ResearchPad - atrial-fibrillation https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Is transjugular insertion of a temporary pacemaker a safe and effective approach?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13814 Temporary pacemakers (TPMs) are usually inserted in an emergency situation. However, there are few reports available regarding which route of access is best or what the most preferred approach is currently in tertiary hospitals. This study aimed to compare procedure times, complication rates, and indications for temporary pacing between the transjugular and transfemoral approaches to TPM placement. We analyzed consecutive patients who underwent TPM placement. Indications; procedure times; and rates of complications including localized infection, any bleeding, and pacing wire repositioning rates were analyzed. A total of 732 patients (361 treated via the transjugular approach and 371 treated via the transfemoral approach) were included. Complete atrioventricular block was the most common cause of TPM placement in both groups, but sick sinus syndrome was especially common in the transjugular approach group. Separately, procedure time was significantly shorter in the transjugular approach group (9.0 ± 8.0 minutes vs. 11.9 ± 9.7 minutes; P < 0.001). Overall complication rates were not significantly different between the two groups, and longer duration of temporary pacing was a risk factor for repositioning. The risk of reposition was significantly increased when the temporary pacing was continued more than 5 days and 3 days in the transjugular approach group and the transfemoral approach group, respectively. The transjugular approach should be considered if the TPM is required for more than 3 days.

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<![CDATA[Predicting recurrent atrial fibrillation after catheter ablation: a systematic review of prognostic models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10775 We assessed the performance of modelsf (risk scores) for predicting recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients who have undergone catheter ablation.Methods and resultsSystematic searches of bibliographic databases were conducted (November 2018). Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported the development, validation, or impact assessment of a model for predicting AF recurrence after ablation. Model performance (discrimination and calibration) measures were extracted. The Prediction Study Risk of Bias Assessment Tool (PROBAST) was used to assess risk of bias. Meta-analysis was not feasible due to clinical and methodological differences between studies, but c-statistics were presented in forest plots. Thirty-three studies developing or validating 13 models were included; eight studies compared two or more models. Common model variables were left atrial parameters, type of AF, and age. Model discriminatory ability was highly variable and no model had consistently poor or good performance. Most studies did not assess model calibration. The main risk of bias concern was the lack of internal validation which may have resulted in overly optimistic and/or biased model performance estimates. No model impact studies were identified.ConclusionOur systematic review suggests that clinical risk prediction of AF after ablation has potential, but there remains a need for robust evaluation of risk factors and development of risk scores. ]]> <![CDATA[Personalized monitoring of electrical remodelling during atrial fibrillation progression via remote transmissions from implantable devices]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10774 Atrial electrical remodelling (AER) is a transitional period associated with the progression and long-term maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to study the progression of AER in individual patients with implantable devices and AF episodes.Methods and resultsObservational multicentre study (51 centres) including 4618 patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator +/−resynchronization therapy (ICD/CRT-D) and 352 patients (2 centres) with pacemakers (median follow-up: 3.4 years). Atrial activation rate (AAR) was quantified as the frequency of the dominant peak in the signal spectrum of AF episodes with atrial bipolar electrograms. Patients with complete progression of AER, from paroxysmal AF episodes to electrically remodelled persistent AF, were used to depict patient-specific AER slopes. A total of 34 712 AF tracings from 830 patients (87 with pacemakers) were suitable for the study. Complete progression of AER was documented in 216 patients (16 with pacemakers). Patients with persistent AF after completion of AER showed ∼30% faster AAR than patients with paroxysmal AF. The slope of AAR changes during AF progression revealed patient-specific patterns that correlated with the time-to-completion of AER (R2 = 0.85). Pacemaker patients were older than patients with ICD/CRT-Ds (78.3 vs. 67.2 year olds, respectively, P < 0.001) and had a shorter median time-to-completion of AER (24.9 vs. 93.5 days, respectively, P = 0.016). Remote transmissions in patients with ICD/CRT-D devices enabled the estimation of the time-to-completion of AER using the predicted slope of AAR changes from initiation to completion of electrical remodelling (R2 = 0.45).ConclusionThe AF progression shows patient-specific patterns of AER, which can be estimated using available remote-monitoring technology. ]]> <![CDATA[Investigating gene-microRNA networks in atrial fibrillation patients with mitral valve regurgitation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7684 Atrial fibrillation (AF) is predicted to affect around 17.9 million individuals in Europe by 2060. The disease is associated with severe electrical and structural remodelling of the heart, and increased the risk of stroke and heart failure. In order to improve treatment and find new drug targets, the field needs to better comprehend the exact molecular mechanisms in these remodelling processes.ObjectivesThis study aims to identify gene and miRNA networks involved in the remodelling of AF hearts in AF patients with mitral valve regurgitation (MVR).MethodsTotal RNA was extracted from right atrial biopsies from patients undergoing surgery for mitral valve replacement or repair with AF and without history of AF to test for differentially expressed genes and miRNAs using RNA-sequencing and miRNA microarray. In silico predictions were used to construct a mRNA-miRNA network including differentially expressed mRNAs and miRNAs. Gene and chromosome enrichment analysis were used to identify molecular pathways and high-density AF loci.ResultsWe found 644 genes and 43 miRNAs differentially expressed in AF patients compared to controls. From these lists, we identified 905 pairs of putative miRNA-mRNA interactions, including 37 miRNAs and 295 genes. Of particular note, AF-associated miR-130b-3p, miR-338-5p and miR-208a-3p were differentially expressed in our AF tissue samples. These miRNAs are predicted regulators of several differentially expressed genes associated with cardiac conduction and fibrosis. We identified two high-density AF loci in chromosomes 14q11.2 and 6p21.3.ConclusionsAF in MVR patients is associated with down-regulation of ion channel genes and up-regulation of extracellular matrix genes. Other AF related genes are dysregulated and several are predicted to be targeted by miRNAs. Our novel miRNA-mRNA regulatory network provides new insights into the mechanisms of AF. ]]> <![CDATA[Influence of the tubular network on the characteristics of calcium transients in cardiac myocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7f446290-780e-4486-a1de-95187c6060a1

