ResearchPad - autophagic-cell-death https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of caveolin-1 and ATG4C expression in the epithelial ovarian cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14473 Altered expression of caveolin-1 (CAV1) and autophagy marker ATG4C is observed in various types of human cancers. However, the clinical significance of CAV1 and ATG4C expression in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains largely unknown. The present study aims to explore the clinicopathological value and prognostic significance of CAV1 and ATG4C expression in EOC.MethodsThe expression pattern and prognostic value of CAV1 and ATG4C mRNA in EOC were analyzed using data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database (N = 373). In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis was performed to detect and assay the expression of CAV1 and ATG4C proteins in tissue microarray of EOC.ResultsBased on TCGA data, Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with low CAV1 mRNA (p = 0.021) and high ATG4C mRNA (p = 0.018) expression had a significantly shorter overall survival (OS). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the expression levels of CAV1 (p = 0.023) and ATG4C mRNA (p = 0.040) were independent prognostic factors for OS in EOC. In addition, the Concordance Index of the nomogram for OS prediction was 0.660. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the expression levels of stromal CAV1 and cancerous ATG4C proteins, and high expression of both CAV1 and ATG4C protein in the stroma were found to significantly correlate with the histologic subtypes of EOC, especially with serous subtype.ConclusionsDecreased expression of CAV1 mRNA and increased expression of ATG4C mRNA in EOC can predict poor overall survival. The expression levels of CAV1 protein in stromal cells and ATG4C protein in cancer cells are significantly associated with histologic subtypes of EOC. These findings suggest that CAV1 and ATG4C serve as useful prognostic biomarkers and candidate therapeutic targets in EOC. ]]> <![CDATA[Decyl caffeic acid inhibits the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells in an autophagy-dependent manner <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13874 The treatment of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells through suppressing the abnormal survival signaling pathways has recently become a significant area of focus. In this study, our results demonstrated that decyl caffeic acid (DC), one of the novel caffeic acid derivatives, remarkedly suppressed the growth of CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo. The inhibitory effects of DC on CRC cells were investigated in an in vitro cell model and in vivo using a xenograft mouse model. CRC cells were treated with DC at various dosages (0, 10, 20 and 40 μM), and cell survival, the apoptotic index and the autophagy level were measured using an MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The signaling cascades in CRC were examined by Western blot assay. The anti-cancer effects of DC on tumor growth were examined by using CRC HCT-116 cells implanted in an animal model. Our results indicated that DC differentially suppressed the growth of CRC HT-29 and HCT-116 cells through an enhancement of cell-cycle arrest at the S phase. DC inhibited the expression of cell-cycle regulators, which include cyclin E and cyclin A proteins. The molecular mechanisms of action were correlated to the blockade of the STAT3 and Akt signaling cascades. Strikingly, a high dosage of DC prompted a self-protection action through inducing cell-dependent autophagy in HCT-116 cells. Suppression of autophagy induced cell death in the treatment of DC in HCT-116 cells. DC seemed to inhibit cell proliferation of CRC differentially, and the therapeutic advantage appeared to be autophagy dependent. Moreover, consumption of DC blocked the tumor growth of colorectal adenocarcinoma in an experimental animal model. In conclusion, our results suggested that DC could act as a therapeutic agent through the significant suppression of tumor growth of human CRC cells.

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<![CDATA[A modified arginine-depleting enzyme NEI-01 inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11227 Arginine deprivation cancer therapy targets certain types of malignancies with positive result in many studies and clinical trials. NEI-01 was designed as a novel arginine-depleting enzyme comprising an albumin binding domain capable of binding to human serum albumin to lengthen its half-life. In the present work, NEI-01 is shown to bind to serum albumin from various species, including mice, rat and human. Single intraperitoneal administration of NEI-01 to mice reduced plasma arginine to undetectable level for at least 9 days. Treatment of NEI-01 specifically inhibited cell viability of MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cancer cell lines, which were ASS1 negative. Using a human pancreatic mouse xenograft model, NEI-01 treatment significantly reduced tumor volume and weight. Our data provides proof of principle for a cancer treatment strategy using NEI-01.

