ResearchPad - arrhythmia https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Is transjugular insertion of a temporary pacemaker a safe and effective approach?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13814 Temporary pacemakers (TPMs) are usually inserted in an emergency situation. However, there are few reports available regarding which route of access is best or what the most preferred approach is currently in tertiary hospitals. This study aimed to compare procedure times, complication rates, and indications for temporary pacing between the transjugular and transfemoral approaches to TPM placement. We analyzed consecutive patients who underwent TPM placement. Indications; procedure times; and rates of complications including localized infection, any bleeding, and pacing wire repositioning rates were analyzed. A total of 732 patients (361 treated via the transjugular approach and 371 treated via the transfemoral approach) were included. Complete atrioventricular block was the most common cause of TPM placement in both groups, but sick sinus syndrome was especially common in the transjugular approach group. Separately, procedure time was significantly shorter in the transjugular approach group (9.0 ± 8.0 minutes vs. 11.9 ± 9.7 minutes; P < 0.001). Overall complication rates were not significantly different between the two groups, and longer duration of temporary pacing was a risk factor for repositioning. The risk of reposition was significantly increased when the temporary pacing was continued more than 5 days and 3 days in the transjugular approach group and the transfemoral approach group, respectively. The transjugular approach should be considered if the TPM is required for more than 3 days.

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<![CDATA[Investigating gene-microRNA networks in atrial fibrillation patients with mitral valve regurgitation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7684 Atrial fibrillation (AF) is predicted to affect around 17.9 million individuals in Europe by 2060. The disease is associated with severe electrical and structural remodelling of the heart, and increased the risk of stroke and heart failure. In order to improve treatment and find new drug targets, the field needs to better comprehend the exact molecular mechanisms in these remodelling processes.ObjectivesThis study aims to identify gene and miRNA networks involved in the remodelling of AF hearts in AF patients with mitral valve regurgitation (MVR).MethodsTotal RNA was extracted from right atrial biopsies from patients undergoing surgery for mitral valve replacement or repair with AF and without history of AF to test for differentially expressed genes and miRNAs using RNA-sequencing and miRNA microarray. In silico predictions were used to construct a mRNA-miRNA network including differentially expressed mRNAs and miRNAs. Gene and chromosome enrichment analysis were used to identify molecular pathways and high-density AF loci.ResultsWe found 644 genes and 43 miRNAs differentially expressed in AF patients compared to controls. From these lists, we identified 905 pairs of putative miRNA-mRNA interactions, including 37 miRNAs and 295 genes. Of particular note, AF-associated miR-130b-3p, miR-338-5p and miR-208a-3p were differentially expressed in our AF tissue samples. These miRNAs are predicted regulators of several differentially expressed genes associated with cardiac conduction and fibrosis. We identified two high-density AF loci in chromosomes 14q11.2 and 6p21.3.ConclusionsAF in MVR patients is associated with down-regulation of ion channel genes and up-regulation of extracellular matrix genes. Other AF related genes are dysregulated and several are predicted to be targeted by miRNAs. Our novel miRNA-mRNA regulatory network provides new insights into the mechanisms of AF. ]]> <![CDATA[Machine learning-based mortality prediction of patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy: the SEMMELWEIS-CRT score]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfdfae2c8-4bd7-498a-a217-27426147ea00 Our aim was to develop a machine learning (ML)-based risk stratification system to predict 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year all-cause mortality from pre-implant parameters of patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).Methods and resultsMultiple ML models were trained on a retrospective database of 1510 patients undergoing CRT implantation to predict 1- to 5-year all-cause mortality. Thirty-three pre-implant clinical features were selected to train the models. The best performing model [SEMMELWEIS-CRT score (perSonalizEd assessMent of estiMatEd risk of mortaLity With machinE learnIng in patientS undergoing CRT implantation)], along with pre-existing scores (Seattle Heart Failure Model, VALID-CRT, EAARN, ScREEN, and CRT-score), was tested on an independent cohort of 158 patients. There were 805 (53%) deaths in the training cohort and 80 (51%) deaths in the test cohort during the 5-year follow-up period. Among the trained classifiers, random forest demonstrated the best performance. For the prediction of 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year mortality, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the SEMMELWEIS-CRT score were 0.768 (95% CI: 0.674–0.861; P < 0.001), 0.793 (95% CI: 0.718–0.867; P < 0.001), 0.785 (95% CI: 0.711–0.859; P < 0.001), 0.776 (95% CI: 0.703–0.849; P < 0.001), and 0.803 (95% CI: 0.733–0.872; P < 0.001), respectively. The discriminative ability of our model was superior to other evaluated scores.ConclusionThe SEMMELWEIS-CRT score (available at semmelweiscrtscore.com) exhibited good discriminative capabilities for the prediction of all-cause death in CRT patients and outperformed the already existing risk scores. By capturing the non-linear association of predictors, the utilization of ML approaches may facilitate optimal candidate selection and prognostication of patients undergoing CRT implantation. ]]> <![CDATA[Influence of the tubular network on the characteristics of calcium transients in cardiac myocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7f446290-780e-4486-a1de-95187c6060a1