Transverse and axial tubules (TATS) are an essential ingredient of the excitation-contraction machinery that allow the effective coupling of L-type Calcium Channels (LCC) and ryanodine receptors (RyR2). They form a regular network in ventricular cells, while their presence in atrial myocytes is variable regionally and among animal species We have studied the effect of variations in the TAT network using a bidomain computational model of an atrial myocyte with variable density of tubules. At each z-line the t-tubule length is obtained from an exponential distribution, with a given mean penetration length. This gives rise to a distribution of t-tubules in the cell that is characterized by the fractional area (F.A.) occupied by the t-tubules. To obtain consistent results, we average over different realizations of the same mean penetration length. To this, in some simulations we add the effect of a network of axial tubules. Then we study global properties of calcium signaling, as well as regional heterogeneities and local properties of sparks and RyR2 openings. In agreement with recent experiments in detubulated ventricular and atrial cells, we find that detubulation reduces the calcium transient and synchronization in release. However, it does not affect sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) load, so the decrease in SR calcium release is due to regional differences in Ca2+ release, that is restricted to the cell periphery in detubulated cells. Despite the decrease in release, the release gain is larger in detubulated cells, due to recruitment of orphaned RyR2s, i.e, those that are not confronting a cluster of LCCs. This probably provides a safeguard mechanism, allowing physiological values to be maintained upon small changes in the t-tubule density. Finally, we do not find any relevant change in spark properties between tubulated and detubulated cells, suggesting that the differences found in experiments could be due to differential properties of the RyR2s in the membrane and in the t-tubules, not incorporated in the present model. This work will help understand the effect of detubulation, that has been shown to occur in disease conditions such as heart failure (HF) in ventricular cells, or atrial fibrillation (AF) in atrial cells.

