ResearchPad - artigo-original https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Health belief model for coronavirus infection risk determinants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7772 To use the advantages of a ratio scale with verbal anchors in order to measure the risk perception in the novel coronavirus infection, which causes covid-19, in a health belief model-based questionnaire, as well as its validity and reproducibility.METHODWe used the health belief model, which explores four dimensions: perceived susceptibility (five questions), perceived severity (five questions), perceived benefits (five questions), and perceived barriers (five questions). Additionally, we included a fifth dimension, called pro-health motivation (four questions). The questions composed an electronic questionnaire disseminated by social networks for an one-week period. Answers were quantitative values of subjective representations, obtained by a psychophysically constructed scale with verbal anchors ratio (CentiMax ® ). Mean time for total filling was 12 minutes (standard deviation = 1.6).RESULTSWe obtained 277 complete responses to the form. One was excluded because it belonged to a participant under 18 years old. Reproducibility measures were significant for 22 of the 24 questions in our questionnaire (Cronbach’s α = 0.883). Convergent validity was attested by Spearman-Brown’s split half reliability coefficient (r = 0.882). Significant differences among groups were more intense in perceived susceptibility and severity dimensions, and less in perceived benefits and barriers.CONCLUSIONOur health belief model-based questionnaire using quantitative measures enabled the confirmation of popular beliefs about covid-19 infection risks. The advantage in our approach lays in the possibility of quickly, directly and quantitatively identifying individual belief profiles for each dimension in the questionnaire, serving as a great ally for communication processes and public health education. ]]> <![CDATA[Regulatory T cells isolated from endometriotic peritoneal fluid express a different number of Toll-like receptors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3f2ad6c3-20b6-48a6-a1a3-d6a6bfbf4b4f

ABSTRACT

Objective

To analyze and compare the expression of Toll-like receptors by regulatory T cells present in the peritoneal fluid of patients with and without endometriosis.

Methods

Regulatory T cells were isolated from peritoneal fluid of women with and without endometriosis, collected during surgery, and mRNA was extracted for analysis of Toll-like receptors expression by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.

Results

Patients with endometriosis presented regulatory T cells expressing a larger number and variety of Toll-like receptors when compared to regulatory T cells from patients in the Control Group. Toll-like receptor-1 and Toll-like receptor-2 in regulatory T cells were expressed in both groups. All other expressed Toll-like receptors types were only found in regulatory T cells from the Endometriosis Group.

Conclusion

Patients with endometriosis had peritoneal regulatory T cells expressing various Toll-like receptors types.

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<![CDATA[OM-85 BV for primary prevention of recurrent airway infections: a pilot randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfd612c9b-cdc5-42bb-99b4-452b16dca217

ABSTRACT

Objective

To compare the frequency of respiratory tract infections in children treated with OM-85 BV and placebo during the 3-month therapy period, and observation for a further 3 months after treatment.

Methods

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 54 children (6 months to 5 years old) with no past history of recurrent respiratory infections attending daycare center. Family members were instructed to administer one capsule per day for 10 consecutive days, for 3 months of OM-85 BV or placebo. Telephone interviews were conducted every 30 days.

Results

There was no significant difference in the number of respiratory infections between the groups. The mean number of respiratory tract infection in the OM-85 BV Group in the first 3 months was 0.92±0.87, and in the Placebo Group was 0.74±1.02, and at 6 months it was 1.62±1.47 and 1.03±1.34, respectively.

Conclusion

OM-85 BV was not effective in the primary prevention of respiratory tract infections. Although most authors recommend the use of this immunostimulant in children with a history of recurrent respiratory infections, more studies are needed to define its usefulness in the primary prevention of respiratory infections in healthy children exposed to few risk factors.

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<![CDATA[Practices related to assessment of sedation, analgesia and delirium among critical care pediatricians in Brazil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb1f54583-69c8-463d-8fca-103d4de3a593

ABSTRACT

Objective

To understand the use of tools, protocols and comfort measures related to sedation/analgesia, and to screen the occurrence of delirium in pediatric intensive care units.

Methods

A survey with 14 questions was distributed by e-mail to Brazilian critical care pediatricians. Eight questions addressed physician and hospital demographics, and six inquired practices to assess sedation, analgesia, and delirium in pediatric intensive care units.

