ResearchPad - atropine https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Aging-associated sinus arrest and sick sinus syndrome in adult zebrafish]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13853 Because of its powerful genetics, the adult zebrafish has been increasingly used for studying cardiovascular diseases. Considering its heart rate of ~100 beats per minute at ambient temperature, which is very close to human, we assessed the use of this vertebrate animal for modeling heart rhythm disorders such as sinus arrest (SA) and sick sinus syndrome (SSS). We firstly optimized a protocol to measure electrocardiogram in adult zebrafish. We determined the location of the probes, implemented an open-chest microsurgery procedure, measured the effects of temperature, and determined appropriate anesthesia dose and time. We then proposed an PP interval of more than 1.5 seconds as an arbitrary criterion to define an SA episode in an adult fish at ambient temperature, based on comparison between the current definition of an SA episode in humans and our studies of candidate SA episodes in aged wild-type fish and Tg(SCN5A-D1275N) fish (a fish model for inherited SSS). With this criterion, a subpopulation of about 5% wild-type fish can be considered to have SA episodes, and this percentage significantly increases to about 25% in 3-year-old fish. In response to atropine, this subpopulation has both common SSS phenotypic traits that are shared with the Tg(SCN5A-D1275N) model, such as bradycardia; and unique SSS phenotypic traits, such as increased QRS/P ratio and chronotropic incompetence. In summary, this study defined baseline SA and SSS in adult zebrafish and underscored use of the zebrafish as an alternative model to study aging-associated SSS.

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<![CDATA[A test of positive suggestions about side effects as a way of enhancing the analgesic response to NSAIDs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b79dd5eed0c48449066e

Side effects are frequent in pharmacological pain management, potentially preceding analgesia and limiting drug tolerability. Discussing side effects is part of informed consent, yet can favor nocebo effects. This study aimed to test whether a positive suggestion regarding side effects, which could act as reminders of the medication having been absorbed, might favor analgesia in a clinical interaction model. Sixty-six healthy males participated in a study “to validate pupillometry as an objective measure of analgesia”. Participants were unknowingly randomized double-blind to positive vs control information about side effects embedded in a video regarding the study drugs. Sequences of moderately painful heat stimuli applied before and after treatment with diclofenac and atropine served to evaluate analgesia. Atropine was deceptively presented as a co-analgesic, but used to induce side effects. Adverse events (AE) were collected with the General Assessment of Side Effects (GASE) questionnaire prior to the second induced pain sequence. Debriefing fully informed participants regarding the purpose of the study and showed them the two videos.The combination of medication led to significant analgesia, without a between-group difference. Positive information about side effects increased the attribution of AE to the treatment compared to the control information. The total GASE score was correlated with analgesia, i.e., the more AEs reported, the stronger the analgesia. Interestingly, there was a significant between-groups difference on this correlation: the GASE score and analgesia correlated only in the positive information group. This provides evidence for a selective link between AEs and pain relief in the group who received the suggestion that AEs could be taken as a sign “that help was on the way”. During debriefing, 65% of participants said they would prefer to receive the positive message in a clinical context. Although the present results cannot be translated immediately to clinical pain conditions, they do indicate the importance of testing this type of modulation in a clinical context.

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<![CDATA[Repeated anaesthesia with isoflurane and medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl in guinea pigs and its influence on physiological parameters]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbfff

Repeated anaesthesia may be required in experimental protocols and in daily veterinary practice, but anaesthesia is known to alter physiological parameters in GPs (Cavia porcellus, GPs). This study investigated the effects of repeated anaesthesia with either medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl (MMF) or isoflurane (Iso) on physiological parameters in the GP. Twelve GPs were repeatedly administered with MMF or Iso in two anaesthesia sets. One set consisted of six 40-min anaesthesias, performed over 3 weeks (2 per week); the anaesthetic used first was randomized. Prior to Iso anaesthesia, atropine was injected. MMF anaesthesia was antagonized with AFN (atipamezole-flumazenil-naloxone). Abdominally implanted radio-telemetry devices recorded the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and core body temperature continuously. Additionally, respiratory rate, blood glucose and body weight were assessed. An operable state could be achieved and maintained for 40 min in all GPs. During the surgical tolerance with MMF, the GPs showed a large MAP range between the individuals. In the MMF wake- up phase, the time was shortened until the righting reflex (RR) returned and that occurred at lower MAP and HR values. Repeated Iso anaesthesia led to an increasing HR during induction (anaesthesias 2–6), non-surgical tolerance (anaesthesias 3–6) and surgical tolerance (anaesthesias 4, 6). Both anaesthetics may be used repeatedly, as repeating the anaesthesias resulted in only slightly different physiological parameters, compared to those seen with single anaesthesias. The regular atropine premedication induced HR increases and repeated MMF anaesthesia resulted in a metabolism increase which led to the faster return of RR. Nevertheless, Iso’s anaesthesia effects of strong respiratory depression and severe hypotension remained. Based on this increased anaesthesia risk with Iso, MMF anaesthesia is preferable for repeated use in GPs.

