ResearchPad - arthritis https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Canine hip dysplasia screening: Comparison of early evaluation to final grading in 231 dogs with Fédération Cynologique Internationale A and B]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15741 This study aimed to verify if a significant difference exists between parameters in the early evaluation of normal and near-normal hip joints, to evaluate the influence of age and breed on the parameters, and to clarify the usefulness of a total score for differentiating between Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) grade A and B hips.MethodsA total of 231 dogs were classified according to whether they had FCI A or B hips at adulthood, with measurements obtained at 14–28 weeks of age. The total score was calculated by the summation of the following quantitative parameters: angle of subluxation (AS), angle of reduction (AR), laxity index (LI), and dorsal acetabular rim slope (DARS). Logistic regression analysis was performed to establish the probability of the study population to develop an FCI B hip based on the total score. This was repeated for the highest score in combination with the worst-rated hip and once more for breeds.ResultsNo correlation between age and the parameters was found in the cohort, or for FCI A and B. The values of all the parameters were significantly lower in the FCI A group than in the FCI B group (AR: 4.42° ± 6.0° vs 7.62° ± 7.2°; AS: 0.45° ± 1.9° vs 1.55° ± 3.8°; LI: 0.32 ± 0.1 vs 0.36 ± 0.1; DARS: 3.30° ± 1.8° vs 3.77° ± 1.9°; TS: 11.47 ± 8.3 vs 16.65 ± 10.9). Labrador Retrievers and Golden Retrievers showed significant differences between parameters for both FCI grades. The range, where FCI A and B hips can be predicted on the basis of the total score, was different when assessed for the entire cohort, Labrador Retrievers, and Golden Retrievers.Clinical significanceOur results show that even in normal and near-normal hips, the parameters significantly differed in the early evaluation. Moreover, cutoff values should be set for different breeds in the prediction of the FCI grade during early evaluation for a better breeding selection regarding canine hip dysplasia, one of the most common orthopedic diseases among large and giant breed dogs. ]]> <![CDATA[B Cell Synovitis and Clinical Phenotypes in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Relationship to Disease Stages and Drug Exposure]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7008 To define the relationship of synovial B cells to clinical phenotypes at different stages of disease evolution and drug exposure in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).MethodsSynovial biopsy specimens and demographic and clinical data were collected from 2 RA cohorts (n = 329), one of patients with untreated early RA (n = 165) and one of patients with established RA with an inadequate response to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi‐IR; n = 164). Synovial tissue was subjected to hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining and semiquantitative assessment for the degree of synovitis (on a scale of 0–9) and of CD20+ B cell infiltrate (on a scale of 0–4). B cell scores were validated by digital image analysis and B cell lineage–specific transcript analysis (RNA‐Seq) in the early RA (n = 91) and TNFi‐IR (n = 127) cohorts. Semiquantitative CD20 scores were used to classify patients as B cell rich (≥2) or B cell poor (<2).ResultsSemiquantitative B cell scores correlated with digital image analysis quantitative measurements and B cell lineage–specific transcripts. B cell–rich synovitis was present in 35% of patients in the early RA cohort and 47.7% of patients in the TNFi‐IR cohort (P = 0.025). B cell–rich patients showed higher levels of disease activity and seropositivity for rheumatoid factor and anti–citrullinated protein antibody in early RA but not in established RA, while significantly higher histologic synovitis scores in B cell–rich patients were demonstrated in both cohorts.ConclusionWe describe a robust semiquantitative histologic B cell score that closely replicates the quantification of B cells by digital or molecular analyses. Our findings indicate an ongoing B cell–rich synovitis, which does not seem to be captured by standard clinimetric assessment, in a larger proportion of patients with established RA than early RA. ]]> <![CDATA[Reduction of osteoarthritis severity in the temporomandibular joint of rabbits treated with chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N10336f10-2066-4958-9182-9e228dac929f

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease that causes substantial changes in joint tissues, such as cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone sclerosis. Chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine are commonly used products for the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of these products when used as structure-modifying drugs on the progression of osteoarthritis in the rabbit temporomandibular joint. Thirty-six New Zealand rabbits were divided into 3 groups (n = 12/group): control (no disease); osteoarthritis (disease induction); and treatment (disease induction and administration of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine). Osteoarthritis was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate. Animals were killed at 30 and 90 days after initiation of therapy. The treatment was effective in reducing disease severity, with late effects and changes in the concentration of glycosaminoglycans in the articular disc. The results indicate that chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine may have a structure-modifying effect on the tissues of rabbit temporomandibular joints altered by osteoarthritis.