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<![CDATA[Vernakalant-facilitated electrical cardioversion: comparison of intravenous vernakalant and amiodarone for drug-enhanced electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation after failed electrical cardioversion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N84b8c0f6-90a2-44ec-a75d-bc2a21bef4d4

Abstract

Aims

Electrical cardioversion is one cornerstone for the rhythm control strategy of atrial fibrillation (AF), which is, however, hampered by immediate AF recurrence (IRAF) or failed electrical cardioversion (FECV). We aimed to investigate the potential role of vernakalant for facilitated electrical cardioversion in cardioversion-resistant AF.

Methods and results

The subjects of this study were 63 patients referred to the Heart Centre Leipzig between November 2011 and May 2014 for transthoracic electrical cardioversion of AF. All patients experienced after antiarrhythmic-naïve electrical cardioversion either IRAF (n = 44; 70%) or FECV (n = 19; 30%). After drug infusion, electrical cardioversion was successful in 66.7% of vernakalant-treated as opposed to 46.7% of amiodarone-treated patients (P = 0.109). Multivariate analysis revealed treatment with vernakalant (OR 0.057, 95% CI 0.006–0.540, P = 0.013), treatment with ACEI or ARB (OR 0.101, 95% CI 0.015–0.691 P = 0.019), and IRAF after initial CV (OR 0.047, 95% CI 0.004–0.498, P = 0.011) as predictors for successful, drug-facilitated electrical cardioversion. Subgroup analysis of 18 patients with previous AF ablation revealed a significantly higher success rate of electrical cardioversion after infusion of vernakalant than after infusion of amiodarone (66.7 vs. 11.1%, P = 0.016).

Conclusion

Vernakalant may therefore be considered as a useful agent for facilitated electrical cardioversion in cardioversion-resistant AF.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban for effectiveness and safety in atrial fibrillation: a nationwide cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N48528376-a487-4c4d-b71c-11cc572ea020

Abstract

Aims

The aim of this study was to compare the risk of stroke or systemic embolism (SE) and major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) using dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban in routine clinical practice.

Methods and results

Using nationwide registries in Norway from January 2013 to December 2017, we established a cohort of 52 476 new users of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) with AF. Users of individual NOACs were matched 1:1 on the propensity score to create three pairwise-matched cohorts: dabigatran vs. rivaroxaban (20 504 patients), dabigatran vs. apixaban (20 826 patients), and rivaroxaban vs. apixaban (27 398 patients). Hazard ratios (HRs) for the risk of stroke or SE and major bleeding were estimated. In the propensity-matched comparisons of the risk of stroke or SE, the HRs were 0.88 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76–1.02] for dabigatran vs. rivaroxaban, 0.88 (95% CI 0.75–1.02) for dabigatran vs. apixaban, and 1.00 (95% CI 0.89–1.14) for apixaban vs. rivaroxaban. For the risk of major bleeding, the HRs were 0.75 (95% CI 0.64–0.88) for dabigatran vs. rivaroxaban, 1.03 (95% CI 0.85–1.24) for dabigatran vs. apixaban, and 0.79 (95% CI 0.68–0.91) for apixaban vs. rivaroxaban.

Conclusion

In this nationwide study of patients with AF in Norway, we found no statistically significant differences in risk of stroke or SE in propensity-matched comparisons between dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. However, dabigatran and apixaban were both associated with significantly lower risk of major bleeding compared with rivaroxaban.

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<![CDATA[Development of an international standard set of outcome measures for patients with atrial fibrillation: a report of the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) atrial fibrillation working group]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb41f5535-674d-4596-af5d-cd061966f8b0

Abstract

Aims

As health systems around the world increasingly look to measure and improve the value of care that they provide to patients, being able to measure the outcomes that matter most to patients is vital. To support the shift towards value-based health care in atrial fibrillation (AF), the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) assembled an international Working Group (WG) of 30 volunteers, including health professionals and patient representatives to develop a standardized minimum set of outcomes for benchmarking care delivery in clinical settings.