Results

Of 373 questionnaires sent, 61 were answered (16.3%). The majority of physicians were practicing in the Southeast region (57.2%). Of these, 46.5% worked at public hospitals, 28.6% of which under direct state administration. Of respondents, 57.1% used formal protocols for sedation and analgesia, and the Ramsay scale was the most frequently employed (52.5%). Delirium screening scores were not used by 48.2% of physicians. The Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium was the score most often used (23.2%). The majority (85.7%) of physicians did not practice daily sedation interruption, and only 23.2% used non-pharmacological measures for patient comfort frequently, with varied participation of parents in the process.

Conclusion

This study highlights the heterogeneity of practices for assessment of sedation/analgesia and lack of detection of delirium among critical care pediatricians in Brazil.

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<![CDATA[Classificação pós-tratamento para lesões condrais acetabulares na artroscopia de quadril]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N71ba4ee1-6277-4819-b336-96321039bf5f

Objective  To describe a postarthroscopic treatment classification system for acetabular chondral damage in the hip and to report the intraobserver and interobserver reliability of such classification.

Methods  This is a retrospective review of ninety-nine digital video recordings made during arthroscopic surgery. Patients who underwent arthroscopic treatment for femoroacetabular impingement and evaluated at the hip arthroscopy outpatient clinic between March 2015 and March 2016 were included in the study. Patients with a history of previous hip surgery, radiologic evidence of advanced osteoarthritis (Tönnis grade > 2), who underwent labral resection, or whose digital recordings were incomplete or of insufficient quality for adequate review were excluded. Two orthopedic surgeons, who did not participate in the surgery, independently reviewed the video recordings and classified the remaining acetabular cartilage using the post-treatment classification system. Intraobserver and interobserver analysis was then conducted using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).

Results  Excellent intraobserver reliability (ICC = 0.790; p  < 0.001) and interobserver reliability (ICC = 0.882; p  < 0.001) were observed. Both ICC values were statistically significant.

Conclusion  The posttreatment classification of the remaining acetabular cartilage has excellent intra and interobserver reliability.

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<![CDATA[Anatomical study of the brachial plexus in human fetuses and its relation with neonatal upper limb paralysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na2ddd740-4131-4d6f-9570-a4fc355c00da

ABSTRACT

Objective

To study the anatomy of the brachial plexus in fetuses and to evaluate differences in morphology during evolution, or to find anatomical situations that can be identified as the cause of obstetric paralysis.

Methods

Nine fetuses (12 to 30 weeks of gestation) stored in formalin were used. The supraclavicular and infraclavicular parts of the brachial plexus were dissected.

Results

In its early course, the brachial plexus had a cord-like shape when it passed through the scalene hiatus. Origin of the phrenic nerve in the brachial plexus was observed in only one fetus. In the deep infraclavicular and retropectoralis minor spaces, the nerve fibers of the brachial plexus were distributed in the axilla and medial bicipital groove, where they formed the nerve endings.

Conclusion

The brachial plexus of human fetuses presents variations and relations with anatomical structures that must be considered during clinical and surgical procedures for neonatal paralysis of the upper limbs.

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<![CDATA[Efficacy of a behavior change program on cardiovascular parameters in patients with hypertension: a randomized controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N53873a69-8d20-44f1-aac5-faa99ae2e4b6

ABSTRACT

Objective

To investigate the efficacy of a behavior change program named Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde on cardiovascular parameters in hypertensive patients.

Methods

Ninety hypertensive patients aged over 40 years were randomly allocated to one of two groups: Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde or Control (n=45 respectively). Patients in the Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde group took part in a behavior change program aimed to encourage changes in physical activity levels and eating habits, according to the Social Cognitive Theory. The program consisted of 90-minute weekly group meetings conducted by a physical therapist and a dietitian. One chapter of the educational material (workbook) provided was discussed per meeting. Participants in the Control Group attended a single educative lecture on lifestyle changes. Brachial and central blood pressure, arterial stiffness and endothelial function parameters were measured pre- and post-intervention.