]]>
<![CDATA[Arthritis Caused by MRSA CC398 in a Patient without Animal Contact, Japan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8e6ed9d7-c305-43e8-ae97-5a9dae8002ed

Clonal complex 398 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a typical lineage of livestock-associated MRSA. We report a case of intractable arthritis of the shoulder joint caused by a multidrug-resistant Panton-Valentine leukocidin–positive livestock-associated MRSA clonal complex 398 sequence type 1232 clone in a patient in Japan who had no animal contact.

]]>
<![CDATA[Assessment of the Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) in psoriatic arthritis: association with disease activity and quality of life indices]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N34232ae1-e261-47ff-86cc-02af18b7ac0d

Objective

The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminant capability of the Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) according to disease activity, remission/low disease activity indices and quality of life indices in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA).

Methods

Consecutive patients with PsA were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. At each visit, the patients underwent a complete physical examination and their clinical/laboratory data were collected. Disease activity was assessed using the Disease Activity Score for Psoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA) and remission/low disease activity using the DAPSA minimal disease activity (MDA) and very low disease activity (VLDA) criteria. The Psoriatic Arthritis Impact of Disease (PsAID) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index scores were also collected. Finally, PASS was assessed by asking all patients to answer yes or no to a single question.

Results

Patients who answered yes to PASS showed a significantly better overall mean DAPSA score than those who were not in PASS. Furthermore, patients in PASS showed a significantly lower level of systemic inflammation, lower Leeds Enthesitis Index score, a significantly lower impact of disease (PsAID), lower pain and better function than patients who answered no to PASS. A moderate to good agreement was found between PASS, MDA, DAPSA low disease activity and PsAID score ≤4. Good sensitivity and specificity were found with PASS with respect to DAPSA low disease activity, and although PASS is sensitive in the identification of patients with MDA, DAPSA remission and VLDA it lacks of specificity.

Discussion

This study showed that PASS might be used as an alternative to determine disease activity in patients with PsA in real clinical practice, mainly in patients with low disease activity according to DAPSA criteria.

]]>
<![CDATA[Early non-response to certolizumab pegol in rheumatoid arthritis predicts failure to achieve low disease activity at 1 year: data from a prospective observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd38eff5b-c3c8-49e2-929f-bc42c19cc9d1

Objective

To evaluate the performance of clinical criteria for predicting late treatment failure in patients with early non-response to certolizumab pegol (CZP).

Methods

A protocol-specified analysis of interim data from ECLAIR, a 3-year longitudinal, prospective, observational, multicentre study of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) initiating CZP treatment in France, was conducted. Clinical measures assessed were Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), Disease Activity Score-28 with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28(ESR)) and Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI). Early non-response was measured at 3 months (M3) and failure to achieve low disease activity (LDA) at 12 months (M12).

Results

574/792 enrolled patients were treated at M3. The numbers available for predictability analyses were 532 (CDAI), 434 (DAS28(ESR)) and 496 (HAQ-DI). Of the three indices evaluated, the highest predictor of non-response value was observed for the CDAI (88.8% (95% CI 81.0 to 94.1)), indicating that up to 88% of patients identified as non-responders at M3 failed to achieve LDA at M12, regardless of baseline disease severity or treatment history. The specificity for this measure was also very high (96.0%), indicating that less than 5% of patients who achieved CDAI response at M12 had not responded at M3. Similar predictability was observed for DAS28(ESR), but only in patients with high disease activity at baseline and/or those previously treated by a biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug.

Conclusion

CDAI non-response at M3 is a predictor of failure to achieve the therapeutic target of LDA at M12 in patients with RA initiating treatment with CZP.