Methods and results

Using an online-modified Delphi process, outcomes important to patients and health professionals were selected and categorized into (i) long-term consequences of disease outcomes, (ii) complications of treatment outcomes, and (iii) patient-reported outcomes. The WG identified demographic and clinical variables for use as case-mix risk adjusters. These included baseline demographics, comorbidities, cognitive function, date of diagnosis, disease duration, medications prescribed and AF procedures, as well as smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol intake, and physical activity. Where appropriate, and for ease of implementation, standardization of outcomes and case-mix variables was achieved using ICD codes. The standard set underwent an open review process in which over 80% of patients surveyed agreed with the outcomes captured by the standard set.

Conclusion

Implementation of these consensus recommendations could help institutions to monitor, compare and improve the quality and delivery of chronic AF care. Their consistent definition and collection, using ICD codes where applicable, could also broaden the implementation of more patient-centric clinical outcomes research in AF.

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<![CDATA[Screening for atrial fibrillation: a call for evidence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0ac50dad-a287-4e9c-ab89-92ad9afb38a0

Abstract

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and prevalence is predicted to double over the next 30 years due to changing demographics and the rise in prevalence of risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes. Atrial fibrillation is associated with a five-fold increased stroke risk, but anticoagulation in eligible patients can reduce this risk by around 65%. Many people with AF currently go undetected and therefore untreated, either because they are asymptomatic or because they have paroxysmal AF. Screening has been suggested as one approach to increase AF detection rates and reduce the incidence of ischaemic stroke by earlier initiation of anticoagulation therapy. However, international taskforces currently recommend against screening, citing the cost implications and uncertainty over the benefits of a systematic screening programme compared to usual care. A number of large randomized controlled trials have commenced to determine the cost-effectiveness and clinical benefit of screening using a range of devices and across different populations. The recent AppleWatch study demonstrates how advances in technology are providing the public with self-screening devices that are increasingly affordable and accessible. Health care professionals should be aware of the implications of these emerging data for diagnostic pathways and treatment. This review provides an overview of the gaps in the current evidence and a summary of the arguments for and against screening.

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<![CDATA[Significant cardiac disease complicating Graves’ disease in previously healthy young adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N799f442a-dba1-4542-ab7b-3253ae1ef914

Summary

Graves’ disease is associated with tachydysrythmia, cardiac ischaemia and cardiomyopathy – all uncommon in young adults without previous cardiac disease. We present three young individuals who developed cardiac complications after periods of uncontrolled Graves’ disease. Subject 1: A 34-year-old female had severe thyrotoxic symptoms for weeks. Investigations showed fT4: 98.4 (11–25 pmol/L), fT3: 46.9 (3.1–6.8 pmol/L), TSH <0.01 (0.27–4.2 mU/L) and thyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb): 34.8 (<0.9 U//l). She had appropriate treatment but several weeks later she became breathless despite improving thyroid function. Echocardiography showed a pericardial effusion of 2.9 cm. She responded well to steroids and NSAIDs but developed active severe Graves’ orbitopathy after early total thyroidectomy. Subject 2: A 28-year-old male developed thyrotoxic symptoms (fT4: 38 pmol/L, fT3: 13.9 pmol/L, TSH <0.01 (for over 6 months) and TRAb: 9.3 U/L). One month after starting carbimazole, he developed acute heart failure (HF) due to severe dilated cardiomyopathy – EF 10–15%. He partially recovered after treatment – EF 28% and had early radioiodine treatment. Subject 3: A 42-year-old woman who had been thyrotoxic for several months (fT4: 54.3; fT3 >46.1; TSH <0.01; TRAb: 4.5) developed atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure. Echocardiography showed cardiomegaly – EF 29%. She maintains sinus rhythm following early total thyroidectomy (EF 50%). Significant cardiac complications may occur in previously fit young adults, who have had uncontrolled Graves’ disease for weeks to months. Cardiac function recovers in the majority, but early definitive treatment should be discussed to avoid Graves’ disease relapse and further cardiac decompensation.

Learning points:

  • Cardiac complications of Graves’ disease are uncommon in young adults without previous cardiac disease.

  • These complications may however occur if Graves’ disease had been poorly controlled for several weeks or months prior to presentation.

  • Persistent symptoms after adequate control should alert clinicians to the possibility of cardiac disease.

  • Specific treatment of Graves’ disease and appropriate cardiac intervention results in complete recovery in the majority and carries a good prognosis.