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<![CDATA[The Organophosphate Paraoxon and Its Antidote Obidoxime Inhibit Thrombin Activity and Affect Coagulation In Vitro]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da44ab0ee8fa60b8b2a6

Organophosphates (OPs) are potentially able to affect serine proteases by reacting with their active site. The potential effects of OPs on coagulation factors such as thrombin and on coagulation tests have been only partially characterized and potential interactions with OPs antidotes such as oximes and muscarinic blockers have not been addressed. In the current study, we investigated the in vitro interactions between coagulation, thrombin, the OP paraoxon, and its antidotes obidoxime and atropine. The effects of these substances on thrombin activity were measured in a fluorescent substrate and on coagulation by standard tests. Both paraoxon and obidoxime but not atropine significantly inhibited thrombin activity, and prolonged prothrombin time, thrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time. When paraoxon and obidoxime were combined, a significant synergistic effect was found on both thrombin activity and coagulation tests. In conclusion, paraoxon and obidoxime affect thrombin activity and consequently alter the function of the coagulation system. Similar interactions may be clinically relevant for coagulation pathways in the blood and possibly in the brain.

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<![CDATA[Evaporimeter and Bubble-Imaging Measures of Sweat Gland Secretion Rates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0fab0ee8fa60b78df1

Beta-adrenergically-stimulated sweat rates determined by evaporimetry or by sweat bubble imaging are useful for measuring CFTR function because they provide a near-linear readout across almost the full range of CFTR function. They differentiate cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects from CF carriers and carriers from controls. However, evaporimetry, unlike bubble imaging, appears to be unable to detect improved levels of CFTR function in G551D subjects taking the CFTR modulator ivacaftor. Here, we quantify the sensitivity of evaporimetry and bubble imaging methods for assessing low levels of CFTR-dependent sweat rates. To establish sensitivity, we did dose-ranging studies using intradermally injected [cAMP]i–elevating cocktails. We reduced isoproterenol/aminophylline levels while maintaining a high level of atropine to block muscarinic elevation of [Ca2+]i. We stimulated the same sets of glands for both assays and recorded responses for 20 min. In response to a 3-log dilution of the stimulating cocktail (0.1%), bubble responses were detected in 12/12 tests (100%), with 49% ± 3% of glands secreting to produce an aggregate volume of 598 nl across the 12, 20-min tests. This was ~5% of the response to full cocktail. Evaporimetry detected responses in 3/12 (25%) tests with an aggregate secretion volume of 175 nl. After stimulation with a still more dilute cocktail (0.03%), bubble imaging detected 15 ± 13% of glands secreting at a rate ~0.9% of the response to full cocktail, while zero responding was seen with evaporimetry. The bubble imaging method detected secretion down to aggregate rates of <0.2 nl/(cm2·min), or ~1/30th of the average basal transepithelial water loss (TEWL) in the test subject of 4 g/m2·hr or 6.7 nl/(cm2·min). The increased sensitivity of bubble imaging may be required to detect small but physiologically important increases in secretion rates produced by CFTR modulators.

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<![CDATA[Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate stimulated Cl− secretion in mouse trachea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60bdff67

Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) is a derivate of tanshinone IIA, a lipophilic compound in Salvia miltiorrhiza. This study aimed to investigate the effect of STS on ion transport in mouse tracheal epithelium and the mechanisms underlying it. Short-circuit current (Isc) was measured to evaluate the effect of STS on transepithelial ion transport. Intracellular Ca2+ imaging was performed to observe intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) changes induced by STS in primary cultured mouse tracheal epithelial cells. Results showed that the apical application of STS at mouse trachea elicited an increase of Isc, which was abrogated by atropine, an antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR). By removing ambient Cl or applying blockers of Ca2+-activated Cl channel (CaCC), the response of STS-induced Isc was suppressed. Moreover, STS elevated the [Ca2+]i in mouse tracheal epithelial cells. As a result, STS stimulated Cl secretion in mouse tracheal epithelium via CaCC in an mAChR-dependent way. Due to the critical role of Cl secretion in airway hydration, our findings suggested that STS may be used to ameliorate the airway dehydration symptom in cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

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<![CDATA[Neural substrate of posterior left atrium: A novel modulation for inducibility and remodeling of atrial fibrillation in canine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf540

Background

The neural mechanism of posterior left atrium (PLA) for genesis of atrial fibrillation has not been completely elucidated. We sought to assess the contribution of PLA denervation on atrial fibrillation (AF) inducibility and atrial remodeling.