]]>
<![CDATA[Pathogenesis of ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart diseases in rheumatoid arthritis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2e6a96da-6035-4029-882b-82308000dc92

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterised by a chronic inflammatory condition of the joints, but the comorbidities of RA predominantly contribute to the reduced lifespan associated with this disease. Clinical data indicate that cardiovascular disease is the major comorbidity associated with mortality in RA. In this review, we aimed to describe the pathogenesis of heart failure in RA. First, we emphasised the fundamental differences between ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart diseases and referred to their relevance in excessive cardiovascular-dependent mortality in RA. Second, we highlighted aspects of asymptomatic changes in cardiac tissue and in coronary blood vessels that are commonly found in patients with diagnosed RA. Third, we focused on high-grade systemic inflammation as a key trigger of ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart diseases in RA, and described the implication of conventional and biologic antirheumatic medications on the development and progression of heart disease. In particular, we discussed the roles of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and anti-TNF-α therapies on the development and progression of ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart diseases in RA.

]]>
<![CDATA[pyKNEEr: An image analysis workflow for open and reproducible research on femoral knee cartilage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0686bd46-1746-4f66-8610-270f1b75b482

Transparent research in musculoskeletal imaging is fundamental to reliably investigate diseases such as knee osteoarthritis (OA), a chronic disease impairing femoral knee cartilage. To study cartilage degeneration, researchers have developed algorithms to segment femoral knee cartilage from magnetic resonance (MR) images and to measure cartilage morphology and relaxometry. The majority of these algorithms are not publicly available or require advanced programming skills to be compiled and run. However, to accelerate discoveries and findings, it is crucial to have open and reproducible workflows. We present pyKNEEr, a framework for open and reproducible research on femoral knee cartilage from MR images. pyKNEEr is written in python, uses Jupyter notebook as a user interface, and is available on GitHub with a GNU GPLv3 license. It is composed of three modules: 1) image preprocessing to standardize spatial and intensity characteristics; 2) femoral knee cartilage segmentation for intersubject, multimodal, and longitudinal acquisitions; and 3) analysis of cartilage morphology and relaxometry. Each module contains one or more Jupyter notebooks with narrative, code, visualizations, and dependencies to reproduce computational environments. pyKNEEr facilitates transparent image-based research of femoral knee cartilage because of its ease of installation and use, and its versatility for publication and sharing among researchers. Finally, due to its modular structure, pyKNEEr favors code extension and algorithm comparison. We tested our reproducible workflows with experiments that also constitute an example of transparent research with pyKNEEr, and we compared pyKNEEr performances to existing algorithms in literature review visualizations. We provide links to executed notebooks and executable environments for immediate reproducibility of our findings.

]]>
<![CDATA[NFIL3 mutations alter immune homeostasis and sensitise for arthritis pathology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9bc275d5eed0c484ee3f0b

Objectives

NFIL3 is a key immunological transcription factor, with knockout mice studies identifying functional roles in multiple immune cell types. Despite the importance of NFIL3, little is known about its function in humans.

Methods

Here, we characterised a kindred of two monozygotic twin girls with juvenile idiopathic arthritis at the genetic and immunological level, using whole exome sequencing, single cell sequencing and flow cytometry. Parallel studies were performed in a mouse model.

Results

The patients inherited a novel p.M170I in NFIL3 from each of the parents. The mutant form of NFIL3 demonstrated reduced stability in vitro. The potential contribution of this mutation to arthritis susceptibility was demonstrated through a preclinical model, where Nfil3-deficient mice upregulated IL-1β production, with more severe arthritis symptoms on disease induction. Single cell sequencing of patient blood quantified the transcriptional dysfunctions present across the peripheral immune system, converging on IL-1β as a pivotal cytokine.

Conclusions

NFIL3 mutation can sensitise for arthritis development, in mice and humans, and rewires the innate immune system for IL-1β over-production.

]]>
<![CDATA[A novel nonsense variant in SUPT20H gene associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis identified by Whole Exome Sequencing of multiplex families]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8acceed5eed0c48499036b