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<![CDATA[Control of basal autophagy rate by vacuolar peduncle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c67309ed5eed0c484f37df3

Basal autophagy is as a compressive catabolic mechanism engaged in the breakdown of damaged macromolecules and organelles leading to the recycling of elementary nutrients. Thought essential to cellular refreshing, little is known about the origin of a constitutional rate of basal autophagy. Here, we found that loss of Drosophila vacuolar peduncle (vap), a presumed GAP enzyme, is associated with enhanced basal autophagy rate and physiological alterations resulting in a wasteful cell energy balance, a hallmark of overactive autophagy. By contrast, starvation-induced autophagy was disrupted in vap mutant conditions, leading to a block of maturation into autolysosomes. This phenotype stem for exacerbated biogenesis of PI(3)P-dependent endomembranes, including autophagosome membranes and ectopic fusions of vesicles. These findings shed new light on the neurodegenerative phenotype found associated to mutant vap adult brains in a former study. A partner of Vap, Sprint (Spri), acting as an endocytic GEF for Rab5, had the converse effect of leading to a reduction in PI(3)P-dependent endomembrane formation in mutants. Spri was conditional to normal basal autophagy and instrumental to the starvation-sensitivity phenotype specific of vap. Rab5 activity itself was essential for PI(3)P and for pre-autophagosome structures formation. We propose that Vap/Spri complexes promote a cell surface-derived flow of endocytic Rab5-containing vesicles, the traffic of which is crucial for the implementation of a basal autophagy rate.

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<![CDATA[Correlation between macrophage migration inhibitory factor and autophagy in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b2657d5eed0c484289882

The role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and autophagy in gastric cancer is not clear. We determined H. pylori infection status of the subjects and investigated the expression of MIF and autophagy markers (Atg5, LC3A and LC3B) in human gastric tissue at baseline. Then H. pylori eradication was done for H. pylori positive patients and MIF and Atg5 levels were investigated on each follow-up for both H. pylori-eradicated and H. pylori negative patients. Baseline tissue mRNA expression of MIF, Atg5, LC3A and LC3B was measured by real-time PCR in 453 patients (control 165, gastric dysplasia 82, and gastric cancer 206). Three hundred three patients (66.9%) had H. pylori infection at the time of enrollment. Only within H. pylori-positive group, MIF level was significantly elevated in patients with cancer than in control or dysplasia groups (P<0.05). LC3A and LC3B levels also showed significant differences within H. pylori-positive subgroups. H. pylori-positive dysplasia subgroup showed significantly lower (LC3A) (P<0.05) and higher (LC3B) mRNA levels (P<0.05) than in other subgroups. On follow-up, within H. pylori-eradicated group, Atg5 expression increased sequentially from control to dysplasia and cancer subgroups. Multiple linear regression showed autophagy markers (LC3A, LC3B, and Atg5) directly predicted MIF level (adjusted R2 = 0.492, P<0.001). Serial follow-up showed longitudinal increase in Atg5 level in general, with constantly higher levels in H. pylori-eradicated group than in -negative group. Intestinal metaplasia (IM) group initially showed higher Atg5 expression than the IM-negative group. However, it was reversed between the groups eventually because of the lower rate of increase in IM group. These results suggest a role of MIF and autophagy markers and their interaction in H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Toll-like receptor 3 regulates Zika virus infection and associated host inflammatory response in primary human astrocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6730aad5eed0c484f37e84

