fungemia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8accced5eed0c484990063

Objectives

Candida lusitaniae is an opportunistic yeast pathogen in certain high-risk patient populations/cohorts. The species exhibits an unusual antifungal susceptibility profile with tendency to acquire rapid resistance. Here, we describe prevalence of C. lusitaniae in clinical specimens in Kuwait, its antifungal susceptibility profile and role in neonatal fungemia.

Methods

Clinical C. lusitaniae isolates recovered from diverse specimens during 2011 to 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. All isolates were identified by germ tube test, growth on CHROMagar Candida and by Vitek 2 yeast identification system. A simple species-specific PCR assay was developed and results were confirmed by PCR-sequencing of ITS region of rDNA. Antifungal susceptibility was determined by Etest. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were recorded after 24 h incubation at 35°C.

Results

Of 7068 yeast isolates, 134 (1.89%) were identified as C. lusitaniae including 25 (2.52%) among 990 bloodstream isolates. Species-specific PCR and PCR-sequencing of rDNA confirmed identification. Of 11 cases of neonatal candidemia, 9 occurred in NICU of Hospital A and are described here. Eight of 9 neonates received liposomal amphotericin B, which was followed by fluconazole in 7 and additionally by caspofungin in 2 cases as salvage therapy. Three of 8 (37.5%) patients died. No isolate exhibited reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, caspopfungin, micafungin and anidulafungin. The MIC ± geometric mean values for amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin were as follows: 0.072 ± 0.037 μg/ml, 2.32 ± 0.49 μg/ml, 0.09 ± 0.01 μg/ml and 0.16 ± 0.08 μg/ml, respectively. Only two isolates exhibited reduced susceptibility to fluconazole.

Conclusions

This study describes the prevalence and antifungal susceptibility profile of clinical C. lusitaniae isolates in Kuwait. No isolate showed reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B. The study highlights the emerging role of C. lusitaniae as a healthcare-associated pathogen capable of causing fungemia in preterm neonates and causing significant mortality.

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<![CDATA[Age-related differences in clinical characteristics of invasive group G streptococcal infection: Comparison with group A and group B streptococcal infections]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8accd0d5eed0c48499008b

Purpose

Invasive Group G streptococcal infection (iGGS) has increasingly been recognized as a cause of severe disease, mainly among elderly people with chronic illnesses. This study aimed to examine age-related differences in clinical characteristics of iGGS and describe its characteristics among very elderly individuals (≥80 years).

Methods

Fifty-four iGGS patients for whom detailed clinical information was available were identified from 2002 to 2014 in a tertiary care hospital in Japan. iGGS (n = 54) was compared with invasive Group A (iGAS; n = 17) and B streptococcal infection patients (iGBS; n = 52) based on patient age.

Results

The incidence of iGGS in our catchment area significantly increased during the study period. The prevalence of iGGS in the very elderly population was higher than that of iGAS or iGBS (p<0.001). Among iGGS patients, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, oxygen demand, and bacteremia with unknown focus of infection were more frequent in the very elderly population (p = 0.009, p = 0.02, p = 0.04, and p = 0.04, respectively). Altered mental status was present in half of iGGS patients aged ≥60 years (p = 0.03). In contrast, alcohol drinking and liver cirrhosis were significantly more frequent in patients with iGGS aged <60 years than in other age groups (p<0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). Levofloxacin resistance in GBS isolates was significantly more frequent among very elderly patients than among other age groups (p<0.001).

Conclusions

The burden of iGGS has been increasing in our catchment area. Different iGGS-associated clinical characteristics were found in each age group. Unclear and atypical clinical manifestations and syndromes were likely to be observed in very elderly patients. Alcohol drinking and liver cirrhosis may contribute to iGGS even in patients aged <60 years. Understanding these age-related differences could be helpful for optimal diagnosis and treatment.

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<![CDATA[What can we learn by examining variations in the use of urine culture in the management of acute cystitis? A retrospective cohort study with linked administrative data in British Columbia, Canada, 2005-2011]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c1954d5eed0c484b4d403

Introduction

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common community-based bacterial infections. Empiric antibiotic recommendations are guided by local resistance rates. Previous research suggests that cultures are overused for uncomplicated cystitis, but practice patterns have not been described in detail. Variations in culturing have implications for the interpretation of antibiotic resistance rates.

Methods

We used a retrospective cohort study to analyze variations in urine culturing among physicians, controlling for patient and physician characteristics. We identified all outpatient physician visits among adults and children for cystitis in British Columbia between 2005 and 2011 using administrative data and linked these to laboratory data on urine cultures. Using hierarchical generalized linear mixed models we explored variations in urine culture submissions for cystitis (ICD code 595) and the associations with patient and physician characteristics, stratified by patient sex.

Results

Urine cultures were associated with 16% of visits for cystitis among females and 9% among males, and 59% of visits overall were associated with antibiotic treatment. Older patients, patients with a recent antibiotic prescription, and long term care residents were significantly less likely to have a culture associated with a cystitis visit, whether male or female. Female physicians and physicians with 16–35 years’ experience were more likely to culture, while international medical graduates were less likely–particularly for female visits. Notably, there was substantial unexplained variation among physicians after controlling for physician characteristics: we found a 24-fold variation in the odds of culturing a female UTI between physicians who were otherwise similar.

Conclusion

Individual physicians show substantial variation in their propensity to submit cultures for cystitis visits. Reducing such variation and encouraging appropriate levels of culturing would support effective antibiotic use.

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<![CDATA[A prospective, multi-center study of Candida bloodstream infections in Chile]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c1960d5eed0c484b4d4f3

Background

Active surveillance is necessary for improving the management and outcome of patients with candidemia. The aim of this study was to describe epidemiologic and clinical features of candidemia in children and adults in tertiary level hospitals in Chile.

Methods

We conducted a prospective, multicenter, laboratory-based survey study of candidemia in 26 tertiary care hospitals in Chile, from January 2013 to October 2017.

Results

A total of 780 episodes of candidemia were included, with a median incidence of 0.47/1,000 admissions. Demographic, clinical and microbiological information of 384 cases of candidemia, from 18 hospitals (7,416 beds), was included in this report. One hundred and thirty-four episodes (35%) occurred in pediatric patients and 250 (65%) in adult population. Candida albicans (39%), Candida parapsilosis (30%) and Candida glabrata (10%) were the leading species, with a significant difference in the distribution of species between ages. The use of central venous catheter and antibiotics were the most frequent risk factors in all age groups (> 70%). Three hundred and fifteen strains were studied for antifungal susceptibility; 21 strains (6.6%) were resistant to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, anidulafungin or micafungin. The most commonly used antifungal therapies were fluconazole (39%) and echinocandins (36%). The overall 30-day survival was 74.2%, significantly higher in infants (82%) and children (86%) compared with neonates (72%), adults (71%) and elderly (70%).

Conclusions

Our prospective, multicenter surveillance study showed a low incidence of candidemia in Chile, with high 30-day survival, a large proportion of elderly patients, C. glabrata as the third most commonly identified strain, a 6.6% resistance to antifungal agents and a frequent use of echinocandins.

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