The triggering and development of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is conditioned by environmental and genetic factors. Despite the identification of more than one hundred genetic variants associated with the disease, not all the cases can be explained. Here, we performed Whole Exome Sequencing in 9 multiplex families (N = 30) to identify rare variants susceptible to play a role in the disease pathogenesis. We pre-selected 77 genes which carried rare variants with a complete segregation with RA in the studied families. Follow-up linkage and association analyses with pVAAST highlighted significant RA association of 43 genes (p-value < 0.05 after 106 permutations) and pinpointed their most likely causal variant. We re-sequenced the 10 most significant likely causal variants (p-value ≤ 3.78*10−3 after 106 permutations) in the extended pedigrees and 9 additional multiplex families (N = 110). Only one SNV in SUPT20H: c.73A>T (p.Lys25*), presented a complete segregation with RA in an extended pedigree with early-onset cases. In summary, we identified in this study a new variant associated with RA in SUPT20H gene. This gene belongs to several biological pathways like macro-autophagy and monocyte/macrophage differentiation, which contribute to RA pathogenesis. In addition, these results showed that analyzing rare variants using a family-based approach is a strategy that allows to identify RA risk loci, even with a small dataset.

]]>
<![CDATA[Low dose naltrexone: Effects on medication in rheumatoid and seropositive arthritis. A nationwide register-based controlled quasi-experimental before-after study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f14fad5eed0c48467abf4

In recent years, low dose naltrexone (LDN) has been used as an off-label therapy for several chronic diseases. Results from small laboratory and clinical studies indicate some beneficial effects of LDN in autoimmune diseases, but clinical research on LDN in rheumatic disease is limited. Using a pharmacoepidemiological approach, we wanted to test the hypothesis that starting LDN leads to reduced dispensing of medicines used in the treatment of rheumatic disease. We performed a controlled before-after study based on the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD) to compare prescriptions to patients one year before and one year after starting LDN in 2013. The identified patients (n = 360) were stratified into three groups based on LDN exposure. Outcomes were differences in dispensing of medicines used in rheumatic disease. In persistent LDN users, there was a 13% relative reduction in cumulative defined daily doses (DDD) of all medicines examined corresponding to -73.3 DDD per patient (95% CI -120,2 to -26.4, p = 0.003), and 23% reduction of analgesics (-21.6 DDD (95% CI -35.5 to -7.6, p<0.009)). There was no significant DDD change in patients with lower LDN exposure. Persistent LDN users had significantly reduced DDDs of NSAID and opioids, and a lower proportion of users of DMARDs (-6.7 percentage points, 95% CI -12.3 to-1.0, p = 0.028), TNF-α antagonists and opioids. There was a decrease in the number of NSAID users among patients with the least LDN exposure. Important limitations are that prescription data are proxies for clinical effects and that a control group unexposed to LDN is lacking. The results support the hypothesis that persistent use of LDN reduces the need for medication used in the treatment of rheumatic and seropositive arthritis. Randomised clinical trials on LDN in rheumatic disease are warranted.

]]>
<![CDATA[Epigenome-wide analysis of sperm cells identifies IL22 as a possible germ line risk locus for psoriatic arthritis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac57d5eed0c484d085ff

Psoriasis and its associated inflammatory arthritis, psoriatic arthritis (PsA), have a clear heritable component, but a large proportion of the heritable risk remains unexplained by gene sequence variation. This study aimed to determine if epigenetic factors contribute to the missing heritability in psoriatic disease. DNA methylation profiling was performed on sperm cells from 23 probands with psoriasis without PsA (PsC), 13 PsA probands, and 18 unaffected controls. Differentially methylated CpGs and regions (DMRs) were identified and validated by pyrosequencing. Underlying AluY and copy number variation (CNV) in the HCG26 and IL22 genes, respectively, were assessed by genotyping. Array, subject’s age, age of psoriasis onset, psoriasis severity, and medication usage were found to influence methylation at many genes and were included as covariates in the analysis. Between PsC probands vs. controls, 169 DMRs were found; 754 DMRs were found between PsA probands vs. controls, and 86 between PsA and PsC probands (adjusted p<0.05). Differences in methylation across DMRs were generally subtle (<10%) but correlated well with pyrosequencing. Biological inference prioritized notable DMRs associated with skin disease (SIGLEC14, JAM3, PCOLCE, RXRB), skin and/or joint disease (MBP, OSBPL5, SNORD115, HCG26), and joint disease (IL22, ELF5, PPP2R2D, PTPRN2, HCG26). Hypermethylation of the DMR within the first exon of arthritis-associated IL22 showed significant correlation (rho = 0.34, 95% CI 0.06–0.57, p = 0.01) between paired sperm and blood samples, independent of a CNV within the same region. Further studies are needed to rule out underlying genetic causes and determine if these represent heritable, constitutional epimutations, or are the result of exposure of germ cells to endogenous or exogenous environmental factors.