Transverse and axial tubules (TATS) are an essential ingredient of the excitation-contraction machinery that allow the effective coupling of L-type Calcium Channels (LCC) and ryanodine receptors (RyR2). They form a regular network in ventricular cells, while their presence in atrial myocytes is variable regionally and among animal species We have studied the effect of variations in the TAT network using a bidomain computational model of an atrial myocyte with variable density of tubules. At each z-line the t-tubule length is obtained from an exponential distribution, with a given mean penetration length. This gives rise to a distribution of t-tubules in the cell that is characterized by the fractional area (F.A.) occupied by the t-tubules. To obtain consistent results, we average over different realizations of the same mean penetration length. To this, in some simulations we add the effect of a network of axial tubules. Then we study global properties of calcium signaling, as well as regional heterogeneities and local properties of sparks and RyR2 openings. In agreement with recent experiments in detubulated ventricular and atrial cells, we find that detubulation reduces the calcium transient and synchronization in release. However, it does not affect sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) load, so the decrease in SR calcium release is due to regional differences in Ca2+ release, that is restricted to the cell periphery in detubulated cells. Despite the decrease in release, the release gain is larger in detubulated cells, due to recruitment of orphaned RyR2s, i.e, those that are not confronting a cluster of LCCs. This probably provides a safeguard mechanism, allowing physiological values to be maintained upon small changes in the t-tubule density. Finally, we do not find any relevant change in spark properties between tubulated and detubulated cells, suggesting that the differences found in experiments could be due to differential properties of the RyR2s in the membrane and in the t-tubules, not incorporated in the present model. This work will help understand the effect of detubulation, that has been shown to occur in disease conditions such as heart failure (HF) in ventricular cells, or atrial fibrillation (AF) in atrial cells.

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<![CDATA[CHA 2 DS 2 ‐VASc Score and the Risk of Ventricular Tachyarrhythmic Events and Mortality in MADIT‐CRT]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9ba715bc-b571-457b-be63-dbbb4e68244c

Background

We hypothesized that multiple cardiovascular comorbidities, incorporated in the CHA 2 DS 2VASc score, may be useful in the assessment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTAs) and mortality risk in heart failure (HF) patients.

Methods and Results

We evaluated the association between the CHA 2 DS 2VASc score (dichotomized as high at the upper quartile [≥5] and further assessed as a continuous measure) and the risk of VTA and death among 1804 patients enrolled in MADIT‐CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy). A high CHA 2 DS 2VASc score (n=464; 26%) was inversely associated with the risk of any VTA (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.64; P=0.001), fast VTA >200 beats/min (HR; 0.51; P<0.001), and appropriate implantable cardioverter‐defibrillator shocks (HR: 0.60; P<0.001). In contrast, a high score was directly correlated with mortality risk (HR: 1.92; P<0.001) and the risk of HF or death (HR: 1.60; P<0.001). Consistently, each 1‐U increment in CHA 2 DS 2VASc was associated with a significant 13% (P=0.003) reduction in VTA risk but a corresponding 33% (P<0.001) increase in mortality risk. Patients with a high CHA 2 DS 2VASc score and left bundle‐branch block derived a pronounced 53% (P<0.001) reduction in the risk of HF or death with cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator versus implantable cardioverter‐defibrillator–only therapy.

Conclusions

Our findings suggest that a high CHA 2 DS 2VASc score can be used to identify patients with mild HF who have low VTA risk and high morbidity or mortality risk and may derive a pronounced clinical benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy without a defibrillator. These data suggest a possible role for the CHA 2 DS 2VASc score in device selection among candidates for biventricular pacing.

