ResearchPad - atmospheric-composition-and-structure https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Stringent Emission Control Policies Can Provide Large Improvements in Air Quality and Public Health in India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb1098b2b-f8d1-46e9-80dc-86448468f6a3 Air pollution is a major risk factor for human health in IndiaPopulation aging and growth will increase the disease burden due to exposure to particulate air pollution even under no emission changeStringent emission control reduces mortality rate in 2050 below 2015 levels although total premature mortality increases

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<![CDATA[New Approaches to Identifying and Reducing the Global Burden of Disease From Pollution]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbf7723dd-5647-4f8e-be7f-e9600ebe8e30

Abstract

Pollution from multiple sources causes significant disease and death worldwide. Some sources are legacy, such as heavy metals accumulated in soils, and some are current, such as particulate matter. Because the global burden of disease from pollution is so high, it is important to identify legacy and current sources and to develop and implement effective techniques to reduce human exposure. But many limitations exist in our understanding of the distribution and transport processes of pollutants themselves, as well as the complicated overprint of human behavior and susceptibility.

New approaches are being developed to identify and eliminate pollution in multiple environments. Community‐scale detection of geogenic arsenic and fluoride in Bangladesh is helping to map the distribution of these harmful elements in drinking water. Biosensors such as bees and their honey are being used to measure heavy metal contamination in cities such as Vancouver and Sydney. Drone‐based remote sensors are being used to map metal hot spots in soils from former mining regions in Zambia and Mozambique. The explosion of low‐cost air monitors has allowed researchers to build dense air quality sensing networks to capture ephemeral and local releases of harmful materials, building on other developments in personal exposure sensing. And citizen science is helping communities without adequate resources measure their own environments and in this way gain agency in controlling local pollution exposure sources and/or alerting authorities to environmental hazards. The future of GeoHealth will depend on building on these developments and others to protect a growing population from multiple pollution exposure risks.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence and Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin‐Resistant Staphylococcus aureus on Public Recreational Beaches in Northeast Ohio]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc2cf7d05-879f-4ce2-8ce7-439c7751833c

Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus can cause severe life‐threatening illnesses such as sepsis and endocarditis. Although S. aureus has been isolated from marine water and intertidal beach sand, only a few studies have been conducted to assess prevalence of S. aureus at freshwater recreational beaches. As such, we aimed to determine prevalence and molecular characteristics of S. aureus in water and sand at 10 freshwater recreational beaches in Northeast Ohio, USA. Samples were analyzed using standard microbiology methods, and resulting isolates were typed by spa typing and multilocus sequence typing. The overall prevalence of S. aureus in sand and water samples was 22.8% (64/280). The prevalence of methicillin‐resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 8.2% (23/280). The highest prevalence was observed in summer (45.8%; 55/120) compared to fall (4.2%; 5/120) and spring (10.0%; 4/40). The overall prevalence of Panton‐Valentine leukocidin genes among S. aureus isolates was 21.4% (15/70), and 27 different spa types were identified. The results of this study indicate that beach sand and freshwater of Northeast Ohio were contaminated with S. aureus, including MRSA. The high prevalence of S. aureus in summer months and presence of human‐associated strains may indicate the possibility of role of human activity in S. aureus contamination of beach water and sand. While there are several possible routes for S. aureus contamination, S. aureus prevalence was higher in sites with wastewater treatment plants proximal to the beaches.