  • Early definitive treatment should be offered to them to prevent cardiac decompensation at times of further relapse.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence of drug–drug interaction in atrial fibrillation patients based on a large claims data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8861b373-c994-4a77-acd1-a0d16f2f19bb

This study aimed to compare and determine the prevalence of drug–drug interaction (DDI) and bleeding rate in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients receiving anticoagulants in a clinical setting. We used large claims data of AF patients obtained from the Japan Medical Data Center. The prevalence of DDIs and cases leading to bleeding events were surveyed clinically relevant DDIs extracted from 1) reported from a spontaneous adverse event reporting system (Japanese Adverse Drug Events Report system; JADER) ≥4 patients; 2) DDIs cited in the package inserts of each anticoagulant (each combination assessed according to “Drug interaction 2015” list; 3) warfarin and quinolone antibiotics DDIs. DDIs were categorized the mechanisms for pharmacokinetic DDI (Cytochrome P450 (CYP) or transporter etc. that modulate blood concentration of anticoagulants)/pharmacodynamic DDI (combination with similar pharmacological actions) or both in the analysis for each patients’ prescriptions obtained from a claims data. AF patients were compared between cases with and without bleeding after administered of anticoagulants. Bleeding was observed in 220/3290 (6.7%) AF patients. The bleeding rate in patients with both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic DDI mechanisms (26.3%) was higher than that in patients with either mechanism (8.6% and 9.2%, respectively) or without DDIs (4.9%). The odds ratio for bleeding in AF patients with both of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic was (7.18 [4.69–11.00], p<0.001). Our study concluded multi mechanism based DDIs leads serious outcome as compared to that of single mechanism based DDIs in AF patients. We determined the prevalence and frequency of bleeding for anticoagulant-related DDIs. To manage DDIs, both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic DDI mechanisms should be closely monitored for initial symptoms of bleeding within the first 3 months.

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<![CDATA[Comparative safety and effectiveness of dabigatran vs. rivaroxaban and apixaban in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: a retrospective study from a large healthcare system]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9e5920d5eed0c484242675

Abstract

Aims

We used the US Department of Defense Military Health System database to compare the safety and effectiveness of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) initiating dabigatran vs. rivaroxaban or apixaban.

Methods and results

Two cohorts of adults with NVAF, newly initiated on standard-dose DOAC, were identified based on clinical approval dates: July 2011–June 2016 for dabigatran (150 mg b.i.d.) or rivaroxaban (20 mg QD) and January 2013–June 2016 for dabigatran (150 mg b.i.d.) or apixaban (5 mg b.i.d.). Propensity score matching (1:1) identified two well-balanced cohorts (dabigatran vs. rivaroxaban n = 12 763 per treatment group; dabigatran vs. apixaban n = 4802 per treatment group). In both cohorts, baseline characteristics and follow-up duration were similar between treatment groups. Patients newly initiating dabigatran had significantly lower risk of major bleeding vs. rivaroxaban [2.08% vs. 2.53%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70–0.97; P =0.018], while stroke risk was similar (0.60% vs. 0.78%; HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.57–1.04; P =0.084). The dabigatran vs. apixaban cohort analysis found no differences in risk of major bleeding (1.60% vs. 1.21%; HR 1.37, 95% CI 0.97–1.94; P =0.070) or stroke (0.44% vs. 0.35%; HR 1.26, 95% CI 0.66–2.39; P =0.489).

Conclusion

Among NVAF patients newly initiated on standard-dose DOAC therapy in this study, dabigatran was associated with significantly lower major bleeding risk vs. rivaroxaban, and no significant difference in stroke risk. For dabigatran vs. apixaban, the reduced sample size limited the ability to draw definitive conclusions.

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<![CDATA[Ser96Ala genetic variant of the human histidine-rich calcium-binding protein is a genetic predictor of recurrence after catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897742d5eed0c4847d2858

Background

Atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) still remains a serious issue. Ca2+ handling has a considerable effect on AF recurrence. The histidine-rich calcium-binding protein (HRC) genetic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs3745297 (T>G, Ser96Ala), is known to cause a sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak. We investigated the association between HRC Ser96Ala and AF recurrence after RFCA in paroxysmal AF (PAF) patients.