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<![CDATA[Renal Hydrogen Peroxide Production Prevents Salt‐Sensitive Hypertension]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N08cd4be9-1efd-4f72-b08a-95eb7cad4f97

Background

The regulation of sodium excretion is important in the pathogenesis of hypertension and salt sensitivity is predictive of cardiovascular events and mortality. C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice have different blood pressure sensitivities to salt intake. High salt intake increases blood pressure in some C57Bl/6J mouse strains but not in any BALB/c mouse strain.

Methods and Results

We determined the cause of the difference in salt sensitivity between C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice. Basal levels of superoxide and H2O2 were higher in renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) from BALB/c than C57Bl/6J mice. High salt diet increased H2O2 production in kidneys from BALB/c but C57Bl/6J mice. High sodium concentration (170 mmol/L) in the incubation medium increased H2O2 levels in BALB/c‐RPTCs but not in C57Bl/6J‐RPTCs. H2O2 (10 μmol/L) treatment decreased sodium transport in RPTCs from BALB/c but not C57Bl/6J mice. Overexpression of catalase in the mouse kidney predisposed BALB/c mice to salt‐sensitive hypertension.

Conclusions

Our data show that the level of salt‐induced H2O2 production negatively regulates RPTC sodium transport and determines the state of salt sensitivity in 2 strains of mice. High concentrations of antioxidants could prevent H2O2 production in renal proximal tubules, which would result in sodium retention and increased blood pressure.

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<![CDATA[CTRP9 Ameliorates Atrial Inflammation, Fibrosis, and Vulnerability to Atrial Fibrillation in Post‐Myocardial Infarction Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N883fd65f-902f-427f-b544-d61e6d640aa9

Background

Inflammation and fibrosis play an important role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF) after myocardial infarction (MI). CTRP9 (C1q/tumor necrosis factor‐related protein‐9) as a secreted glycoprotein can reverse left ventricle remodeling post‐MI, but its effects on MI‐induced atrial inflammation, fibrosis, and associated AF are unknown.

Methods and Results

MI model rats received adenoviral supplementation of CTRP9 (Ad‐CTRP9) by jugular‐vein injection. Cardiac function, inflammatory, and fibrotic indexes and related signaling pathways, electrophysiological properties, and AF inducibility of atria in vivo and ex vivo were detected in 3 or 7 days after MI. shCTRP9 (short hairpin CTRP9) and shRNA were injected into rat and performed similar detection at day 5 or 10. Adverse atrial inflammation and fibrosis, cardiac dysfunction were induced in both MI and Ad‐GFP (adenovirus‐encoding green fluorescent protein)+MI rats. Systemic CTRP9 treatment improved cardiac dysfunction post‐MI. CTRP9 markedly ameliorated macrophage infiltration and attenuated the inflammatory responses by downregulating interleukin‐1β and interleukin‐6, and upregulating interleukin‐10, in 3 days post‐MI; depressed left atrial fibrosis by decreasing the expressions of collagen types I and III, α‐SMA, and transforming growth factor β1 in 7 days post‐MI possibly through depressing the Toll‐like receptor 4/nuclear factor‐κB and Smad2/3 signaling pathways. Electrophysiologic recordings showed that increased AF inducibility and duration, and prolongation of interatrial conduction time induced by MI were attenuated by CTRP9; moreover, CTRP9 was negatively correlated with interleukin‐1β and AF duration. Downregulation of CTRP9 aggravated atrial inflammation, fibrosis, susceptibility of AF and prolonged interatrial conduction time, without affecting cardiac function.

Conclusions

CTRP9 is effective at attenuating atrial inflammation and fibrosis, possibly via its inhibitory effects on the Toll‐like receptor 4/nuclear factor‐κB and Smad2/3 signaling pathways, and may be an original upstream therapy for AF in early phase of MI.

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<![CDATA[Comparisons of Rivaroxaban Following Different Dosage Criteria (ROCKET AF or J‐ROCKET AF Trials) in Asian Patients With Atrial Fibrillation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N01b3eb69-6c4b-4a3b-990a-3bc228559168

Background

The ROCKET AF (Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation) evaluated rivaroxaban (20/15 mg/d) versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. A separate trial, J‐ROCKET AF (Japanese ROCKET AF), compared rivaroxaban (15/10 mg/d) and warfarin in Japanese patients with atrial fibrillation. Data about rivaroxaban following J‐ROCKET AF criteria compared with warfarin and ROCKET AF dosage were limited.