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<![CDATA[WRF 1960–2014 Winter Season Simulations of Particulate Matter in the Sahel: Implications for Air Quality and Respiratory Health]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4dbdd16f-7dfe-4144-8d3d-a37f1cc7a940

Abstract

We use the Weather Research and Forecast model using the Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) dust module (WRF‐CHEM) to simulate the particulate matter (PM) variations in the Sahel during the winter seasons (January–March) of 1960–2014. Two simulations are undertaken where the direct aerosol feedback is turned off, and only transport is considered and where the direct aerosol feedback is turned on. We find that simulated Sahelian PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were lower in the 1960s and after 2003 and higher during the period between 1988 and 2002. Higher Sahelian PM10 concentrations are due to stronger winds between the surface and 925 hPa over the Sahara, which transport dust into the Sahel. Negative PM10 concentration anomalies are found over the Bodele Depression and associated with weaker 925 wind anomalies after 1997 through 2014. Further west, positive PM10 concentration anomalies are found across the Adrar Plateau in the Sahara and responsible for dust transport to the Western Sahel. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is positively correlated to Sahelian dust concentrations especially during the periods of 1960–1970 and 1988–2002. The temporal/spatial patterns of PM10 concentrations have significant respiratory health implications for inhabitants of the Sahel.

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<![CDATA[Half‐Century Ammonia Emissions From Agricultural Systems in Southern Asia: Magnitude, Spatiotemporal Patterns, and Implications for Human Health]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6ce220af-6a1d-4bf2-8e7a-31de41e56df3

Abstract

Much concern has been raised about the increasing threat to air quality and human health due to ammonia (NH3) emissions from agricultural systems, which is associated with the enrichment of reactive nitrogen (N) in southern Asia (SA), home of more than 60% the world's population (i.e., the people of West, central, East, South, and Southeast Asia). Southern Asia consumed more than half of the global synthetic N fertilizer and was the dominant region for livestock waste production since 2004. Excessive N application could lead to a rapid increase of NH3 in the atmosphere, resulting in severe air and water pollution in this region. However, there is still a lack of accurate estimates of NH3 emissions from agricultural systems. In this study, we simulated the agricultural NH3 fluxes in SA by coupling the Bidirectional NH3 exchange module (Bi‐NH3) from the Community Multi‐scale Air Quality model with the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model. Our results indicated that NH3 emissions were 21.3 ± 3.9 Tg N yr−1 from SA agricultural systems with a rapidly increasing rate of ~0.3 Tg N yr−2 during 1961−2014. Among the emission sources, 10.8 Tg N yr−1 was released from synthetic N fertilizer use, and 10.4 ± 3.9 Tg N yr−1 was released from manure production in 2014. Ammonia emissions from China and India together accounted for 64% of the total amount in SA during 2000−2014. Our results imply that the increased NH3 emissions associated with high N inputs to croplands would likely be a significant threat to the environment and human health unless mitigation efforts are applied to reduce these emissions.

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<![CDATA[Impact of Deadly Dust Storms (May 2018) on Air Quality, Meteorological, and Atmospheric Parameters Over the Northern Parts of India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8387ef6b-b75b-4aaa-bb39-241535d00866

Abstract

The northern part of India, adjoining the Himalaya, is considered as one of the global hot spots of pollution because of various natural and anthropogenic factors. Throughout the year, the region is affected by pollution from various sources like dust, biomass burning, industrial and vehicular pollution, and myriad other anthropogenic emissions. These sources affect the air quality and health of millions of people who live in the Indo‐Gangetic Plains. The dust storms that occur during the premonsoon months of March–June every year are one of the principal sources of pollution and originate from the source region of Arabian Peninsula and the Thar desert located in north‐western India. In the year 2018, month of May, three back‐to‐back major dust storms occurred that caused massive damage, loss of human lives, and loss to property and had an impact on air quality and human health. In this paper, we combine observations from ground stations, satellites, and radiosonde networks to assess the impact of dust events in the month of May 2018, on meteorological parameters, aerosol properties, and air quality. We observed widespread changes associated with aerosol loadings, humidity, and vertical advection patterns with displacements of major trace and greenhouse gasses. We also notice drastic changes in suspended particulate matter concentrations, all of which can have significant ramifications in terms of human health and changes in weather pattern.

