ResearchPad - applied-ecology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The plant cuticle regulates apoplastic transport of salicylic acid during systemic acquired resistance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15459 The plant cuticle is often considered a passive barrier from the environment. We show that the cuticle regulates active transport of the defense hormone salicylic acid (SA). SA, an important regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), is preferentially transported from pathogen-infected to uninfected parts via the apoplast. Apoplastic accumulation of SA, which precedes its accumulation in the cytosol, is driven by the pH gradient and deprotonation of SA. In cuticle-defective mutants, increased transpiration and reduced water potential preferentially routes SA to cuticle wax rather than to the apoplast. This results in defective long-distance transport of SA, which in turn impairs distal accumulation of the SAR-inducer pipecolic acid. High humidity reduces transpiration to restore systemic SA transport and, thereby, SAR in cuticle-defective mutants. Together, our results demonstrate that long-distance mobility of SA is essential for SAR and that partitioning of SA between the symplast and cuticle is regulated by transpiration.

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<![CDATA[Road development in Asia: Assessing the range-wide risks to tigers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15426 Roads are proliferating worldwide at an unprecedented rate, with potentially severe impacts on wildlife. We calculated the extent and potential impacts of road networks across the 1,160,000-km2, 13-country range of the globally endangered tiger (Panthera tigris)—a conservation umbrella species. We found that roads were pervasive, totaling 134,000 km across tiger conservation landscapes (TCLs), even in tiger priority sites and protected areas. Approximately 43% of the area where tiger breeding occurs and 57% of the area in TCLs fell within the road-effect zone. Consequently, current road networks may be decreasing tiger and prey abundances by more than 20%. Nearly 24,000 km of new roads will be built in TCLs by 2050, stimulated through major investment projects such as China’s Belt and Road Initiative. Given that roads will be a pervasive challenge to tiger recovery in the future, we urge decision-makers to make sustainable road development a top priority.

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<![CDATA[Tropical cyclone motion in a changing climate]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15387 The locally accumulated damage by tropical cyclones (TCs) can intensify substantially when these cyclones move more slowly. While some observational evidence suggests that TC motion might have slowed significantly since the mid-20th century (1), the robustness of the observed trend and its relation to anthropogenic warming have not been firmly established (24). Using large-ensemble simulations that directly simulate TC activity, we show that future anthropogenic warming can lead to a robust slowing of TC motion, particularly in the midlatitudes. The slowdown there is related to a poleward shift of the midlatitude westerlies, which has been projected by various climate models. Although the model’s simulation of historical TC motion trends suggests that the attribution of the observed trends of TC motion to anthropogenic forcings remains uncertain, our findings suggest that 21st-century anthropogenic warming could decelerate TC motion near populated midlatitude regions in Asia and North America, potentially compounding future TC-related damages.

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<![CDATA[Effects of a deep-sea mining experiment on seafloor microbial communities and functions after 26 years]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1e601e3d-c0ec-4de7-b237-c1e589b95628 Future supplies of rare minerals for global industries with high-tech products may depend on deep-sea mining. However, environmental standards for seafloor integrity and recovery from environmental impacts are missing. We revisited the only midsize deep-sea disturbance and recolonization experiment carried out in 1989 in the Peru Basin nodule field to compare habitat integrity, remineralization rates, and carbon flow with undisturbed sites. Plough tracks were still visible, indicating sites where sediment was either removed or compacted. Locally, microbial activity was reduced up to fourfold in the affected areas. Microbial cell numbers were reduced by ~50% in fresh “tracks” and by <30% in the old tracks. Growth estimates suggest that microbially mediated biogeochemical functions need over 50 years to return to undisturbed levels. This study contributes to developing environmental standards for deep-sea mining while addressing limits to maintaining and recovering ecological integrity during large-scale nodule mining. ]]>