Methods and Results

This retrospective study used medical data from a multicenter healthcare provider in Taiwan that included 3162 patients taking rivaroxaban. Among 2320 patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥50 mL/min per 1.73 m2, 384 and 1936 patients followed the ROCKET AF (20 mg/d) and J‐ROCKET AF (15 mg/d) recommendation, respectively. Among 842 patients with an eGFR <50 mL/min per 1.73 m2, 422 and 420 patients followed the ROCKET AF (15 mg/d) and J‐ROCKET AF (10 mg/d) recommendation, respectively. A total of 2053 patients with atrial fibrillation receiving warfarin were identified. Rivaroxaban following either ROCKET AF or J‐ROCKET AF dosage criteria was associated with a comparable risk of thromboembolism but a lower risk of bleeding than warfarin. For patients with an eGFR ≥50 mL/min per 1.73 m2, risks of clinical events did not differ significantly between the 2 dosage criteria of rivaroxaban. For patients with an eGFR <50 mL/min per 1.73 m2, the ROCKET AF dosage was associated with a higher risk of major bleeding compared with the J‐ROCKET AF dosage (hazard ratio, 2.70; P=0.0445) without significant differences regarding the risk of ischemic events.

Conclusions

In Asian patients with atrial fibrillation, the J‐ROCKET AF dosage was as effective as the ROCKET AF dosage irrespective of renal function. The risk of major bleeding was lower with the J‐ROCKET AF dosage in patients with an eGFR <50 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Compared with warfarin, rivaroxaban following either dosage criteria was effective and even safer.

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<![CDATA[Thrombocytopenia and Mortality Risk in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: An Analysis From the START Registry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8fdae664-ef29-4cf1-a5be-8154b7e7e542

Background

Thrombocytopenia is associated with increased mortality in the general population, but few data exist in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) taking oral anticoagulants. We investigated factor determinants of thrombocytopenia in a large cohort of patients affected by AF and its association with total mortality.

Methods and Results

Multicenter prospective cohort study, including 5215 patients with AF from the START (Survey on Anticoagulated Patients Register) registry, 3877 (74.3%) and 1338 (25.7%) on vitamin K or non–vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants, respectively. Thrombocytopenia was defined by a platelet count <150×109/L. Determinants of thrombocytopenia were investigated, and all‐cause mortality was the primary survival end point of the study. Thrombocytopenia was present in 592 patients (11.4%). At multivariable logistic regression analysis, chronic kidney disease (odds ratio [OR], 1.257; P=0.030), active cancer (OR, 2.065; P=0.001), liver cirrhosis (OR, 7.635; P<0.001), and the use of diuretics (OR, 1.234; P=0.046) were positively associated with thrombocytopenia, whereas female sex (OR, 0.387; P<0.001) and the use of calcium channel blockers (OR, 0.787; P=0.032) were negatively associated. During a median follow‐up of 19.2 months (9942 patient‐years), 391 deaths occurred (rate, 3.93%/year). Mortality rate increased from 3.8%/year to 9.9%/year in patients with normal platelet count and in those with moderate‐severe thrombocytopenia, respectively (log‐rank test, P=0.009). The association between moderate‐severe thrombocytopenia and mortality persisted after adjustment for CHA 2 DS 2 VASc score (hazard ratio, 2.431; 95% CI, 1.254–4.713; P=0.009), but not in the fully adjusted multivariable Cox regression analysis model.

Conclusions

Thrombocytopenia is common in patients with AF. Despite an increased incidence of mortality, thrombocytopenia was not associated with mortality at multivariable analysis. Thrombocytopenia may reflect the presence of comorbidities associated with poor survival in AF.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence of drug–drug interaction in atrial fibrillation patients based on a large claims data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8861b373-c994-4a77-acd1-a0d16f2f19bb