Methods and results

We enrolled PAF patients who underwent RFCA (N = 334 for screening and N = 245 for replication) and were genotyped for HRC SNP (rs3745297). The patient age was younger and rate of diabetes and hypertension lower in the PAF patients with Ser96Ala than in those without (TT/TG/GG, 179/120/35; 64±10/60±12/59±13 y, P = 0.001; 18.5/ 9.2/8.6%, P = 0.04 and 66.1/50.0/37.1%, P = 0.001, respectively). During a mean 19 month follow-up, 57 (17.1%) patients suffered from AF recurrences. The rate of an Ser96Ala was significantly higher in patients with AF recurrence than in those without in the screening set (allele frequency model: odds ratio [OR], 1.80; P = 0.006). We also confirmed this significant association in the replication set (OR 1.74; P = 0.03) and combination (P = 0.0008). A multivariate analysis revealed that the AF duration, sinus node dysfunction, and HRC Ser96Ala were independent predictors of an AF recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04, P = 0.037; HR 2.42, P = 0.018; and HR 2.66, P = 0.007, respectively).

Conclusion

HRC SNP Ser96Ala is important as a new genetic marker of AF recurrence after RFCA.

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<![CDATA[High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T as an independent predictor of stroke in patients admitted to an emergency department with atrial fibrillation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75acd5eed0c4843cffc2

Aims

Elevated levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hsTnT) are associated with adverse outcomes in numerous patient populations. Their value in prediction of stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is in debate.

Methods

The study population included 2898 consecutive patients presenting with AF to the emergency department of the Department of Cardiology, Heidelberg University Hospital. Associations between hsTnT and stroke risk were assessed using multivariable Cox regression.

Results

Elevated hsTnT levels (>14 ng/L) were associated with increased risk of stroke. Even after adjustment for various risk factors, elevated hsTnT remained independently associated with stroke risk in patients with AF, adjusted hazard ratio 2.35 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26–4.36] (P = 0.007). These results were consistent across important subgroups (age, renal function, ejection fraction, CHA2DS2-VASc score and main admission diagnosis). For hsTnT, area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.659 [95% CI: 0.575–0.742], compared to 0.610 [95% CI: 0.526–0.694] for the CHA2DS2-VASc score. Inclusion of hsTnT in the multivariable model for stroke risk prediction consisting of all variables of the CHA2DS2-VASc score was associated with a significant improvement of its discriminatory power.

Conclusion

Elevated hsTnT levels are significantly associated with higher risk of stroke and provide prognostic information independent of CHA2DS2-VASc score variables. Measurement of hsTnT may improve prediction of stroke risk in patients presenting to an emergency department with AF as compared to risk stratification based only on clinical variables.

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<![CDATA[Rivaroxaban administration after acute ischemic stroke: The RELAXED study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca1cd5eed0c48452a7cf

The efficacy of early anticoagulation in acute stroke with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) remains unclear. We performed a study to evaluate the risk of recurrent ischemic stroke (IS) and major bleeding in acute IS patients with NVAF who started rivaroxaban. This observational study evaluated patients with NVAF and acute IS/transient ischemic attack (TIA) in the middle cerebral arterial territory who started rivaroxaban within 30 days after the index IS/TIA. The primary endpoints were recurrent IS and major bleeding within 90 days after the index IS/TIA. The relationship between the endpoints and the time to start rivaroxaban was evaluated by correlation analysis using cerebral infarct volume, determined by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images within 48 hours of onset of the index IS/TIA. Of 1309 patients analyzed, recurrent IS occurred in 30 (2.3%) and major bleeding in 11 (0.8%) patients. Among patients with known infarct size (N = 1207), those with small (<4.0 cm3), medium (≥4.0 and <22.5 cm3), and large (≥22.5 cm3) infarcts started rivaroxaban a median of 2.9, 2.9, and 5.8 days, respectively, after the index IS/TIA. Recurrent IS was significantly less frequent when starting rivaroxaban ≤14 days versus ≥15 days after IS (2.0% versus 6.8%, P = 0.0034). Incidences of recurrent IS and major bleeding in whom rivaroxaban was started <3 days (N = 584) after IS were also low: 1.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Initiation of rivaroxaban administration in acute IS or TIA was associated with a low recurrence of IS (2.3%), and a low incidence of major bleeding events (0.8%) for 90 days after the index stroke. For the prevention of recurrent attacks in acute IS patients with NVAF, it is feasible to start the administration of rivaroxaban within 14 days of onset. Rivaroxaban started within 3 days of onset may be a feasible treatment option for patients with a small or medium-sized infarction.

