ResearchPad - astronomy https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Accretion of a large LL parent planetesimal from a recently formed chondrule population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15363 Chondritic meteorites, derived from asteroidal parent bodies and composed of millimeter-sized chondrules, record the early stages of planetary assembly. Yet, the initial planetesimal size distribution and the duration of delay, if any, between chondrule formation and chondrite parent body accretion remain disputed. We use Pb-phosphate thermochronology with planetesimal-scale thermal models to constrain the minimum size of the LL ordinary chondrite parent body and its initial allotment of heat-producing 26Al. Bulk phosphate 207Pb/206Pb dates of LL chondrites record a total duration of cooling ≥75 Ma, with an isothermal interior that cools over ≥30 Ma. Since the duration of conductive cooling scales with parent body size, these data require a ≥150-km radius parent body and a range of bulk initial 26Al/27Al consistent with the initial 26Al/27Al ratios of constituent LL chondrules. The concordance suggests that rapid accretion of a large LL parent asteroid occurred shortly after a major chondrule-forming episode.

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<![CDATA[Time-shifted mean-segmented Q data of a luminal protein measured at the nuclear envelope by fluorescence fluctuation microscopy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Neca5a1a2-ba48-4017-9225-4a59d78b05fc

Fluorescence fluctuation microscopy is a widely used method to determine the mobility and oligomeric state of proteins in the live cell environment. Existing analysis methods rely on statistical evaluation of data segments with the implicit assumption that no significant signal fluctuations occur on the time scale of a data segment. Recent work on extending fluorescence fluctuation methods to the nuclear envelope of living cells identified a slow fluctuation process that is associated with the undulations of the nuclear membranes, which lead to intensity fluctuations due to local volume changes at the nuclear envelope. This environment violates the above-mentioned assumption and is associated with biased evaluation of fluorescence fluctuation data by traditional analysis methods, such as the autocorrelation function. This challenge was overcome by the introduction of the time-shifted mean-segmented Q function, which relies on a sliding scale of data segment lengths. Here, we share experimental fluorescence fluctuation data taken at the nuclear envelope and demonstrate the calculation of the time-shifted mean-segmented Q function from the raw data. The data and analysis should be valuable for researchers interested in fluorescence fluctuation techniques and provides an opportunity to examine the influence of slow fluctuations on existing data analysis methods. The data is related to the research article titled “Protein oligomerization and mobility within the nuclear envelope evaluated by the time-shifted mean-segmented Q factor” [1].

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<![CDATA[Magnetar formation through a convective dynamo in protoneutron stars]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd6ed9a02-1747-4417-8b80-60c2a2a3e064

Strong field dynamos can explain magnetar formation consistently with the millisecond magnetar model for extreme explosions.

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<![CDATA[Develop a high energy proton beam position monitor using linear contact image sensor]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4c188277-5eef-48cf-88a8-0f95f1f3e80e

## Graphical abstract

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<![CDATA[The Moonâs farside shallow subsurface structure unveiled by ChangâE-4 Lunar Penetrating Radar]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3094324e-e44f-4e31-882f-9d963833ea37

The complex stratigraphic structure of the Moon's farside imaged for the first time using subsurface radar.

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<![CDATA[The birth of a coronal mass ejection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ca26276d5eed0c4846ddeef

Tiny plasmoids merge on the Sun and snowball into a stellar-sized eruption.

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<![CDATA[Solar Sources of Interplanetary Magnetic Clouds Leading to Helicity Prediction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c756547d5eed0c484cbd8e6

## Abstract

This study identifies the solar origins of magnetic clouds that are observed at 1 AU and predicts the helical handedness of these clouds from the solar surface magnetic fields. We started with the magnetic clouds listed by the Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) team supporting NASA's Wind spacecraft in what is known as the MFI table and worked backward in time to identify solar events that produced these clouds. Our methods utilize magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft so that we could only analyze MFI entries after the beginning of 2011. This start date and the end date of the MFI table gave us 37 cases to study. Of these we were able to associate only eight surface events with clouds detected by Wind at 1 AU. We developed a simple algorithm for predicting the cloud helicity that gave the correct handedness in all eight cases. The algorithm is based on the conceptual model that an ejected flux tube has two magnetic origination points at the positions of the strongest radial magnetic field regions of opposite polarity near the places where the ejected arches end at the solar surface. We were unable to find events for the remaining 29 cases: lack of a halo or partial halo coronal mass ejection in an appropriate time window, lack of magnetic and/or filament activity in the proper part of the solar disk, or the event was too far from disk center. The occurrence of a flare was not a requirement for making the identification but in fact flares, often weak, did occur for seven of the eight cases.