]]>
<![CDATA[Associations between antenatal prednisone exposure and long-term cortisol and cortisone concentrations in children born to women with rheumatoid arthritis: results from a nationwide prospective cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8ad95dd5eed0c4849a0e6d

Objectives

To identify whether children with antenatal prednisone exposure have chronically elevated cortisol and cortisone concentrations, an altered body composition or higher blood pressure. In addition, to identify whether maternal rheumatoid arthritis disease (RA) activity is associated with these alterations.

Methods

In this prospective study, 56 children (mean age=10.0 years) with and 61 children (mean age=9.6 years) without antenatal prednisone exposure, born to women with RA, were included. Hair cortisol and cortisone were analysed using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Linear regression models were built to analyse differences between the two groups, corrected for relevant covariates. Hair cortisol concentrations were also compared between the study population and an age-matched healthy reference group(n=150 children, mean age=9.8 years).

Results

Hair cortisol and cortisone concentrations were similar in children with and without antenatal prednisone exposure (median cortisol 1.14 pg/mg (IQR 0.67–1.75) and 1.15 pg/mg (IQR 0.65–2.21) and median cortisone 6.76 pg/mg (IQR 5.42–8.86) and 7.40 pg/mg (IQR 5.39–10.73), respectively). Antenatal prednisone exposure and maternal RA disease activity were also not associated with body composition or blood pressure. Hair cortisol concentrations were not different in children born to mothers with RA compared with children from the reference group.

Conclusion

This, in its kind, large and unique long-term prospective study demonstrates that low-dose antenatal prednisone exposure and maternal RA disease activity are not associated with negative consequences in prepubertal childhood. The findings of this study are reassuring and support the assumption that low-dose maternal prednisone use during pregnancy is safe for the offspring, at least until the age of approximately 10 years.

]]>
<![CDATA[TIM family gene polymorphism and susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis: Systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c65dcedd5eed0c484dec596

Background

TIM-family proteins are expressed on different immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, type 1 and 2 T helper (Th) cells. Therefore, they have the ability to contribute to the various intracellular signals and immune responses, importantly the regulation of Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation, which plays a remarked role in fight against inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Association of TIM family gene polymorphisms with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been frequently investigated. The findings however are not entirely consistent. Therefore, we carried out the present meta-analysis to examine the association between RA and the following TIM family gene polymorphisms: rs41297579, rs1036199, rs10515746, and rs7700944.

Methods

A systematic search of Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science databases was conducted through December 2018. Combined odds ratios (OR) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated under different possible genetic models.

Results

A total of eight case-control studies were included in the present meta-analysis. The results demonstrated significant association of RA with TIM-3 rs1036199 polymorphism under dominant (OR, 1.93, 95% CI, 1.43–2.61) and allelic models (OR, 1.74, 95% CI, 1.31–2.30). None of the other examined polymorphisms indicated significant association with RA.

Conclusions

The present meta-analysis revealed that the TIM-3 rs1036199 polymorphism might confer susceptibility to RA. Further studies are required to reassert our findings.

]]>
<![CDATA[Effects of B-cell directed therapy on the preclinical stage of rheumatoid arthritis: the PRAIRI study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c82b29bd5eed0c484e5a12c

Objectives

We explored the effects of B-cell directed therapy in subjects at risk of developing autoantibodypositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA), who never experienced inflammatory arthritis before, and explored biomarkers predictive of arthritis development.

Methods

Individuals positive for both anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid factor but without arthritis were included in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to receive a single infusion of 1000 mg rituximab or placebo.

Results

Eighty-one individuals received treatment and were followed up for a mean of 29.0 (0–54) months, during which 30/81 (37%) individuals developed arthritis. The observed risk of developing arthritis in the placebo-treated group was 40%, which was decreased by 55% (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.154 to 1.322) in the rituximab-treated group at 12 months. Rituximab treatment caused a delay in arthritis development of 12 months compared with placebo treatment at the point when 25% of the subjects had developed arthritis (p<0.0001). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the presence of anti-citrullinated α-enolase peptide 1 at baseline were significant predictors of arthritis development.