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<![CDATA[The Land‐Sea Breeze of the Red Sea: Observations, Simulations, and Relationships to Regional Moisture Transport]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na2316739-693c-4b23-a87b-686438623071

Abstract

Unique in situ observations of atmospheric conditions over the Red Sea and the coastal Arabian Peninsula are examined to study the dynamics and regional impacts of the local land‐sea breeze cycle (LSBC). During a 26‐month data record spanning 2008–2011, observed LSBC events occurred year‐round, frequently exhibiting cross‐shore wind velocities in excess of 8 m/s. Observed onshore and offshore features of both the land‐ and sea‐breeze phases of the cycle are presented, and their seasonal modulation is considered. Weather Research and Forecasting climate downscaling simulations and satellite measurements are used to extend the analysis. In the model, the amplitude of the LSBC is significantly larger in the vicinity of the steeper terrain elements encircling the basin, suggesting an enhancement by the associated slope winds. Observed and simulated conditions also reflected distinct gravity‐current characteristics of the intrinsic moist marine air mass during both phases of the LSBC. Specifically, the advance and retreat of marine air mass was directly tied to the development of internal boundary layers onshore and offshore throughout the period of study. Convergence in the lateral moisture flux resulting from this air mass ascending the coastal topography (sea‐breeze phase) as well as colliding with air masses from the opposing coastline (land‐breeze phase) further resulted in cumulous cloud formation and precipitation.

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<![CDATA[Relative Humidity on Mars: New Results From the Phoenix TECP Sensor]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N30658b03-7b46-436c-bd01-532f775c0725

Abstract

In situ measurements of relative humidity (RH) on Mars have only been performed by the Phoenix (PHX) and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) missions. Here we present results of our recalibration of the PHX thermal and electrical conductivity probe (TECP) RH sensor. This recalibration was conducted using a TECP engineering model subjected to the full range of environmental conditions at the PHX landing site in the Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber. The experiments focused on the warmest and driest conditions (daytime) because they were not covered in the original calibration (Zent et al., 2010, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JE003420) and previous recalibration (Zent et al., 2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JE004933). In nighttime conditions, our results are in excellent agreement with the previous 2016 recalibration, while in daytime conditions, our results show larger water vapor pressure values. We obtain vapor pressure values in the range ~0.005–1.4 Pa, while Zent et al. (2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JE004933) obtain values in the range ~0.004–0.4 Pa. Our higher daytime values are in better agreement with independent estimates from the ground by the PHX Surface Stereo Imager instrument and from orbit by Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars. Our results imply larger day‐to‐night ratios of water vapor pressure at PHX compared to MSL, suggesting a stronger atmosphere‐regolith interchange in the Martian arctic than at lower latitudes. Further, they indicate that brine formation at the PHX landing site via deliquescence can be achieved only temporarily between midnight and 6 a.m. on a few sols. The results from our recalibration are important because they shed light on the near‐surface humidity environment on Mars.

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<![CDATA[Regional Biases in MODIS Marine Liquid Water Cloud Drop Effective Radius Deduced Through Fusion With MISR]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N54852759-8398-4c76-9829-786891d8555e

Abstract

Satellite measurements from Terra's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) represent our longest, single‐platform, global record of the effective radius (Re) of the cloud drop size distribution. Quantifying its error characteristics has been challenging because systematic errors in retrieved Re covary with the structural characteristics of the cloud and the Sun‐view geometry. Recently, it has been shown that the bias in MODIS Re can be estimated by fusing MODIS data with data from Terra's Multi‐angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). Here, we relate the bias to the observed underlying conditions to derive regional‐scale, bias‐corrected, monthly‐mean Re 1.6, Re 2.1, and Re 3.7 values retrieved from the 1.6, 2.1, and 3.7 μm MODIS spectral channels. Our results reveal that monthly‐mean bias in Re 2.1 exhibits large regional dependency, ranging from at least ~1 to 10 μm (15 to 60%) varying with scene heterogeneity, optical depth, and solar zenith angle. Regional bias‐corrected monthly‐mean Re 2.1 ranges from 4 to 17 μm, compared to 10 to 25 μm for uncorrected Re 2.1, with estimated uncertainties of 0.1 to 1.8 μm. The bias‐corrected monthly‐mean Re 3.7 and Re 2.1 show difference of approximately +0.6 μm in the coastal marine stratocumulus regions and down to approximately −2 μm in the cumuliform cloud regions, compared to uncorrected values of about −1 to −6 μm, respectively. Bias‐corrected Re values compare favorably to other independent data sources, including field observations, global model simulations, and satellite retrievals that do not use retrieval techniques similar to MODIS. This work changes the interpretation of global Re distributions from MODIS Re products and may further impact studies, which use the original MODIS Re products to study, for example, aerosol‐cloud interactions and cloud microphysical parameterization.