Results

Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde led to reduction of brachial (131.3±15.8mmHg to 125.1±17.3mmHg; p<0.01) and central (123.6±16.3mmHg to 119.0±20.6mmHg; p=0.02) systolic and brachial diastolic (123.6±16.3mmHg to 119.0±20.6mmHg; p<0.01) blood pressure values, and improvement of post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (from 5.7±2.5mL·100mL−1 to 6.5±2.1mL·100mL−1 tissue·min−1; p=0.04). No changes in body composition, heart rate and arterial stiffness parameters were detected in both groups (p>0.05).

Conclusion

Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde program improved blood pressure and microvascular reactivity in hypertensive patients. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02257268

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<![CDATA[Prostate volume measurement by multiparametric magnetic resonance and transrectal ultrasound: comparison with surgical specimen weight]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbaf6d26b-de2e-4266-b2fc-edfebaba4c96

ABSTRACT

Objective

To assess accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance of the prostate to estimate gland volume, comparing the results with transrectal ultrasound and surgical specimen.

Methods

A retrospective study of 85 patients who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance and transrectal ultrasound (for fusion image-guided biopsy) before radical prostatectomy. Prostate measurements were obtained from magnetic resonance axial and sagittal T2-weighted images and ultrasound; the prostate volume was determined using the ellipsoid formula. The results were compared with the surgical specimen weight. Maximum interval between multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, transrectal ultrasound, and prostatectomy was 6 months.

Results

The prostate volume measured by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was 18-157cm3 (mean of 49.9cm3) and by transrectal ultrasound, 22-165cm3 (mean of 54.9cm3); the surgical specimen weight was 20-154g (mean of 48.6g), with no statistical differences. Based on the values obtained from imaging examinations, the prostate volume obtained was very close to the real prostatic weight, and the measures by multiparametric magnetic resonance were slightly more precise.

Conclusion

Prostate volume measured by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound showed similar values, and excellent agreement with real prostate weight of the surgical specimens. Prostate volume measured by magnetic resonance has been increasingly used in the clinical practice, and its value enables appropriate therapeutic planning and control of patients.

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<![CDATA[Comparison between enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence for detection of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Neaa569bf-c378-44a4-a029-63acb1a55fae

ABSTRACT

Objective

To evaluate the performance of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence methods for the detection of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in a routine clinical laboratory setting.

Methods

A total of 227 samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with antigen specificity for antiproteinase 3 and antimyeloperoxidase. The proportions of positive samples were compared by McNemar hypotheses and agreement was described by Cohen’s Kappa coefficient.

Results

The agreement of the tests was 96.5%, and the Kappa coefficient obtained was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.50-0.90; p<0.001). Considering indirect immunofluorescence as the gold standard, the sensitivity of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was 0.62 and the specificity was 0.99, with diagnostic accuracy in 96% of cases. Some samples were negative in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and positive in indirect immunofluorescence. This situation occurred in all immunofluorescence patterns, but particularly in atypical patterns. Two samples with antiproteinase 3 positivity were considered negative in indirect immunofluorescence.

Conclusion

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay had high specificity but lower sensitivity. The performance of indirect immunofluorescence increases diagnostic sensitivity, while the search for antiproteinase 3 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay may also add diagnostic power.

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<![CDATA[Linguistic and cultural adaptation to the Portuguese language of antimicrobial dose adjustment software]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd6af0043-3407-41ac-88ec-201e507c8418

ABSTRACT

Objective

To adapt an antibiotic dose adjustment software initially developed in English, to Portuguese and to the Brazilian context.

Methods

This was an observational, descriptive study in which the Delphi method was used to establish consensus among specialists from different health areas, with questions addressing the visual and operational aspects of the software. In a second stage, a pilot experimental study was performed with the random comparison of patients for evaluation and adaptation of the software in the real environment of an intensive care unit, where it was compared between patients who used the standardized dose of piperacillin/tazobactam, and those who used an individualized dose adjusted through the software Individually Designed and Optimized Dosing Strategies.