The connection between Zika virus (ZIKV) and neurodevelopmental defects is widely recognized, although the mechanisms underlying the infectivity and pathology in primary human glial cells are poorly understood. Here we show that three isolated strains of ZIKV, an African strain MR766 (Uganda) and two closely related Asian strains R103451 (Honduras) and PRVABC59 (Puerto Rico) productively infect primary human astrocytes, although Asian strains showed a higher infectivity rate and increased cell death when compared to the African strain. Inhibition of AXL receptor significantly attenuated viral entry of MR766 and PRVABC59 and to a lesser extend R103451, suggesting an important role of TAM receptors in ZIKV cell entry, irrespective of lineage. Infection by PRVABC59 elicited the highest release of inflammatory molecules, with a 8-fold increase in the release of RANTES, 10-fold increase in secretion of IP-10 secretion and a 12-fold increase in IFN-β secretion when compared to un-infected human astrocytes. Minor changes in the release of several growth factors, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress response factors and the transcription factor, NF-κB were detected with the Asian strains, while significant increases in FOXO6, MAPK10 and JNK were detected with the African strain. Activation of the autophagy pathway was evident with increased expression of the autophagy related proteins Beclin1, LC3B and p62/SQSTM1 with all three strains of ZIKV. Pharmacological inhibition of the autophagy pathway and genetic inhibition of the Beclin1 showed minimal effects on ZIKV replication. The expression of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) was significantly increased with all three strains of ZIKV; pharmacological and genetic inhibition of TLR3 caused a decrease in viral titers and in viral-induced inflammatory response in infected astrocytes. We conclude that TLR3 plays a vital role in both ZIKV replication and viral-induced inflammatory responses, irrespective of the strains, while the autophagy protein Beclin1 influences host inflammatory responses.

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<![CDATA[Cilostazol protects hepatocytes against alcohol-induced apoptosis via activation of AMPK pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59fed6d5eed0c48413570c

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a worldwide health problem and hepatocyte apoptosis has been associated with the development/progression of ALD. However, no definite effective pharmacotherapy for ALD is currently available. Cilostazol, a selective type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor has been shown to protect hepatocytes from ethanol-induced apoptosis. In the present study, the underlying mechanisms for the protective effects of cilostazol were examined. Primary rat hepatocytes were treated with ethanol in the presence or absence of cilostazol. Cell viability and intracellular cAMP were measured. Apoptosis was detected by Hoechst staining, TUNEL assay, and caspase-3 activity assay. The roles of cAMP and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways in the action of CTZ were explored using pharmacological inhibitors and siRNAs. Liver from mice received ethanol (5 g/kg body weight) by oral gavage following cilostazol treatment intraperitoneally was obtained for measurement of apoptosis and activation of AMPK pathway. Cilostazol inhibited ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and potentiated the increases in cAMP level induced by forskolin. However, the anti-apoptotic effect of cilostazol was not reversed by an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase. Interestingly, cilostazol activated AMPK and increased the level of LC3-II, a marker of autophagy. The inhibition of AMPK abolished the effects of cilostazol on LC3-II expression and apoptosis. Moreover, the inhibition of LKB1 and CaMKK2, upstream kinases of AMPK, dampened cilostazol-inhibited apoptosis as well as AMPK activation. In conclusion, cilostazol protected hepatocytes from apoptosis induced by ethanol mainly via AMPK pathway which is regulated by both LKB1 and CaMKK2. Our results suggest that cilostazol may have potential as a promising therapeutic drug for treatment of ALD.

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<![CDATA[Molecular insights in the pathogenesis of classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome from transcriptome-wide expression profiling of patients’ skin fibroblasts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8b3d5eed0c48496efc5

Classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS) is a dominant inherited connective tissue disorder mainly caused by mutations in the COL5A1 and COL5A2 genes encoding type V collagen (COLLV), which is a fibrillar COLL widely distributed in a variety of connective tissues. cEDS patients suffer from skin hyperextensibility, abnormal wound healing/atrophic scars, and joint hypermobility. Most of the causative variants result in a non-functional COL5A1 allele and COLLV haploinsufficiency, whilst COL5A2 mutations affect its structural integrity. To shed light into disease mechanisms involved in cEDS, we performed gene expression profiling in skin fibroblasts from four patients harboring haploinsufficient and structural mutations in both disease genes. Transcriptome profiling revealed significant changes in the expression levels of different extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes, such as SPP1, POSTN, EDIL3, IGFBP2, and C3, which encode both matricellular and soluble proteins that are mainly involved in cell proliferation and migration, and cutaneous wound healing. These gene expression changes are consistent with our previous protein findings on in vitro fibroblasts from other cEDS patients, which exhibited reduced migration and poor wound repair owing to COLLV disorganization, altered deposition of fibronectin into ECM, and an abnormal integrin pattern. Microarray analysis also indicated the decreased expression of DNAJB7, VIPAS39, CCPG1, ATG10, SVIP, which encode molecular chaperones facilitating protein folding, enzymes regulating post-Golgi COLLs processing, and proteins acting as cargo receptors required for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis and implicated in the autophagy process. Patients’ cells also showed altered mRNA levels of many cell cycle regulating genes including CCNE2, KIF4A, MKI67, DTL, and DDIAS. Protein studies showed that aberrant COLLV expression causes the disassembly of itself and many structural ECM constituents including COLLI, COLLIII, fibronectin, and fibrillins. Our findings provide the first molecular evidence of significant gene expression changes in cEDS skin fibroblasts highlighting that defective ECM remodeling, ER homeostasis and autophagy might play a role in the pathogenesis of this connective tissue disorder.

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<![CDATA[Conophylline inhibits high fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d659d5eed0c484031c64

Conophylline (CnP), a vinca alkaloid extracted from the leaves of the tropical plant Tabernaemontana divaricate, attenuates hepatic fibrosis in mice. We have previously shown that CnP inhibits non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) using a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet-fed mouse model. However, little is known about the CnP mediated inhibition of hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mouse models. CnP (0.5 and 1 μg/g/body weight) was co-administered along with a high-fat diet to male BALB/c mice. After nine weeks of administering the high-fat diet, hepatic steatosis, triglyceride, and hepatic fat metabolism-related markers were examined. Administration of a high-fat diet for 9 weeks was found to induce hepatic steatosis. CnP dose-dependently attenuated the high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis. The diet also attenuated hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA) mRNA levels. PPARA is known to be involved in β-oxidation. CnP upregulated the mRNA levels of hepatic PPARA and its target genes, such as carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1) and CPT2, in a dose-dependent manner in the liver. Furthermore, levels of hepatic β-hydroxybutyrate, which is a type of ketone body, were increased by CnP in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, CnP increased the expression of the autophagosomal marker LC3-II and decreased the expression of p62, which are known to be selectively degraded during autophagy. These results indicate that CnP inhibits hepatic steatosis through the stimulation of β-oxidation and autophagy in the liver. Therefore, CnP might prove to be a suitable therapeutic target for NAFLD.

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<![CDATA[Fluctuations in cell density alter protein markers of multiple cellular compartments, confounding experimental outcomes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8c6d5eed0c48496f14c

The life cycle of cultured proliferating cells is characterized by fluctuations in cell population density induced by periodic subculturing. This leads to corresponding changes in micro- and macroenvironment of the cells, accompanied by altered cellular metabolism, growth rate and locomotion. Studying cell density-dependent morphological, physiological and biochemical fluctuations is relevant for understanding basic cellular mechanisms and for uncovering the intrinsic variation of commonly used tissue culture experimental models. Using multiple cell lines, we found that expression levels of the autophagic markers p62 and LC3II, and lysosomal enzyme cathepsin D were altered in highly confluent cells as a consequence of nutrient depletion and cell crowding, which led to inactivation of the mTOR signaling pathway. Furthermore, both Lamp1 and active focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were reduced in high-density cells, while chemical inhibition or deletion of FAK led to alterations in lysosomal and autophagic proteins, as well as in the mTOR signaling. This was accompanied by alterations in the Hippo signaling pathway, while cell cycle checkpoint regulator p-cdc2 remained unaffected in at least one studied cell line. On the other hand, allometric scaling of cellular compartments in growing cell populations resulted in biochemically detectable changes in the plasma membrane proteins Na+K+-ATPase and cadherin, and nuclear proteins HDAC1 and Lamin B1. Finally, we demonstrate how treatment-induced changes in cell density and corresponding modulation of susceptible proteins may lead to ambiguous experimental outcomes, or erroneous interpretation of cell culture data. Together, our data emphasize the need to recognize cell density as an important experimental variable in order to improve scientific rigor of cell culture-based studies.