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<![CDATA[Seasonal Variations of Arctic Low‐Level Clouds and Its Linkage to Sea Ice Seasonal Variations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc90d0f70-96a6-4435-827b-4592ce32542f

Abstract

Using CALIPSO‐CloudSat‐Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System‐Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer data set, this study documents the seasonal variation of sea ice, cloud, and atmospheric properties in the Arctic (70°N–82°N) for 2007–2010. A surface‐type stratification—consisting Permanent Ocean, Land, Permanent Ice, and Transient Sea Ice—is used to investigate the influence of surface type on low‐level Arctic cloud liquid water path (LWP) seasonality. The results show significant variations in the Arctic low‐level cloud LWP by surface type linked to differences in thermodynamic state. Subdividing the Transient Ice region (seasonal sea ice zone) by melt/freeze season onset dates reveals a complex influence of sea ice variations on low cloud LWP seasonality. We find that lower tropospheric stability is the primary factor affecting the seasonality of cloud LWP. Our results suggest that variations in sea ice melt/freeze onset have a significant influence on the seasonality of low‐level cloud LWP by modulating the lower tropospheric thermal structure and not by modifying the surface evaporation rate in late spring and midsummer. We find no significant dependence of the May low‐level cloud LWP peak on the melt/freeze onset dates, whereas and September/October low‐level cloud LWP maximum shifts later in the season for earlier melt/later freeze onset regions. The Arctic low cloud LWP seasonality is controlled by several surface‐atmosphere interaction processes; the importance of each varies seasonally due to the thermodynamic properties of sea ice. Our results demonstrate that when analyzing Arctic cloud‐sea ice interactions, a seasonal perspective is critical.

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<![CDATA[Efficacy of Climate Forcings in PDRMIP Models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N277a3652-7bfa-4ad6-af18-e20af9ecbbd6

Abstract

Quantifying the efficacy of different climate forcings is important for understanding the real‐world climate sensitivity. This study presents a systematic multimodel analysis of different climate driver efficacies using simulations from the Precipitation Driver and Response Model Intercomparison Project (PDRMIP). Efficacies calculated from instantaneous radiative forcing deviate considerably from unity across forcing agents and models. Effective radiative forcing (ERF) is a better predictor of global mean near‐surface air temperature (GSAT) change. Efficacies are closest to one when ERF is computed using fixed sea surface temperature experiments and adjusted for land surface temperature changes using radiative kernels. Multimodel mean efficacies based on ERF are close to one for global perturbations of methane, sulfate, black carbon, and insolation, but there is notable intermodel spread. We do not find robust evidence that the geographic location of sulfate aerosol affects its efficacy. GSAT is found to respond more slowly to aerosol forcing than CO2 in the early stages of simulations. Despite these differences, we find that there is no evidence for an efficacy effect on historical GSAT trend estimates based on simulations with an impulse response model, nor on the resulting estimates of climate sensitivity derived from the historical period. However, the considerable intermodel spread in the computed efficacies means that we cannot rule out an efficacy‐induced bias of ±0.4 K in equilibrium climate sensitivity to CO2 doubling when estimated using the historical GSAT trend.