Methods and results

After left thoracotomy in anesthetized dogs (n = 32), electrode catheters were attached to the PLA, left atrial roof, left pulmonary vein and left atrial appendage. Experiment 1 (n = 16): Vagal stimulation (VS group, n = 8) led to more pronounced ERP shortening in PLA than in other sites (CTL:71±7 ms vs VS: 52±6 ms, P<0.05;). Compared with control group (CTL group, n = 8), atropine alone or with propranolol applied to PLA greatly inhibited VS-induced ERP shortening, ERP dispersion increase, and AF inducibility in the left atrium (P<0.05); but ERP was not significantly different between atropine alone and DB conditions (Atro:85±8 ms vs DB:90±9ms, P>0.05). In addition, domain frequency (DF) of VS-induced AF waveform was not affected by atropine alone, while selective double autonomic blockade at PLA significantly decreased DF at all sites (P<0.05). Experiment 2 (n = 16): In group 1 (n = 8), ERP was markedly shortened in the first 2 hours (11–19% decrease) and then stabilized; however, WOV was progressively widened throughout the 6 hours rapid atrial pacing (BS: 51±9ms vs 6th hour: 161±30ms, P<0.05). After drug application, ERP was increased in all sites of atria, the ERP dispersion was significantly decreased (Atro: 2.36±0.02 vs 6th hour: 5.09±0.07, P<0.05) and AF could be induced in only 1 of 8 dogs. In group 2 (n = 8), 6 hours rapid atrial pacing failed to shorten the ERP and increased ERP dispersion, and only 2 episodes of AF could be induced (WOV = 0).

Conclusion

Local denervation of PLA, as predominant atrial autonomic profile, greatly inhibits AF inducibility and atrial remodeling.

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<![CDATA[State Anxiety and Nonlinear Dynamics of Heart Rate Variability in Students]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da04ab0ee8fa60b750e6

Objectives

Clinical and experimental research studies have demonstrated that the emotional experience of anxiety impairs heart rate variability (HRV) in humans. The present study investigated whether changes in state anxiety (SA) can also modulate nonlinear dynamics of heart rate.

Methods

A group of 96 students volunteered to participate in the study. For each student, two 5-minute recordings of beat intervals (RR) were performed: one during a rest period and one just before a university examination, which was assumed to be a real-life stressor. Nonlinear analysis of HRV was performed. The Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to assess the level of SA.

Results

Before adjusting for heart rate, a Wilcoxon matched pairs test showed significant decreases in Poincaré plot measures, entropy, largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), and pointwise correlation dimension (PD2), and an increase in the short-term fractal-like scaling exponent of detrended fluctuation analysis (α1) during the exam session, compared with the rest period. A Pearson analysis indicated significant negative correlations between the dynamics of SA and Poincaré plot axes ratio (SD1/SD2), and between changes in SA and changes in entropy measures. A strong negative correlation was found between the dynamics of SA and LLE. A significant positive correlation was found between the dynamics of SA and α1. The decreases in Poincaré plot measures (SD1, complex correlation measure), entropy measures, and LLE were still significant after adjusting for heart rate. Corrected α1 was increased during the exam session. As before, the dynamics of adjusted LLE was significantly correlated with the dynamics of SA.

Conclusions

The qualitative increase in SA during academic examination was related to the decrease in the complexity and size of the Poincaré plot through a reduction of both the interbeat interval and its variation.

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<![CDATA[Factors related to axial length elongation and myopia progression in orthokeratology practice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc8d9

Purpose

To investigate which baseline factors are predictive for axial length growth over an average period of 2.5 years in a group of children wearing orthokeratology (OK) contact lenses.

Methods

In this retrospective study, the clinical records of 249 new OK wearers between January 2012 and December 2013 from the contact lens clinic at the Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University were reviewed. The primary outcome measure was axial length change from baseline to the time of review (July-August 2015). Independent variables included baseline measures of age at initiation of OK wear, gender, refractive error (spherical equivalent), astigmatism, average keratometry, corneal toricity, central corneal thickness, white-to-white corneal diameter, pupil size, corneal topography eccentricity value (e-value), intraocular pressure (IOP) and total time in follow-up (months total). The contributions of all independent variables on axial length change at the time of review were assessed using univariate and multivariable regression analyses.

Results

Univariate analyses of the right eyes of 249 OK patients showed that smaller increases in axial length were associated with older age at the onset of OK lens wear, greater baseline spherical equivalent myopic refractive error, less time in follow-up and a smaller e-value. Multivariable analyses of the significant right eye variables showed that the factors associated with smaller axial length growth were older age at the onset of OK lens wear (p<0.0001), greater baseline spherical equivalent myopic refractive error (p = 0.0046) and less time in follow-up (p<0.0001).

Conclusions

The baseline factors demonstrating the greatest correlation with reduced axial length elongation during OK lens wear in myopic children included greater baseline spherical equivalent myopic refractive error and older age at the onset of OK lens wear.