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<![CDATA[Data on dopant characteristics and band alignment of CdTe cells with and without a ZnO highly-resistive-transparent buffer layer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c26b719d5eed0c48476a5ff

Photovoltaic enhancement of cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin film solar cells using a 50 nm thick, atomic-layer-deposited zinc oxide (ZnO) buffer film was reported in “Enhancement of the photocurrent and efficiency of CdTe solar cells suppressing the front contact reflection using a highly-resistive ZnO buffer layer” (Kartopu et al., 2019) [1].

Data presented here are the dopant profiles of two solar cells prepared side-by-side, one with and one without the ZnO highly resistive transparent (HRT) buffer, which displayed an open-circuit potential (Voc) difference of 25 mV (in favor of the no-buffer device), as well as their simulated device data. The concentration of absorber dopant atoms (arsenic) was measured using the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) method, while the density of active dopants was calculated from the capacitance-voltage (CV) measurements. The solar cell simulation data was obtained using the SCAPS software, a one-dimensional solar cell simulation programme. The presented data indicates a small loss (around 20 mV) of Voc for the HRT buffered cells.

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<![CDATA[The Dependence of the Peak Velocity of High-Speed Solar Wind Streams as Measured in the Ecliptic by ACE and the STEREO satellites on the Area and Co-latitude of Their Solar Source Coronal Holes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c02177bd5eed0c484347c91

## Abstract

We study the properties of 115 coronal holes in the time range from August 2010 to March 2017, the peak velocities of the corresponding high‐speed streams as measured in the ecliptic at 1 AU, and the corresponding changes of the Kp index as marker of their geoeffectiveness. We find that the peak velocities of high‐speed streams depend strongly on both the areas and the co‐latitudes of their solar source coronal holes with regard to the heliospheric latitude of the satellites. Therefore, the co‐latitude of their source coronal hole is an important parameter for the prediction of the high‐speed stream properties near the Earth. We derive the largest solar wind peak velocities normalized to the coronal hole areas for coronal holes located near the solar equator and that they linearly decrease with increasing latitudes of the coronal holes. For coronal holes located at latitudes 60°, they turn statistically to zero, indicating that the associated high‐speed streams have a high chance to miss the Earth. Similarly, the Kp index per coronal hole area is highest for the coronal holes located near the solar equator and strongly decreases with increasing latitudes of the coronal holes. We interpret these results as an effect of the three‐dimensional propagation of high‐speed streams in the heliosphere; that is, high‐speed streams arising from coronal holes near the solar equator propagate in direction toward and directly hit the Earth, whereas solar wind streams arising from coronal holes at higher solar latitudes only graze or even miss the Earth.

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We describe a climate risk index that has been developed to inform national climate adaptation planning in Italy and that is further elaborated in this paper. The index supports national authorities in designing adaptation policies and plans, guides the initial problem formulation phase, and identifies administrative areas with higher propensity to being adversely affected by climate change. The index combines (i) climate change-amplified hazards; (ii) high-resolution indicators of exposure of chosen economic, social, natural and built- or manufactured capital (MC) assets and (iii) vulnerability, which comprises both present sensitivity to climate-induced hazards and adaptive capacity. We use standardized anomalies of selected extreme climate indices derived from high-resolution regional climate model simulations of the EURO-CORDEX initiative as proxies of climate change-altered weather and climate-related hazards. The exposure and sensitivity assessment is based on indicators of manufactured, natural, social and economic capital assets exposed to and adversely affected by climate-related hazards. The MC refers to material goods or fixed assets which support the production process (e.g. industrial machines and buildings); Natural Capital comprises natural resources and processes (renewable and non-renewable) producing goods and services for well-being; Social Capital (SC) addressed factors at the individual (people's health, knowledge, skills) and collective (institutional) level (e.g. families, communities, organizations and schools); and Economic Capital (EC) includes owned and traded goods and services. The results of the climate risk analysis are used to rank the subnational administrative and statistical units according to the climate risk challenges, and possibly for financial resource allocation for climate adaptation.