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<![CDATA[Quantifying Stratospheric Temperature Signals and Climate Imprints From Post‐2000 Volcanic Eruptions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc8f53688-9428-448b-9f34-38bdaf6f31f8

Abstract

Small volcanic eruptions and their effects have recently come into research focus. While large eruptions are known to strongly affect stratospheric temperature, the impacts of smaller eruptions are hard to quantify because their signals are masked by natural variability. Here, we quantify the temperature signals from small volcanic eruptions between 2002 and 2016 using new vertically resolved aerosol data and precise temperature observations from radio occultation. We find characteristic space‐time signals that can be associated with specific eruptions. In the lower stratosphere, robust warming signals are observed, while in the midstratosphere also cooling signals of some eruptions appear. We find that the volcanic contribution to the temperature trend is up to 20%, depending on latitude and altitude. We conclude that detailed knowledge of the vertical structure of volcanic temperature impacts is crucial for comprehensive trend analysis in order to separate natural from anthropogenic temperature changes.

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<![CDATA[Hybrid Mass Balance/4D‐Var Joint Inversion of NO x and SO 2 Emissions in East Asia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne104e45a-33d7-45d3-b79c-9974fe345cef

Abstract

Accurate estimates of NOx and SO2 emissions are important for air quality modeling and management. To incorporate chemical interactions of the two species in emission estimates, we develop a joint hybrid inversion framework to estimate their emissions in China and India (2005–2012). Pseudo observation tests and posterior evaluation with surface measurements demonstrate that joint assimilation of SO2 and NO2 can provide more accurate constraints on emissions than single‐species inversions. This occurs through synergistic change of O3 and OH concentrations, particularly in conditions where satellite retrievals of the species being optimized have large uncertainties. The percentage changes of joint posterior emissions from the single‐species posterior emissions go up to 242% at grid scales, although the national average of monthly emissions, seasonality, and interannual variations are similar. In China and India, the annual budget of joint posterior SO2 emissions is lower, but joint NOx posterior emissions are higher, because NOx emissions increase to increase SO2 concentration and better match Ozone Monitoring Instrument SO2 observations in high‐NOx regions. Joint SO2 posterior emissions decrease by 16.5% from 2008 to 2012, while NOx posterior emissions increase by 24.9% from 2005 to 2011 in China—trends which are consistent with the MEIC inventory. Joint NOx and SO2 posterior emissions in India increase by 15.9% and 19.2% from 2005 to 2012, smaller than the 59.9% and 76.2% growth rate using anthropogenic emissions from EDGARv4.3.2. This work shows the benefit and limitation of joint assimilation in emission estimates and provides an efficient framework to perform the inversion.

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<![CDATA[SO 2 Emission Estimates Using OMI SO 2 Retrievals for 2005–2017]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6a783255-8e13-48df-b62e-7af6e7554ff5

Abstract

SO2 column densities from Ozone Monitoring Instrument provide important information on emission trends and missing sources, but there are discrepancies between different retrieval products. We employ three Ozone Monitoring Instrument SO2 retrieval products (National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) standard (SP), NASA prototype, and BIRA) to study the magnitude and trend of SO2 emissions. SO2 column densities from these retrievals are most consistent when viewing angles and solar zenith angles are small, suggesting more robust emission estimates in summer and at low latitudes. We then apply a hybrid 4D‐Var/mass balance emission inversion to derive monthly SO2 emissions from the NASA SP and BIRA products. Compared to HTAPv2 emissions in 2010, both posterior emission estimates are lower in United States, India, and Southeast China, but show different changes of emissions in North China Plain. The discrepancies between monthly NASA and BIRA posterior emissions in 2010 are less than or equal to 17% in China and 34% in India. SO2 emissions increase from 2005 to 2016 by 35% (NASA)–48% (BIRA) in India, but decrease in China by 23% (NASA)–33% (BIRA) since 2008. Compared to in situ measurements, the posterior GEOS‐Chem surface SO2 concentrations have reduced NMB in China, the United States, and India but not in South Korea in 2010. BIRA posteriors have better consistency with the annual growth rate of surface SO2 measurement in China and spatial variability of SO2 concentration in China, South Korea, and India, whereas NASA SP posteriors have better seasonality. These evaluations demonstrate the capability to recover SO2 emissions using Ozone Monitoring Instrument observations.