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<![CDATA[Changes in the anterior segment after cycloplegia with a biometer using swept-source optical coherence tomography]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5aafbfbc463d7e7cbd913587

The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the anterior segment of the eye after cycloplegia. A biometer combined with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) was used for measurements. Patients with strabismus or amblyopia who underwent cycloplegia were included. The axial length, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, and lens thickness were measured with the biometer–SSOCT system before and after cycloplegia. Altogether, 10 eyes of 10 patients (mean age 7.20 ± 3.08 years, range 4–14 years) were evaluated. The mean measurements before cycloplegia were 22.75 ± 0.96 mm axial length, 516 ± 33 μm central corneal thickness, 3.40 ± 0.21 mm anterior chamber depth, and 3.77 ± 0.26 mm lens thickness. The corresponding values after cycloplegia were 22.75 ± 0.95 mm, 519 ± 34 μm, 3.68 ± 0.16 mm, and 3.42 ± 0.20 mm, respectively. The mean lens thickness had significantly decreased (P < 0.001) after cycloplegia, and the mean anterior chamber depth had significantly increased (P < 0.001). The means of the axial length (P = 0.66) and central corneal thickness (P = 0.17) had not changed significantly. The change in lens thickness was significantly correlated with the change in anterior chamber depth (r = −0.73, P = 0.02). The new biometer–SSOCT combination proved useful for accurately detecting changes in the anterior segment of the eye after cycloplegia in pediatric patients. The biometer’s measurements indicated increased anterior chamber depth and decreased lens thickness after cycloplegia. The anterior chamber depth increased relative to the decrease in lens thickness.

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<![CDATA[Altered detrusor contractility in MPTP-treated common marmosets with bladder hyperreflexia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60bdfe12

Bladder hyperreflexia is a common non-motor feature of Parkinson’s disease. We now report on the contractility of the isolated primate detrusor strips devoid of nerve input and show that following MPTP, the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contraction was increased. These responses were unaffected by dopamine D1 and D2 receptor agonists A77636 and ropinirole respectively. Contractions by exogenous carbachol, histamine or ATP were similar and no differences in the magnitude of noradrenaline-induced relaxation were seen in detrusor strip obtained from normal and MPTP-treated common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). However, the neurogenic contractions following electrical field stimulation of the intrinsic nerves (EFS) were markedly greater in strips obtained from MPTP treated animals. EFS evoked non-cholinergic contractions following atropine were also greater but the contribution of the cholinergic innervation as a proportion of the overall contraction was smaller in the detrusor strips of MPTP treated animals, suggesting a preferential enhancement of the non-cholinergic transmission. Although dopaminergic mechanism has been proposed to underlie bladder hyperreflexia in MPTP-treated animals with intact bladder, the present data indicates that the increased neurogenically mediated contractions where no extrinsic innervation exists might be due to long-term adaptive changes locally as a result of the loss of the nigrostriatal output.

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<![CDATA[Nitrergic Pathway Is the Main Contributing Mechanism in the Human Gastric Fundus Relaxation: An In Vitro Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad3ab0ee8fa60bb6f68

Background

Human gastric fundus relaxation is mediated by intrinsic inhibitory pathway. We investigated the roles of nitrergic and purinergic pathways, two known inhibitory factors in gastric motility, on spontaneous and nerve-evoked contractions in human gastric fundus muscles.

Methods

Gastric fundus muscle strips (12 circular and 13 longitudinal) were obtained from patients without previous gastrointestinal motility disorder who underwent gastrectomy for stomach cancer. Using these specimens, we examined basal tone, peak, amplitude, and frequency of spontaneous contractions, and peak and nadir values under electrical field stimulation (EFS, 150 V, 0.3 ms, 10 Hz, 20 s). To examine responses to purinergic and nitrergic inhibition without cholinergic innervation, atropine (muscarinic antagonist, 1 μM), MRS2500 (a purinergic P2Y1 receptor antagonist, 1 μM), and N-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 100 μM) were added sequentially for spontaneous and electrically-stimulated contractions. Tetrodotoxin was used to confirm any neuronal involvement.

Results

In spontaneous contraction, L-NNA increased basal tone and peak in both muscle layers, while amplitude and frequency were unaffected. EFS (up to 10 Hz) uniformly induced initial contraction and subsequent relaxation in a frequency-dependent manner. Atropine abolished initial on-contraction and induced only relaxation during EFS. While MRS2500 showed no additional influence, L-NNA reversed relaxation (p = 0.012 in circular muscle, and p = 0.006 in longitudinal muscle). Tetrodotoxin abolished any EFS-induced motor response.

Conclusions

The relaxation of human gastric fundus muscle is reduced by nitrergic inhibition. Hence, nitrergic pathway appears to be the main mechanism for the human gastric fundus relaxation.

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