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<![CDATA[The type III intermediate filament vimentin regulates organelle distribution and modulates autophagy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52e2d5eed0c4842bd1ca

The cytoskeletal protein vimentin plays a key role in positioning of organelles within the cytosol and has been linked to the regulation of numerous cellular processes including autophagy, however, how vimentin regulates autophagy remains relatively unexplored. Here we report that inhibition of vimentin using the steroidal lactone Withaferin A (WFA) causes vimentin to aggregate, and this is associated with the relocalisation of organelles including autophagosomes and lysosomes from the cytosol to a juxtanuclear location. Vimentin inhibition causes autophagosomes to accumulate, and we demonstrate this results from modulation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTORC1) activity, and disruption of autophagosome-lysosome fusion. We suggest that vimentin plays a physiological role in autophagosome and lysosome positioning, thus identifying vimentin as a key factor in the regulation of mTORC1 and autophagy.

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<![CDATA[The red pepper’s spicy ingredient capsaicin activates AMPK in HepG2 cells through CaMKKβ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59fed8d5eed0c484135716

Capsaicin is a natural compound present in chili and red peppers and the responsible of their spicy flavor. It has recently provoked interest because of its antitumoral effects in many cell types although its action mechanism is not clearly understood. As metabolic dysregulation is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells and the key metabolic sensor in the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), in this study we explored the ability of capsaicin to modulate AMPK activity. We found that capsaicin activated AMPK in HepG2 cells by increasing AMPK phosphorylation and its downstream target ACC. Mechanistically, we determined that capsaicin activated AMPK through the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β, CaMKKβ as either the CaMKK inhibitor STO-609 or CaMKK knock down with siRNA abrogated the activation of AMPK. Moreover, capsaicin decreased cell viability, inhibited Akt/mTOR pathway and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells. AMPK activation was involved in the underpinning mechanism of capsaicin-induced cell death.

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<![CDATA[An analog of glibenclamide selectively enhances autophagic degradation of misfolded α1-antitrypsin Z]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c521814d5eed0c48479726d

The classical form of α1-antitrypsin deficiency (ATD) is characterized by intracellular accumulation of the misfolded variant α1-antitrypsin Z (ATZ) and severe liver disease in some of the affected individuals. In this study, we investigated the possibility of discovering novel therapeutic agents that would reduce ATZ accumulation by interrogating a C. elegans model of ATD with high-content genome-wide RNAi screening and computational systems pharmacology strategies. The RNAi screening was utilized to identify genes that modify the intracellular accumulation of ATZ and a novel computational pipeline was developed to make high confidence predictions on repurposable drugs. This approach identified glibenclamide (GLB), a sulfonylurea drug that has been used broadly in clinical medicine as an oral hypoglycemic agent. Here we show that GLB promotes autophagic degradation of misfolded ATZ in mammalian cell line models of ATD. Furthermore, an analog of GLB reduces hepatic ATZ accumulation and hepatic fibrosis in a mouse model in vivo without affecting blood glucose or insulin levels. These results provide support for a drug discovery strategy using simple organisms as human disease models combined with genetic and computational screening methods. They also show that GLB and/or at least one of its analogs can be immediately tested to arrest the progression of human ATD liver disease.