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<![CDATA[Hybrid Perovskites: Prospects for Concentrator Solar Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b591f7e463d7e56f0caf8ff

## Abstract

Perovskite solar cells have shown a meteoric rise of power conversion efficiency and a steady pace of improvements in their stability of operation. Such rapid progress has triggered research into approaches that can boost efficiencies beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit stipulated for a single‐junction cell under normal solar illumination conditions. The tandem solar cell architecture is one concept here that has recently been successfully implemented. However, the approach of solar concentration has not been sufficiently explored so far for perovskite photovoltaics, despite its frequent use in the area of inorganic semiconductor solar cells. Here, the prospects of hybrid perovskites are assessed for use in concentrator solar cells. Solar cell performance parameters are theoretically predicted as a function of solar concentration levels, based on representative assumptions of charge‐carrier recombination and extraction rates in the device. It is demonstrated that perovskite solar cells can fundamentally exhibit appreciably higher energy‐conversion efficiencies under solar concentration, where they are able to exceed the Shockley–Queisser limit and exhibit strongly elevated open‐circuit voltages. It is therefore concluded that sufficient material and device stability under increased illumination levels will be the only significant challenge to perovskite concentrator solar cell applications.

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<![CDATA[Automated image segmentation-assisted flattening of atomic force microscopy images]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b59143f463d7e552e09626f

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images normally exhibit various artifacts. As a result, image flattening is required prior to image analysis. To obtain optimized flattening results, foreground features are generally manually excluded using rectangular masks in image flattening, which is time consuming and inaccurate. In this study, a two-step scheme was proposed to achieve optimized image flattening in an automated manner. In the first step, the convex and concave features in the foreground were automatically segmented with accurate boundary detection. The extracted foreground features were taken as exclusion masks. In the second step, data points in the background were fitted as polynomial curves/surfaces, which were then subtracted from raw images to get the flattened images. Moreover, sliding-window-based polynomial fitting was proposed to process images with complex background trends. The working principle of the two-step image flattening scheme were presented, followed by the investigation of the influence of a sliding-window size and polynomial fitting direction on the flattened images. Additionally, the role of image flattening on the morphological characterization and segmentation of AFM images were verified with the proposed method.

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<![CDATA[Complexes of gold and imidazole formed in helium nanodroplets]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b58a506463d7e4da2d63a44

We have studied complexes of gold atoms and imidazole (C3N2H4) produced in helium nanodroplets.

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<![CDATA[Coherent Nanotwins and Dynamic Disorder in Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bfca18bd5eed0c484ff89f6

Crystal defects in highy luminescent colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) of CsPbX3 perovskites (X = Cl, Br, I) are investigated. Here, using X-ray total scattering techniques and the Debye scattering equation (DSE), we provide evidence that the local structure of these NCs always exhibits orthorhombic tilting of PbX6 octahedra within locally ordered subdomains. These subdomains are hinged through a two-/three-dimensional (2D/3D) network of twin boundaries through which the coherent arrangement of the Pb ions throughout the whole NC is preserved. The density of these twin boundaries determines the size of the subdomains and results in an apparent higher-symmetry structure on average in the high-temperature modification. Dynamic cooperative rotations of PbX6 octahedra are likely at work at the twin boundaries, causing the rearrangement of the 2D or 3D network, particularly effective in the pseudocubic phases. An orthorhombic, 3D γ-phase, isostructural to that of CsPbBr3 is found here in as-synthesized CsPbI3 NCs.

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<![CDATA[Probing DNA Translocations with Inplane Current Signals in a Graphene Nanoribbon with a Nanopore]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4cd87a463d7e0fba429e03

Many theoretical studies predict that DNA sequencing should be feasible by monitoring the transverse current through a graphene nanoribbon while a DNA molecule translocates through a nanopore in that ribbon. Such a readout would benefit from the special transport properties of graphene, provide ultimate spatial resolution because of the single-atom layer thickness of graphene, and facilitate high-bandwidth measurements. Previous experimental attempts to measure such transverse inplane signals were however dominated by a trivial capacitive response. Here, we explore the feasibility of the approach using a custom-made differential current amplifier that discriminates between the capacitive current signal and the resistive response in the graphene. We fabricate well-defined short and narrow (30 nm × 30 nm) nanoribbons with a 5 nm nanopore in graphene with a high-temperature scanning transmission electron microscope to retain the crystallinity and sensitivity of the graphene. We show that, indeed, resistive modulations can be observed in the graphene current due to DNA translocation through the nanopore, thus demonstrating that DNA sensing with inplane currents in graphene nanostructures is possible. The approach is however exceedingly challenging due to low yields in device fabrication connected to the complex multistep device layout.