Results

Twelve professionals participated in the first round, whose suggestions were forwarded to the software developer for adjustments, and subsequently submitted to the second round. Eight specialists participated in the second round. Indexes of 80% and 90% of concordance were obtained between the judges, characterizing uniformity in the suggestions. Thus, there was modification in the layout of the software for linguistic and cultural adequacy, minimizing errors of understanding and contradictions. In the second stage, 21 patients were included, and there were no differences between doses of piperacillin in the standard dose and adjusted dose Groups.

Conclusion

The adapted version of the software is safe and reliable for its use in Brazil.

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<![CDATA[Myelodysplastic syndrome: validation of flow cytometry multilineage score system]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N34323b82-aa59-4ac1-a92d-0dfd0853936d

ABSTRACT

Objective

To validate multilineage score system correlating results of flow cytometry, cytogenetics, cytomorphology and histology from samples of patients with suspected myelodysplastic syndrome or cytopenia of unknown origin.

Methods

A retrospective study analyzing laboratory data of 49 patients with suspected myelodysplastic syndrome or cytopenia of unknown origin, carried out between May and September 2017. The inclusion criteria were availability of flow cytometry results, and at least one more method, such as morphology, histology or cytogenetics. Thirty-eight patients were classified as diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes, whereas 11 were classified as normal. Patients were evaluated based on score systems, Ogata score and flow cytometry multilineage score.

Results

Comparing the scores obtained in the Ogata score and the multilineage score, it was observed that in four cases the Ogata score was zero or 1 point, while the multilineage score was higher than 3 points. In addition, in 12 cases with Ogata score of 2, the multilineage score was greater than 3.

Conclusion

The flow cytometry multilineage score system demonstrated to be more effective in dysplasia analysis, by assessing the erythroid, monocytic, granulocytic and precursor cell lineages, apart from the parameters evaluated by the Ogata score.

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<![CDATA[Exposure to secondhand smoke among patients with asthma: a cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd31ebae3-4137-4413-8fe4-61865f4963eb

ABSTRACT

Objective

To estimate the frequency of secondhand smoke exposure among patients with asthma.

Methods

A cross-sectional study of asthma patients and non-asthmatic controls using questionnaires to identify secondhand smoke exposure at home, school, work, and public places.

Results

We studied 544 severe asthma patients, 452 mild/moderate asthma patients, and 454 non-asthmatic patients. Among severe patients, the mean age was 51.9 years, 444 (81.6%) were female, 74 (13.6%) were living with a smoker, 383 (71.9%) reported exposure in public spaces and, of the 242 (44.5%) who worked/ studied, 46 (19.1%) reported occupational exposure. Among those with mild/moderate asthma, the mean age was 36.8 years, 351 (77.7%) were female, 50 (11.1%) reported living with a smoker, 381 (84.9%) reported exposure in public settings and, of the 330 (73.0%) who worked/ studied, 58 (17.7%) reported occupational exposure. An association between secondhand smoke exposure and disease control was found among patients with mild/moderate asthma. Among those interviewed, 71% of severe asthma patients and 63% of mild/moderate asthma patients avoided certain places due to fear of secondhand smoke exposure.

Conclusion

Secondhand smoke exposure is a situation frequently reported by a significant proportion of asthma patients. Individuals with asthma are exposed to this agent, which can hamper disease control, exacerbate symptoms and pose unacceptable limitations to their right to come and go in public settings.

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<![CDATA[Profile of patients with hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus from Primary Healthcare units]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb67cdb90-44d0-4883-800c-43ddbc8a3bbf

ABSTRACT

Objective

To analyze the characteristics of patients with hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus from Primary Healthcare units.

Methods

This is a retrospective study, with data collected from December 2014 of patients with hypertension and/or diabetes from 13 Primary Healthcare units located in the Southern region of Sao Paulo (SP, Brazil). Patients were compared by sex, diagnosis and cardiovascular risk using student t test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and χ2 tests.

Results

We evaluated 28,496 patients aged 20 years to 79 years (mean of 57.8 years). Most of patients were women (63.2%) and aged 50 years old or older (74.2%). The participation in the Programa Remédio em Casa (Medicine at Home Program) was higher among women (12.7%), and the proportions of hypertension, diabetes and both diseases were 68.0%, 7.9% and 24.1%, respectively. Patients with hypertension and diabetes had higher participation in Medicine at Home Program (13.3%), and those with diabetes only had higher participation in Programa de Automonitoramento Glicêmico (Self-Monitoring Glucose Program) (20.0%). The proportions of low, moderate, and high cardiovascular risk were 33.0%, 15.5%, and 51.5%, respectively.