Conclusions

A single infusion of 1000 mg rituximab significantly delays the development of arthritis in subjects at risk of developing RA, providing evidence for the pathogenetic role of B cells in the earliest, prearthritis stage of autoantibody positive RA.

]]>
<![CDATA[Targeting early changes in the synovial microenvironment: a new class of immunomodulatory therapy?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c82b2ebd5eed0c484e5a84a

Objectives

Controlled immune responses rely on integrated crosstalk between cells and their microenvironment. We investigated whether targeting proinflammatory signals from the extracellular matrix that persist during pathological inflammation provides a viable strategy to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods

Monoclonal antibodies recognising the fibrinogen-like globe (FBG) of tenascin-C were generated by phage display. Clones that neutralised FBG activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), without impacting pathogenic TLR4 activation, were epitope mapped by crystallography. Antibodies stained synovial biopsies of patients at different stages of RA development. Antibody efficacy in preventing RA synovial cell cytokine release, and in modulating collagen-induced arthritis in rats, was assessed.

Results

Tenascin-C is expressed early in the development of RA, even before disease diagnosis, with higher levels in the joints of people with synovitis who eventually developed RA than in people whose synovitis spontaneously resolved. Anti-FBG antibodies inhibited cytokine release by RA synovial cells and prevented disease progression and tissue destruction during collagen-induced arthritis.

Conclusions

Early changes in the synovial microenvironment contribute to RA progression; blocking proinflammatory signals from the matrix can ameliorate experimental arthritis. These data highlight a new drug class that could offer early, disease-specific immune modulation in RA, without engendering global immune suppression.

]]>
<![CDATA[Dose reduction of baricitinib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis achieving sustained disease control: results of a prospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c82b2c8d5eed0c484e5a4fe

Objectives

This study investigated the effects of dose step-down in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who achieved sustained disease control with baricitinib 4 mg once a day.

Methods

Patients who completed a baricitinib phase 3 study could enter a long-term extension (LTE). In the LTE, patients who received baricitinib 4 mg for ≥15 months and maintained CDAI low disease activity (LDA) or remission (REM) were blindly randomised to continue 4 mg or taper to 2 mg. Patients could rescue (to 4 mg) if needed. Efficacy and safety were assessed through 48 weeks.

Results

Patients in both groups maintained LDA (80% 4 mg; 67% 2 mg) or REM (40% 4 mg; 33% 2 mg) over 48 weeks. However, dose reduction resulted in small, statistically significant increases in disease activity at 12, 24 and 48 weeks. Dose reduction also produced earlier and more frequent relapse (loss of step-down criteria) over 48 weeks compared with 4 mg maintenance (23% 4 mg vs 37% 2 mg, p=0.001). Rescue rates were 10% for baricitinib 4 mg and 18% for baricitinib 2 mg. Dose reduction was associated with a numerically lower rate of non-serious infections (30.6 for baricitinib 4 mg vs 24.9 for 2 mg). Rates of serious adverse events and adverse events leading to discontinuation were similar across groups.

Conclusions

In a large randomised, blinded phase 3 study, maintenance of RA control following induction of sustained LDA/REM with baricitinib 4 mg was greater with continued 4 mg than after taper to 2 mg. Nonetheless, most patients tapered to 2 mg could maintain LDA/REM or recapture with return to 4 mg if needed.

]]>
<![CDATA[Short-term risk of major adverse cardiovascular events or congestive heart failure in patients with psoriatic arthritis or psoriasis initiating a biological therapy: a meta–analysis of randomised controlled trials]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c82b252d5eed0c484e59a4f

Objective

The objective was to investigate the short-term risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) or congestive heart failure (CHF) in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) or psoriasis initiating a biological therapy.

Methods

Screening for the study was carried out using MEDLINE, Cochrane and Embase, from the inception of the database to December 2017. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF), anti-interleukin (IL)12/23, anti-IL23 and anti-IL17 agents for the treatment of PsA or psoriasis were included. Two investigators independently extracted MACEs or CHF data reported during the placebo-controlled phase. The primary outcome measures were the incidence of MACEs or CHF.