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<![CDATA[The association between heat stroke and subsequent cardiovascular diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca36d5eed0c48452a8d5

Background

Recent studies have indicated that several critical illnesses are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Nonetheless, studies of the association between heat-related illnesses (HRIs) and subsequent CVDs are still limited. We sought to evaluate whether heat stroke (HS) was associated with an increased CVD incidence.

Methods

The data from the nationwide, population-based, retrospective, cohort study described herein were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The outcome evaluated in this study was the cumulative incidence of CVDs, which was compared between patients with HS, patients with other HRIs and a control group during a 14-year follow-up period.

Results

Our analyses included 150 HS cases, 150 patients with other HRIs and 150 patients without HRIs. The HS patients had a significantly higher incidence of developing CVDs than the other HRI and control patients (32.67% vs. 23.33% vs. 16.67%, p = 0.005). Patients with HS had an increased incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared with that of the controls (6% vs. 2.67%, p = 0.042) and an increased incidence of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) compared with those of the other HRI and control patients (12% vs. 6% vs. 4.67%, p = 0.038). An increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was also found in the patients with HS and other HRIs compared to that in the controls (17.33% vs. 14.67% vs. 6.67%, p = 0.016).

Conclusion

Prior HS was associated with an increased incidence of CVDs, particularly AMI and AIS, and an increased incidence of CKD.

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<![CDATA[Quality of INR control and switching to non-Vitamin K oral anticoagulants between women and men with atrial fibrillation treated with Vitamin K Antagonists in Spain. A population-based, real-world study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75bad5eed0c4843d0092

Background

Worldwide, there is growing evidence that quality of international normalized ratio (INR) control in atrial fibrillation patients treated with Vitamin K Antagonists (VKA) is suboptimal. However, sex disparities in population-based real-world settings have been scarcely studied, as well as patterns of switching to second-line Non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOAC). We aimed to assess the quality of INR control in atrial fibrillation patients treated with VKA in the region of Valencia, Spain, for the whole population and differencing by sex, and to identify factors associated with poor control. We also quantified switching to Non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOAC) and we identified factors associated to switching.

Methods

This is a cross-sectional, population-based study. Information was obtained through linking different regional electronic databases. Outcome measures were Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR) and percentage of INR determinations in range (PINRR) in 2015, and percentage of switching to NOAC in 2016, for the whole population and stratified by sex.

Results

We included 22,629 patients, 50.4% were women. Mean TTR was 62.3% for women and 63.7% for men, and PINNR was 58.3% for women and 60.1% for men (p<0.001). Considering the TTR<65% threshold, 53% of women and 49.3% of men had poor anticoagulation control (p<0.001). Women, long-term users antiplatelet users, and patients with comorbidities, visits to Emergency Department and use of alcohol were more likely to present poor INR control. 5.4% of poorly controlled patients during 2015 switched to a NOAC throughout 2016, with no sex differences.

Conclusion

The quality of INR control of all AF patients treated with VKA in 2015 in our Southern European region was suboptimal, and women were at a higher risk of poor INR control. This reflects sex disparities in care, and programs for improving the quality of oral anticoagulation should incorporate the gender perspective. Clinical inertia may be lying behind the observed low rates of switching in patient with poor INR control.

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<![CDATA[The association of CHA2DS2-VASc score and carotid plaque in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c673079d5eed0c484f37bb6

Objective

The aim of this study was to assess the association between CHA2DS2-VASc score and carotid plaques in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF).