Conclusion

The sample of this study consisted of patients who were mostly women, aged 50 years or older and diagnosed with hypertension. Almost a quarter of patients also had diabetes and approximately one third and half of them were classified as low and high cardiovascular risk.

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<![CDATA[Structure and practices in hospitals of the Apice ON Project: a baseline study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0c983bf9-b042-4e7a-be77-fab64d9d5271

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE

To describe some characteristics of the 97 teaching hospitals participating in the Projeto de Aprimoramento e Inovação no Cuidado e Ensino em Obstetrícia e Neonatologia (Apice ON—Project for Improvement and Innovation in Care and Teaching in Obstetrics and Neonatology).

METHODS

The semester prior to the beginning of the program was adopted as the baseline to evaluate the subsequent structural and processes changes of this project. Secondary data from the first half of 2017 were extracted from the National Registry of Health Establishments (NRHE), the Hospital Information System and the Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC—Live Birth Information System).

RESULTS

Before the implementation of the project, only 66% of the hospitals had a Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative, only 3% offered special accommodations for high-risk pregnant women, mothers and their newborns, and 45.4% hospitals adopted the skin-to-skin contact; 97% hospitals had separate rooms for pre-labor and vaginal delivery (93%), not following the recommendations of the Ministry of Health; nine hospitals (9%) had no rooming-in; there were few obstetrics nurses (less than 1% of professionals enrolled in the NRHE), and in only six hospitals the proportion of births assisted by this professional was above 50% of vaginal deliveries, while in eight this percentage ranged between 15% and 50%; the average cesarean section rate was 42%, ranging between 37.6% (Southeast) and 49.1% (Northeast); ten hospitals did not charge for companions according to inpatient hospital authorization.

CONCLUSION

The study strengthens the relevance of the Apice ON project as an inducer of change of the care model in teaching hospitals and, therefore, as a strategy for the implementation of the national public policy represented by the Stork Network.

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<![CDATA[AGRASS Questionnaire: Assessment of Risk Management in Health Care]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7596a7ba-1db5-47cf-aebd-a210c7dd6211

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE

This study aims to assess the development and the validity analysis of the Assessment of Risk Management in Health Care Questionnaire (AGRASS).

METHODS

This is a validation study of a measurement instrument following the stages: 1) Development of conceptual model and items; 2) Formal multidisciplinary assessment; 3) Nominal group for validity analysis with national specialists; 4) Development of software and national pilot study in 62 Brazilian hospitals 5) Delphi for validity analysis with the users of the questionnaire. In stages 3 and 5, the items were judged based on face validity, content validity, and utility and viability, by a 1-7 Likert scale (cut-off point: median < 6). Accuracy and reliability of the questionnaire were analyzed with the Confirmatory Factor Analysis and the Cronbach’s alpha.

RESULTS

The initial version of the instrument (98 items) was adapted during stages 1 to 3 for the final version with 40 items, which were considered relevant, of adequate content, useful, and viable. The instrument has 2 dimensions and 9 subdimensions, and the items have closed-ended questions (yes or no). The software for the automatic collection and analysis generates indicators, tables, and automatic graphs for the assessed institution and aggregated data. The adjustment indices confirmed a bi-dimensional model composed of structure and process (X2/gl = 1.070, RMSEA ≤ 0.05 = 0.847, TLI = 0.972), with high reliability for the AGRASS Questionnaire (α = 0.94) and process dimension (α = 0.93), and adequate for the structural dimension (α = 0.70).

CONCLUSIONS

The AGRASS Questionnaire is a potentially useful instrument for the surveillance and monitoring of the risk management and patient safety in health services.

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<![CDATA[Assessment of Primary Health Care for rural workers exposed to pesticides]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1bbd63e5-c589-4ee6-859f-2a97c0bca26d

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the attributes of Primary Health Care (PHC) for rural workers; to analyze sociodemographic conditions, history of poisoning and hospitalizations for pesticides and use of personal protective equipment; and to verify exposure to pesticides by determining bioindicators.