This study aimed to compare and determine the prevalence of drug–drug interaction (DDI) and bleeding rate in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients receiving anticoagulants in a clinical setting. We used large claims data of AF patients obtained from the Japan Medical Data Center. The prevalence of DDIs and cases leading to bleeding events were surveyed clinically relevant DDIs extracted from 1) reported from a spontaneous adverse event reporting system (Japanese Adverse Drug Events Report system; JADER) ≥4 patients; 2) DDIs cited in the package inserts of each anticoagulant (each combination assessed according to “Drug interaction 2015” list; 3) warfarin and quinolone antibiotics DDIs. DDIs were categorized the mechanisms for pharmacokinetic DDI (Cytochrome P450 (CYP) or transporter etc. that modulate blood concentration of anticoagulants)/pharmacodynamic DDI (combination with similar pharmacological actions) or both in the analysis for each patients’ prescriptions obtained from a claims data. AF patients were compared between cases with and without bleeding after administered of anticoagulants. Bleeding was observed in 220/3290 (6.7%) AF patients. The bleeding rate in patients with both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic DDI mechanisms (26.3%) was higher than that in patients with either mechanism (8.6% and 9.2%, respectively) or without DDIs (4.9%). The odds ratio for bleeding in AF patients with both of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic was (7.18 [4.69–11.00], p<0.001). Our study concluded multi mechanism based DDIs leads serious outcome as compared to that of single mechanism based DDIs in AF patients. We determined the prevalence and frequency of bleeding for anticoagulant-related DDIs. To manage DDIs, both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic DDI mechanisms should be closely monitored for initial symptoms of bleeding within the first 3 months.

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<![CDATA[Ser96Ala genetic variant of the human histidine-rich calcium-binding protein is a genetic predictor of recurrence after catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897742d5eed0c4847d2858

Background

Atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) still remains a serious issue. Ca2+ handling has a considerable effect on AF recurrence. The histidine-rich calcium-binding protein (HRC) genetic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs3745297 (T>G, Ser96Ala), is known to cause a sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak. We investigated the association between HRC Ser96Ala and AF recurrence after RFCA in paroxysmal AF (PAF) patients.

Methods and results

We enrolled PAF patients who underwent RFCA (N = 334 for screening and N = 245 for replication) and were genotyped for HRC SNP (rs3745297). The patient age was younger and rate of diabetes and hypertension lower in the PAF patients with Ser96Ala than in those without (TT/TG/GG, 179/120/35; 64±10/60±12/59±13 y, P = 0.001; 18.5/ 9.2/8.6%, P = 0.04 and 66.1/50.0/37.1%, P = 0.001, respectively). During a mean 19 month follow-up, 57 (17.1%) patients suffered from AF recurrences. The rate of an Ser96Ala was significantly higher in patients with AF recurrence than in those without in the screening set (allele frequency model: odds ratio [OR], 1.80; P = 0.006). We also confirmed this significant association in the replication set (OR 1.74; P = 0.03) and combination (P = 0.0008). A multivariate analysis revealed that the AF duration, sinus node dysfunction, and HRC Ser96Ala were independent predictors of an AF recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04, P = 0.037; HR 2.42, P = 0.018; and HR 2.66, P = 0.007, respectively).

Conclusion

HRC SNP Ser96Ala is important as a new genetic marker of AF recurrence after RFCA.

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<![CDATA[High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T as an independent predictor of stroke in patients admitted to an emergency department with atrial fibrillation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75acd5eed0c4843cffc2

Aims

Elevated levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hsTnT) are associated with adverse outcomes in numerous patient populations. Their value in prediction of stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is in debate.

Methods

The study population included 2898 consecutive patients presenting with AF to the emergency department of the Department of Cardiology, Heidelberg University Hospital. Associations between hsTnT and stroke risk were assessed using multivariable Cox regression.

Results

Elevated hsTnT levels (>14 ng/L) were associated with increased risk of stroke. Even after adjustment for various risk factors, elevated hsTnT remained independently associated with stroke risk in patients with AF, adjusted hazard ratio 2.35 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26–4.36] (P = 0.007). These results were consistent across important subgroups (age, renal function, ejection fraction, CHA2DS2-VASc score and main admission diagnosis). For hsTnT, area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.659 [95% CI: 0.575–0.742], compared to 0.610 [95% CI: 0.526–0.694] for the CHA2DS2-VASc score. Inclusion of hsTnT in the multivariable model for stroke risk prediction consisting of all variables of the CHA2DS2-VASc score was associated with a significant improvement of its discriminatory power.

Conclusion

Elevated hsTnT levels are significantly associated with higher risk of stroke and provide prognostic information independent of CHA2DS2-VASc score variables. Measurement of hsTnT may improve prediction of stroke risk in patients presenting to an emergency department with AF as compared to risk stratification based only on clinical variables.