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<![CDATA[Modeling the Effect of Potential Nitric Acid Removal During Convective Injection of Water Vapor Over the Central United States on the Chemical Composition of the Lower Stratosphere]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nda87ab9d-22f8-49d3-8bff-dc27fe6699a3

Abstract

Tropopause‐penetrating convection is a frequent seasonal feature of the Central United States climate. This convection presents the potential for consistent transport of water vapor into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) through the lofting of ice, which then sublimates. Water vapor enhancements associated with convective ice lofting have been observed in both in situ and satellite measurements. These water vapor enhancements can increase the probability of sulfate aerosol‐catalyzed heterogeneous reactions that convert reservoir chlorine (HCl and ClONO2) to free radical chlorine (Cl and ClO) that leads to catalytic ozone loss. In addition to water vapor transport, lofted ice may also scavenge nitric acid and further impact the chlorine activation chemistry of the UTLS. We present a photochemical model that resolves the vertical chemical structure of the UTLS to explore the effect of water vapor enhancements and potential additional nitric acid removal. The model is used to define the response of stratospheric column ozone to the range of convective water vapor transported and the temperature variability of the lower stratosphere currently observed over the Central United States in conjunction with potential nitric acid removal and to scenarios of elevated sulfate aerosol surface area density representative of possible future volcanic eruptions or solar radiation management. We find that the effect of HNO3 removal is dependent on the magnitude of nitric acid removal and has the greatest potential to increase chlorine activation and ozone loss under UTLS conditions that weakly favor the chlorine activation heterogeneous reactions by reducing NOx sources.

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<![CDATA[Anthropogenic Aerosol Indirect Effects in Cirrus Clouds]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75659bd5eed0c484cbe366

Abstract

We have implemented a parameterization for forming ice in large‐scale cirrus clouds that accounts for the changes in updrafts associated with a spectrum of waves acting within each time step in the model. This allows us to account for the frequency of homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing events that occur within each time step of the model and helps to determine more realistic ice number concentrations as well as changes to ice number concentrations. The model is able to fit observations of ice number at the lowest temperatures in the tropical tropopause but is still somewhat high in tropical latitudes with temperatures between 195°K and 215°K. The climate forcings associated with different representations of heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN or INPs) are primarily negative unless large additions of IN are made, such as when we assumed that all aircraft soot acts as an IN. However, they can be close to zero if it is assumed that all background dust can act as an INP irrespective of how much sulfate is deposited on these particles. Our best estimate for the forcing of anthropogenic aircraft soot in this model is −0.2 ± 0.06 W/m2, while that from anthropogenic fossil/biofuel soot is −0.093 ± 0.033 W/m2. Natural and anthropogenic open biomass burning leads to a net forcing of −0.057 ± 0.05 W/m2.

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<![CDATA[Sources of cosmic dust in the Earth's atmosphere]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b3729d6463d7e652cbde160

Abstract

There are four known sources of dust in the inner solar system: Jupiter Family comets, asteroids, Halley Type comets, and Oort Cloud comets. Here we combine the mass, velocity, and radiant distributions of these cosmic dust populations from an astronomical model with a chemical ablation model to estimate the injection rates of Na and Fe into the Earth's upper atmosphere, as well as the flux of cosmic spherules to the surface. Comparing these parameters to lidar observations of the vertical Na and Fe fluxes above 87.5 km, and the measured cosmic spherule accretion rate at South Pole, shows that Jupiter Family Comets contribute (80 ± 17)% of the total input mass (43 ± 14 t d−1), in good accord with Cosmic Background Explorer and Planck observations of the zodiacal cloud.

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