METHODS

Cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study with a sample of 1,027 rural workers living in municipalities belonging to a regional health department in Southern Minas Gerais, whose PHC is governed by the Family Health Strategy model. We used the adult version of the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool Brazil) and a structured questionnaire to collect socioeconomic data, history of poisoning and hospitalization for pesticides and use of personal protective equipment. Blood samples were collected to measure biomarkers of pesticide exposure and signs of renal and hepatic sequelae.

RESULTS

Low education was prevalent, as well as the intense contact of workers with pesticides. Frequent use of personal protective equipment was higher among men, as was the history of poisoning and hospitalizations for pesticides. Rates of 20% poisoning, 15% liver disease and 2% nephropathy were detected. Signs of hepatotoxicity were more frequent in men. Gender differences were all statistically significant. Regarding PHC, only the attribute “degree of affiliation” had a high score. None of the poisoning cases detected in the study were previously diagnosed.

CONCLUSIONS

Despite the high coverage of the Family Health Strategy, occupational risk and its consequences have not been detected by health services, which do not seem oriented to primary care, even lacking their essential attributes. There is a need for immediate and effective adaptation of public policies regarding the health of rural workers, with adequate training of teams and review of the portfolio of PHC services offered.

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<![CDATA[Illegal commercial promotion of products competing with breastfeeding]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N191118d3-3da5-46a0-bbac-10558eed8634

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE

To assess if the commercialization of infant formulas, baby bottles, bottle nipples, pacifiers and nipple protectors is performed in compliance with the Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes e Crianças de Primeira Infância e de Produtos de Puericultura Correlatos (NBCAL – Brazilian Code of Marketing of Infant and Toddlers Food and Childcare-related products). The commercial promotion of these products is prohibited by the Law 11,265.

METHOD

Cross-sectional study conducted in 2017 through a census of all pharmacies, supermarkets and department stores that sold products covered by NBCAL in the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro. Health professionals trained at NBCAL used structured electronic form for direct observation of establishments and for interviews with their managers. We created indicators to evaluate commercial practices and performed descriptive analyses.

RESULTS

A total of 352 commercial establishments were evaluated: 240 pharmacies, 88 supermarkets and 24 department stores, of which 88% sold products whose promotion is prohibited by NBCAL. Illegal commercial promotions were found in 20.3% of the establishments that sold the products we investigated: 52 pharmacies (21.9%), four supermarkets (7.5%) and seven department stores (33.3%). The most frequent commercial promotion strategies were discounts (13.2%) and special exposures (9.3%). The products with the highest prevalence of infractions of NBCAL were infant formulas (16.0%). We interviewed 309 managers of commercial establishments; 50.8% reported unfamiliarity with the law. More than three-quarters of the managers reported having been visited at the establishments by commercial representatives of companies that produce infant formulas.

CONCLUSION

More than a fifth of commercial establishments promoted infant formulas, baby bottles and nipples, although this practice has been banned in Brazil for thirty years. We think it is necessary to train those managers. Government agencies must monitor commercial establishments in order to inhibit strategies of persuasion and induction to sales of these products, ensuring mothers’ autonomy in the decision on the feeding of their children.

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<![CDATA[Feeding practices of low birth weight Brazilian infants and associated factors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb0eb2846-d8b0-4ae7-99f5-49683c2cf3c2

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE

To characterize complementary feeding and to analyze the influence of individual and contextual factors on dietary practices of low birth weight infants.

METHODS

This cross-sectional study included 2,370 low birth weight infants aged 6 to 12 months included in the Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey in Brazilian Municipalities (2008), which covered the 26 state capitals, the Federal District and 37 municipalities. Dietary practices were assessed using two indicators: I) dietary diversity, characterized by the consumption of five food groups: meat, beans, vegetables, fruit and milk; II) consumption of ultra-processed foods, characterized by the ingestion of at least one of the following foods on the day prior to the survey: soda, or processed juice, or cookie, cracker and crisps. The covariates of interest were the socioeconomic characteristics of infants, mothers and health services. The contextual factor was the “municipal prevalence of child undernutrition.” The individualized effect of the study factors on outcomes was assessed by multilevel Poisson regression.