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<![CDATA[Rivaroxaban administration after acute ischemic stroke: The RELAXED study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca1cd5eed0c48452a7cf

The efficacy of early anticoagulation in acute stroke with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) remains unclear. We performed a study to evaluate the risk of recurrent ischemic stroke (IS) and major bleeding in acute IS patients with NVAF who started rivaroxaban. This observational study evaluated patients with NVAF and acute IS/transient ischemic attack (TIA) in the middle cerebral arterial territory who started rivaroxaban within 30 days after the index IS/TIA. The primary endpoints were recurrent IS and major bleeding within 90 days after the index IS/TIA. The relationship between the endpoints and the time to start rivaroxaban was evaluated by correlation analysis using cerebral infarct volume, determined by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images within 48 hours of onset of the index IS/TIA. Of 1309 patients analyzed, recurrent IS occurred in 30 (2.3%) and major bleeding in 11 (0.8%) patients. Among patients with known infarct size (N = 1207), those with small (<4.0 cm3), medium (≥4.0 and <22.5 cm3), and large (≥22.5 cm3) infarcts started rivaroxaban a median of 2.9, 2.9, and 5.8 days, respectively, after the index IS/TIA. Recurrent IS was significantly less frequent when starting rivaroxaban ≤14 days versus ≥15 days after IS (2.0% versus 6.8%, P = 0.0034). Incidences of recurrent IS and major bleeding in whom rivaroxaban was started <3 days (N = 584) after IS were also low: 1.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Initiation of rivaroxaban administration in acute IS or TIA was associated with a low recurrence of IS (2.3%), and a low incidence of major bleeding events (0.8%) for 90 days after the index stroke. For the prevention of recurrent attacks in acute IS patients with NVAF, it is feasible to start the administration of rivaroxaban within 14 days of onset. Rivaroxaban started within 3 days of onset may be a feasible treatment option for patients with a small or medium-sized infarction.

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<![CDATA[The association between heat stroke and subsequent cardiovascular diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca36d5eed0c48452a8d5

Background

Recent studies have indicated that several critical illnesses are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Nonetheless, studies of the association between heat-related illnesses (HRIs) and subsequent CVDs are still limited. We sought to evaluate whether heat stroke (HS) was associated with an increased CVD incidence.

Methods

The data from the nationwide, population-based, retrospective, cohort study described herein were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The outcome evaluated in this study was the cumulative incidence of CVDs, which was compared between patients with HS, patients with other HRIs and a control group during a 14-year follow-up period.

Results

Our analyses included 150 HS cases, 150 patients with other HRIs and 150 patients without HRIs. The HS patients had a significantly higher incidence of developing CVDs than the other HRI and control patients (32.67% vs. 23.33% vs. 16.67%, p = 0.005). Patients with HS had an increased incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared with that of the controls (6% vs. 2.67%, p = 0.042) and an increased incidence of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) compared with those of the other HRI and control patients (12% vs. 6% vs. 4.67%, p = 0.038). An increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was also found in the patients with HS and other HRIs compared to that in the controls (17.33% vs. 14.67% vs. 6.67%, p = 0.016).

Conclusion

Prior HS was associated with an increased incidence of CVDs, particularly AMI and AIS, and an increased incidence of CKD.

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<![CDATA[Quality of INR control and switching to non-Vitamin K oral anticoagulants between women and men with atrial fibrillation treated with Vitamin K Antagonists in Spain. A population-based, real-world study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75bad5eed0c4843d0092

Background

Worldwide, there is growing evidence that quality of international normalized ratio (INR) control in atrial fibrillation patients treated with Vitamin K Antagonists (VKA) is suboptimal. However, sex disparities in population-based real-world settings have been scarcely studied, as well as patterns of switching to second-line Non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOAC). We aimed to assess the quality of INR control in atrial fibrillation patients treated with VKA in the region of Valencia, Spain, for the whole population and differencing by sex, and to identify factors associated with poor control. We also quantified switching to Non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOAC) and we identified factors associated to switching.

Methods

This is a cross-sectional, population-based study. Information was obtained through linking different regional electronic databases. Outcome measures were Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR) and percentage of INR determinations in range (PINRR) in 2015, and percentage of switching to NOAC in 2016, for the whole population and stratified by sex.