Methods

We conducted a retrospective study including 3,435 NVAF patients who underwent carotid ultrasound examinations from January 2015 to December 2017.We collected the clinical data on the medical records system. Chi-square trend test was used to analyze trends between the prevalence of carotid plaques with an increasing CHA2DS2-VASc score. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was also used to assess the association between carotid plaques and CHA2DS2-VASc scores. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to determine the optimal cutoff points of different CHA2DS2-VASc scores in NVAF patients.

Results

NVAF patients with carotid plaques had higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores compared with patients who did not have carotid plaques (3.01±1.36 vs. 2.55±1.28, P < 0.05). In all participants, male participants and female participants, the prevalence of carotid plaques increased significantly as the CHA2DS2-VASc score increased (P for trend < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that for each 1-point increase in the CHA2DS2-VASc score, there was an associated 37% increase in the prevalence of carotid plaques. ROC curve analysis revealed that a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥ 2 in male patients (sensitivity, 44.67%; specificity, 75.64%; AUC, 0.639) or ≥ 3 in female patients (sensitivity, 47.24%; specificity, 72.40%; AUC, 0.634) were associated with carotid plaques.

Conclusion

The prevalence of carotid plaques in patients with NVAF was associated with the CHA2DS2-VASc score.

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<![CDATA[Prognostic role of early D-dimer level in patients with acute ischemic stroke]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df327d5eed0c484580dc4

Object

The purpose of our study was to assess the prognostic role of early D-dimer level in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS).

Methods

The included patients’ D-dimer levels have to be tested within 24 hours from stroke onset. Poor functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) ≥3. The endpoints included recurrence on 5-day diffusion-weighted imaging, 30-day mRS ≥3, 30-day mortality and 90-day mRS ≥3. Regarding to each endpoint, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the prognostic role of D-dimer in patients with AIS.

Results

A total of 2,479 patients were included. The results showed that elevated D-dimer levels were associated with recurrence on 5-day diffusion-weighted imaging (OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.32–3.95), 30-day mRS≥3 (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.37–1.85), 30-day mortality (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.27–2.90) and 90-day mRS≥3 (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.05–2.46).

Conclusions

In conclusion, for patients with AIS, higher D-dimer level within 24 hours from stroke onset was associated with recurrence on 5-day diffusion-weighted imaging, mortality at 30 days, and poor functional outcome at both 30 days and 90 days. However, more studies are warranted to clarify this issue.

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<![CDATA[Outcomes of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation accompanied by slow ventricular response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c424385d5eed0c4845e0487

It remains unclear as to whether cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) would be as effective in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) accompanied by slow ventricular response (AF-SVR, < 60 beats/min) as in those with sinus rhythm (SR). Echocardiographic reverse remodeling was compared between AF-SVR patients (n = 17) and those with SR (n = 88) at six months and 12 months after CRT treatment. We also evaluated the changes in QRS duration; New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class; and long-term composite clinical outcomes including cardiac death, heart transplantation, and heart failure (HF)-related hospitalization. Left ventricular pacing sites and biventricular pacing percentages were not significantly different between the AF-SVR and SR groups. However, heart rate increase after CRT was significantly greater in the AF-SVR group than in the SR group (P < 0.001). At six and 12 months postoperation, both groups showed a comparable improvement in NYHA class; QRS narrowing; and echocardiographic variables including left ventricular end-systolic volume, left ventricular ejection fraction, and left atrial volume index. Over the median follow-up duration of 1.6 (interquartile range: 0.8–2.2) years, no significant between-group differences were observed regarding the rates of long-term composite clinical events (35% versus 24%; hazard ratio: 1.71; 95% confidence interval: 0.23–12.48; P = 0.60). CRT implantation provided comparable beneficial effects for patients with AF-SVR as compared with those with SR, by correcting electrical dyssynchrony and increasing biventricular pacing rate, in terms of QRS narrowing, symptom improvement, ventricular reverse remodeling, and long-term clinical outcomes.

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