RESULTS

Approximately 59% of infants consumed ultra-processed foods, while 29% had diverse feeding. Mothers living in municipalities with child undernutrition prevalence below 10%, with higher education and working outside the home were more likely to offer dietary diversity. Consumption of ultra-processed foods was higher among infants living in municipalities with child undernutrition prevalence below 10%, whose mothers were younger and multiparous.

CONCLUSIONS

The low prevalence of diverse feeding combined with the high prevalence of ultra-processed food consumption characterizes the low quality of feeding of low birth weight Brazilian infants. Individual and contextual factors impact the feeding quality of this population, suggesting the need for effective strategies to increase the consumption of fresh and minimally processed foods and decrease the consumption of ultra-processed foods by this vulnerable population.

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<![CDATA[Desigualdades na tendência da sífilis congênita no município de Niterói, Brasil, 2007 a 2016]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2a540bc9-8163-4f20-9354-dbffa12b83c6

RESUMO

Objetivo.

Descrever a distribuição temporal e as características epidemiológicas da sífilis congênita (SC) em Niterói, Sudeste do Brasil, de 2007 a 2016.

Métodos.

Este estudo descritivo de série temporal da incidência de SC utilizou os dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) e do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC). A amostra incluiu todos os casos notificados. Além disso, foi realizado um relacionamento probabilístico entre SINAN e SINASC para recuperar informações ignoradas. A série temporal foi estimada por regressão logarítmica, de acordo com variáveis sociodemográficas e de pré-natal.

Resultados.

Identificaram-se 754 casos de SC no período estudado (incidência média de 11,9 casos/1 000 nascidos vivos). A incidência foi mais elevada em jovens (10 a 19 anos; 20 a 24 anos), participantes de cor preta e naquelas com baixa escolaridade e sem pré-natal. Do total de mulheres, apenas 57,6% obtiveram o diagnóstico de sífilis durante o pré-natal. O tratamento foi inadequado em 87,7% das mulheres. Apenas 12,2% dos parceiros foram tratados. Houve tendência crescente do agravo (16%/ano), que atingiu 23,2 casos/1 000 nascidos vivos em 2016. O crescimento foi mais acentuado em adolescentes do sexo feminino (25,2%/ano), raça/cor parda (16,8%/ano), indivíduos com baixa escolaridade (57,1%/ano) e mulheres que realizaram pré-natal (17,3%/ano); e, no período de 2012 a 2016, em mulheres com informação ignorada para a cor da pele.

Conclusões.

As iniquidades sociais se destacaram na ocorrência de SC, com incidência crescente em jovens. É necessária a capacitação dos profissionais de saúde para o manejo da sífilis gestacional e uma atuação efetiva das políticas públicas sobre os determinantes sociais da sífilis.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of comprehensive care for older adults in primary care services]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na848de94-2749-4aae-9203-2b94ac43ad3c

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the performance of comprehensive care for older adults in primary care services in the Brazilian Unified Health System in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

METHODS

A total of 157 primary care services from five health regions in midwestern São Paulo responded, from October to December 2014, the pre-validated 2014 questionnaire for primary care services assessment and monitoring. We selected 155 questions, based on national policies and guidelines on this theme. The responses indicate the service performance in older adults’ care, clustered into three areas of analysis: health care for active and healthy aging (45 indicators, d1), chronic noncommunicable diseases care (89 indicators, d2), and support network in aging care (21 indicators, d3). Performance was measured by the sum of positive (value 1) or negative (value 0) responses for each indicator. Services were clustered according to k-means of the performance scores of each domain. After weighting the domains (Z tests), we estimated the associations between the scores of each domain and independent management variables (typology, planning and evaluation of services), with simple and multiple linear regression.

RESULTS

Chronic noncommunicable diseases care (d2) showed, for all clusters, better average performance (55.7) than domains d1 (35.4) and d3 (39.2). Service performance in the general area of planning and evaluation associates with the performance of older adults’ care.

CONCLUSIONS

The evaluated services had incipient implementation of comprehensive care for older adults. The evaluation framework can contribute to processes to improve the quality of primary health care.

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