Results

Of 753 references screened, 62 articles were selected, and 12 articles were added by manual searches. Accordingly 77 RCTs were included in the meta-analysis (MA) (10 174 patient-years (P-Y)). No significant difference was observed in MACE incidences in patients receiving anti-TNF, anti-IL12/23, anti-IL23 or anti-IL17 agents in comparison to the placebo. However, 10 MACEs were observed in the anti-IL12/23 group (1150 P-Y) compared with 1 in the placebo group (652 P-Y), with 0.01 −0.00 to 0.02 event/P-Y risk difference, which is not statistically significant. This trend was not observed in the anti-IL23 group. No significant difference was observed in CHF incidence in patients receiving biological agents in comparison to placebo.

Conclusion

This MA of 77 RCTs did not reveal any significant change in the short-term risk of MACE or CHF in patients with PsA or psoriasis initiating a biological therapy.

]]>
<![CDATA[Systems biology reveals how altered TGFβ signalling with age reduces protection against pro-inflammatory stimuli]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536b3fd5eed0c484a4846b

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative condition caused by dysregulation of multiple molecular signalling pathways. Such dysregulation results in damage to cartilage, a smooth and protective tissue that enables low friction articulation of synovial joints. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially MMP-13, are key enzymes in the cleavage of type II collagen which is a vital component for cartilage integrity. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) can protect against pro-inflammatory cytokine-mediated MMP expression. With age there is a change in the ratio of two TGFβ type I receptors (Alk1/Alk5), a shift that results in TGFβ losing its protective role in cartilage homeostasis. Instead, TGFβ promotes cartilage degradation which correlates with the spontaneous development of OA in murine models. However, the mechanism by which TGFβ protects against pro-inflammatory responses and how this changes with age has not been extensively studied. As TGFβ signalling is complex, we used systems biology to combine experimental and computational outputs to examine how the system changes with age. Experiments showed that the repressive effect of TGFβ on chondrocytes treated with a pro-inflammatory stimulus required Alk5. Computational modelling revealed two independent mechanisms were needed to explain the crosstalk between TGFβ and pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. A novel meta-analysis of microarray data from OA patient tissue was used to create a Cytoscape network representative of human OA and revealed the importance of inflammation. Combining the modelled genes with the microarray network provided a global overview into the crosstalk between the different signalling pathways involved in OA development. Our results provide further insights into the mechanisms that cause TGFβ signalling to change from a protective to a detrimental pathway in cartilage with ageing. Moreover, such a systems biology approach may enable restoration of the protective role of TGFβ as a potential therapy to prevent age-related loss of cartilage and the development of OA.

]]>
<![CDATA[Which osteoarthritic gait features recover following total knee replacement surgery?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c79afe0d5eed0c4841e38ee

Background

Gait analysis can be used to measure variations in joint function in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), and is useful when observing longitudinal biomechanical changes following Total Knee Replacement (TKR) surgery. The Cardiff Classifier is an objective classification tool applied previously to examine the extent of biomechanical recovery following TKR. In this study, it is further developed to reveal the salient features that contribute to recovery towards healthy function.

Methods

Gait analysis was performed on 30 patients before and after TKR surgery, and 30 healthy controls. Median TKR follow-up time was 13 months. The combined application of principal component analysis (PCA) and the Cardiff Classifier defined 18 biomechanical features that discriminated OA from healthy gait. Statistical analysis tested whether these features were affected by TKR surgery and, if so, whether they recovered to values found for the controls.

Results

The Cardiff Classifier successfully discriminated between OA and healthy gait in all 60 cases. Of the 18 discriminatory features, only six (33%) were significantly affected by surgery, including features in all three planes of the ground reaction force (p<0.001), ankle dorsiflexion moment (p<0.001), hip adduction moment (p = 0.003), and transverse hip angle (p = 0.007). All but two (89%) of these features remained significantly different to those of the control group after surgery.

Conclusions

This approach was able to discriminate gait biomechanics associated with knee OA. The ground reaction force provided the strongest discriminatory features. Despite increased gait velocity and improvements in self-reported pain and function, which would normally be clinical indicators of recovery, the majority of features were not affected by TKR surgery. This TKR cohort retained pre-operative gait patterns; reduced sagittal hip and knee moments, decreased knee flexion, increased hip flexion, and reduced hip adduction. The changes that were associated with surgery were predominantly found at the ankle and hip, rather than at the knee.

]]>