Results

We included 22,629 patients, 50.4% were women. Mean TTR was 62.3% for women and 63.7% for men, and PINNR was 58.3% for women and 60.1% for men (p<0.001). Considering the TTR<65% threshold, 53% of women and 49.3% of men had poor anticoagulation control (p<0.001). Women, long-term users antiplatelet users, and patients with comorbidities, visits to Emergency Department and use of alcohol were more likely to present poor INR control. 5.4% of poorly controlled patients during 2015 switched to a NOAC throughout 2016, with no sex differences.

Conclusion

The quality of INR control of all AF patients treated with VKA in 2015 in our Southern European region was suboptimal, and women were at a higher risk of poor INR control. This reflects sex disparities in care, and programs for improving the quality of oral anticoagulation should incorporate the gender perspective. Clinical inertia may be lying behind the observed low rates of switching in patient with poor INR control.

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<![CDATA[Treatment with mononuclear cell populations improves post-infarction cardiac function but does not reduce arrhythmia susceptibility]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f1496d5eed0c48467a361

Background

Clinical and experimental data give evidence that transplantation of stem and progenitor cells in myocardial infarction could be beneficial, although the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. Ventricular tachyarrhythmia is the most frequent and potentially lethal complication of myocardial infarction, but the impact of mono nuclear cells on the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia is still not clear.

Objective

We aimed to characterize the influence of splenic mononuclear cell populations on ventricular arrhythmia after myocardial infarction.

Methods

We assessed electrical vulnerability in vivo in mice with left ventricular cryoinfarction 14 days after injury and intramyocardial injection of specific subpopulations of mononuclear cells (MNCs) (CD11b-positive cells, Sca-1-positive cells, early endothelial progenitor cells (eEPCs)). As positive control group we used embryonic cardiomyocytes (eCMs). Epicardial mapping was performed for analysing conduction velocities in the border zone. Left ventricular function was quantified by echocardiography and left heart catheterization.

Results

In vivo pacing protocols induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) in 30% of non-infarcted mice. In contrast, monomorphic or polymorphic VT could be evoked in 94% of infarcted and vehicle-injected mice (p<0.01). Only transplantation of eCMs prevented post-infarction VT and improved conduction velocities in the border zone in accordance to increased expression of connexin 43. Cryoinfarction resulted in a broad aggravation of left ventricular function. All transplanted cell types augmented left ventricular function to a similar extent.

Conclusions

Transplantation of different MNC populations after myocardial infarction improves left ventricular function similar to effects of eCMs. Prevention of inducible ventricular arrhythmia is only seen after transplantation of eCMs.

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<![CDATA[The association of CHA2DS2-VASc score and carotid plaque in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c673079d5eed0c484f37bb6

Objective

The aim of this study was to assess the association between CHA2DS2-VASc score and carotid plaques in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF).

Methods

We conducted a retrospective study including 3,435 NVAF patients who underwent carotid ultrasound examinations from January 2015 to December 2017.We collected the clinical data on the medical records system. Chi-square trend test was used to analyze trends between the prevalence of carotid plaques with an increasing CHA2DS2-VASc score. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was also used to assess the association between carotid plaques and CHA2DS2-VASc scores. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to determine the optimal cutoff points of different CHA2DS2-VASc scores in NVAF patients.

Results

NVAF patients with carotid plaques had higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores compared with patients who did not have carotid plaques (3.01±1.36 vs. 2.55±1.28, P < 0.05). In all participants, male participants and female participants, the prevalence of carotid plaques increased significantly as the CHA2DS2-VASc score increased (P for trend < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that for each 1-point increase in the CHA2DS2-VASc score, there was an associated 37% increase in the prevalence of carotid plaques. ROC curve analysis revealed that a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥ 2 in male patients (sensitivity, 44.67%; specificity, 75.64%; AUC, 0.639) or ≥ 3 in female patients (sensitivity, 47.24%; specificity, 72.40%; AUC, 0.634) were associated with carotid plaques.

Conclusion

The prevalence of carotid plaques in patients with NVAF was associated with the CHA2DS2-VASc score.

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<![CDATA[Isolated diastolic potentials as predictors of success in ablation of right ventricular outflow tract idiopathic premature ventricular contractions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648cdbd5eed0c484c8196e

Background and aims

Discrete potentials, low voltage and fragmented electrograms, have been previously reported at ablation site, in patients with premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) originating in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). The aim of this study was to review the electrograms at ablation site and assess the presence of diastolic potentials and their association with success.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed the electrograms obtained at the radiofrequency (RF) delivery sites of 48 patients subjected to ablation of RVOT frequent PVCs. We assessed the duration and amplitude of local electrogram, local activation time, and presence of diastolic potentials and fragmented electrograms.