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<![CDATA[Correction: Photobleaching of YOYO-1 in super-resolution single DNA fluorescence imaging]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4c771c463d7e0c20d25f0f ]]> <![CDATA[Combined pulsed laser deposition and non-contact atomic force microscopy system for studies of insulator metal oxide thin films]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4bb258463d7e7b755cb5a0

We have designed and developed a combined system of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) for observations of insulator metal oxide surfaces. With this system, the long-period iterations of sputtering and annealing used in conventional methods for preparing a metal oxide film surface are not required. The performance of the combined system is demonstrated for the preparation and high-resolution NC-AFM imaging of atomically flat thin films of anatase TiO2(001) and LaAlO3(100).

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<![CDATA[TMD splitting functions in $$k_T$$ k T factorization: the real contribution to the gluon-to-gluon splitting]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bf9c837d5eed0c484411556

We calculate the transverse momentum dependent gluon-to-gluon splitting function within [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$k_T$$\end{document}kT-factorization, generalizing the framework employed in the calculation of the quark splitting functions in Hautmann et al. (Nucl Phys B 865:54-66, arXiv:1205.1759, 2012), Gituliar et al. (JHEP 01:181, arXiv:1511.08439, 2016), Hentschinski et al. (Phys Rev D 94(11):114013, arXiv:1607.01507, 2016) and demonstrate at the same time the consistency of the extended formalism with previous results. While existing versions of [TeX:] \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$k_T$$\end{document}kT factorized evolution equations contain already a gluon-to-gluon splitting function i.e. the leading order Balitsky–Fadin–Kuraev–Lipatov (BFKL) kernel or the Ciafaloni–Catani–Fiorani–Marchesini (CCFM) kernel, the obtained splitting function has the important property that it reduces both to the leading order BFKL kernel in the high energy limit, to the Dokshitzer–Gribov–Lipatov–Altarelli–Parisi (DGLAP) gluon-to-gluon splitting function in the collinear limit as well as to the CCFM kernel in the soft limit. At the same time we demonstrate that this splitting kernel can be obtained from a direct calculation of the QCD Feynman diagrams, based on a combined implementation of the Curci-Furmanski-Petronzio formalism for the calculation of the collinear splitting functions and the framework of high energy factorization.

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<![CDATA[Anchoring of a dye precursor on NiO(001) studied by non-contact atomic force microscopy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bf67e44d5eed0c484ca2626

The properties of metal oxides, such as charge-transport mechanisms or optoelectronic characteristics, can be modified by functionalization with organic molecules. This kind of organic/inorganic surface is nowadays highly regarded, in particular, for the design of hybrid devices such as dye-sensitized solar cells. However, a key parameter for optimized interfaces is not only the choice of the compounds but also the properties of adsorption. Here, we investigated the deposition of an organic dye precursor molecule on a NiO(001) single crystal surface by means of non-contact atomic force microscopy at room temperature. Depending on the coverage, single molecules, groups of adsorbates with random or recognizable shapes, or islands of closely packed molecules were identified. Single molecules and self assemblies are resolved with submolecular resolution showing that they are lying flat on the surface in a trans-conformation. Within the limits of our Kelvin probe microscopy setup a charge transfer from NiO to the molecular layer of 0.3 electrons per molecules was observed only in the areas where the molecules are closed packed.

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<![CDATA[Liquid-crystalline nanoarchitectures for tissue engineering]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bf67e69d5eed0c484ca2cc2

Hierarchical orders are found throughout all levels of biosystems, from simple biopolymers, subcellular organelles, single cells, and macroscopic tissues to bulky organs. Especially, biological tissues and cells have long been known to exhibit liquid crystal (LC) orders or their structural analogues. Inspired by those native architectures, there has recently been increased interest in research for engineering nanobiomaterials by incorporating LC templates and scaffolds. In this review, we introduce and correlate diverse LC nanoarchitectures with their biological functionalities, in the context of tissue engineering applications. In particular, the tissue-mimicking LC materials with different LC phases and the regenerative potential of hard and soft tissues are summarized. In addition, the multifaceted aspects of LC architectures for developing tissue-engineered products are envisaged. Lastly, a perspective on the opportunities and challenges for applying LC nanoarchitectures in tissue engineering fields is discussed.

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