Results

We reviewed 134 electrograms, median 2 (1–4) per patient. Success was achieved in 40 patients (83%). At successful sites the local activation time was earlier– 54 (-35 to -77) ms vs -26 (-12 to -35) ms, p<0.0001; the local electrogram had lower amplitude 1 (0.45–1.15) vs 1.5 (0.5–2.1) mV, p = 0.006, and longer duration 106 (80–154) vs 74 (60–90) ms, p<0.0001. Diastolic potentials and fragmented electrograms were more frequently present, respectively 76% vs 9%, p <0.0001 and 54% vs 11%, p<0.0001. In univariable analysis these variables were all associated with success. In multivariable analysis only the presence of diastolic potentials [OR 15.5 (95% CI: 3.92–61.2; p<0.0001)], and the value of local activation time [OR 1.11 (95% CI: 1.049–1.172 p<0.0001)], were significantly associated with success.

Conclusion

In this group of patients the presence of diastolic potentials at the ablation site was associated with success.

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<![CDATA[Prognostic role of early D-dimer level in patients with acute ischemic stroke]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df327d5eed0c484580dc4

Object

The purpose of our study was to assess the prognostic role of early D-dimer level in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS).

Methods

The included patients’ D-dimer levels have to be tested within 24 hours from stroke onset. Poor functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) ≥3. The endpoints included recurrence on 5-day diffusion-weighted imaging, 30-day mRS ≥3, 30-day mortality and 90-day mRS ≥3. Regarding to each endpoint, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the prognostic role of D-dimer in patients with AIS.

Results

A total of 2,479 patients were included. The results showed that elevated D-dimer levels were associated with recurrence on 5-day diffusion-weighted imaging (OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.32–3.95), 30-day mRS≥3 (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.37–1.85), 30-day mortality (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.27–2.90) and 90-day mRS≥3 (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.05–2.46).

Conclusions

In conclusion, for patients with AIS, higher D-dimer level within 24 hours from stroke onset was associated with recurrence on 5-day diffusion-weighted imaging, mortality at 30 days, and poor functional outcome at both 30 days and 90 days. However, more studies are warranted to clarify this issue.

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<![CDATA[Dose-response relationship between very vigorous physical activity and cardiovascular health assessed by heart rate variability in adults: Cross-sectional results from the EPIMOV study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2c1d5eed0c48441ea3d

The minimum amount of physical activity needed to obtain health benefits has been widely determined. Unlikely, the impact of extreme amounts of very vigorous physical activity (VVPA, ≥ 8 metabolic equivalents) to the heart remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate the dose-response relationship between VVPA and heart rate variability (HRV) in adults. We selected 1040 asymptomatic individuals (60% women, 42 ± 15 years, 28 ± 6 kg/m2) from the Epidemiology and Human Movement Study (EPIMOV). Participants remained in the supine position for 10 min, and we selected an intermediate 5-min window for HRV analysis. The standard deviation of the RR intervals, root mean square of RR intervals, successive RR intervals that differ > 50 ms, powers of the low-and high-frequency bands and Poincaré plot standard deviations were quantified. Participants used a triaxial accelerometer (Actigraph GT3x+) above the dominant hip for 4–7 consecutive days for quantifying their physical activity. We also evaluated the maximum oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) during an exercise test. We stratified participants into five groups according to the VVPA in min/week (group 1, ≤ 1.50; 2, 1.51–3.16; 3, 3.17–3.54; 4, 3.55–20.75; and 5, > 20.75). The linear trends of the HRV through the quintiles of VVPA were investigated. We used logarithmic transformations to compare the five groups adjusted for age, sex, cardiovascular risk, and V˙O2max. We found a better HRV with increased VVPA for all HRV indices studied (p trend < 0.05). However, group 5 did not differ from group 4 (p > 0.05) for none of the indices. We conclude that there is an incremental benefit of VVPA on HRV of asymptomatic adults. Since we found neither additional benefits nor the harmful impact of amounts of VVPA as high as 22 min/week on HRV, our results should not discourage asymptomatic adults to perform VVPA.

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