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<![CDATA[Quadruplex-forming oligonucleotide targeted to the VEGF promoter inhibits growth of non-small cell lung cancer cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e675d5eed0c484ef32bf

Background

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is commonly overexpressed in a variety of tumor types including lung cancer. As a key regulator of angiogenesis, it promotes tumor survival, growth, and metastasis through the activation of the downstream protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2) activation. The VEGF promoter contains a 36 bp guanine-rich sequence (VEGFq) which is capable of forming quadruplex (four-stranded) DNA. This sequence has been implicated in the down-regulation of both basal and inducible VEGF expression and represents an ideal target for inhibition of VEGF expression.

Results

Our experiments demonstrate sequence-specific interaction between a G-rich quadruplex-forming oligonucleotide encoding a portion of the VEGFq sequence and its double stranded target sequence, suggesting that this G-rich oligonucleotide binds specifically to its complementary C-rich sequence in the genomic VEGF promoter by strand invasion. We show that treatment of A549 non-small lung cancer cells (NSCLC) with this oligonucleotide results in decreased VEGF expression and growth inhibition. The VEGFq oligonucleotide inhibits proliferation and invasion by decreasing VEGF mRNA/protein expression and subsequent ERK 1/2 and AKT activation. Furthermore, the VEGFq oligonucleotide is abundantly taken into cells, localized in the cytoplasm/nucleus, inherently stable in serum and intracellularly, and has no effect on non-transformed cells. Suppression of VEGF expression induces cytoplasmic accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and increased expression of LC3B, suggesting that VEGFq may induce autophagic cell death.

Conclusion

Our data strongly suggest that the G-rich VEGFq oligonucleotide binds specifically to the C-rich strand of the genomic VEGF promoter, via strand invasion, stabilizing the quadruplex structure formed by the genomic G-rich sequence, resulting in transcriptional inhibition. Strand invading oligonucleotides represent a new approach to specifically inhibit VEGF expression that avoids many of the problems which have plagued the therapeutic use of oligonucleotides. This is a novel approach to specific inhibition of gene expression.

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<![CDATA[Melatonin: The smart molecule that differentially modulates autophagy in tumor and normal placental cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7abd5eed0c484386589

Melatonin has protective roles in normal cells and cytotoxic actions in cancer cells, with effects involving autophagy and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) transcription factor pathways. Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) induces oxidative damage and apoptosis. These consequences activate autophagy, which degrades damaged cellular content, as well as activates Nrf2 the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) transcription factor, and thereby the expression of protective genes. Melatonin has protective roles in normal cells and cytotoxic actions in cancer cells, with effects involving autophagy and Nrf2 pathways. The current study shows melatonin to differentially modulate autophagy and Nrf2 pathways in tumor and normal placental cells exposed to H/R. BeWo, a human placental choriocarcinoma cell line, and primary villous cytotrophoblasts isolated from normal term placenta, were maintained in normoxia (8% O2) for 24 h or exposed to hypoxia (0.5% of O2 for 4 h) followed by 20 h of normoxia, creating a situation of H/R, in the presence or absence of 1 mM melatonin. Melatonin induced a 7-fold increase in the activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α, an upstream modulator of autophagy, rising to a 16-fold increase in BeWo cells co-exposed to H/R and melatonin, compared to controls. H/R induced autophagosome formation via the increased expression of Beclin-1 (by 94%) and ATG7 (by 97%) in BeWo cells. Moreover, H/R also induced autophagic activity, indicated by the by the 630% increase in P62, and increased Nrf2 by 314% in BeWo cells. In H/R conditions, melatonin reduced autophagic activity by 74% and Nrf2 expression activation by 300%, leading to BeWo cell apoptosis. In contrast, In human primary villous cytotrophoblasts, H/R induced autophagy and Nrf2, which melatonin further potentiated, thereby affording protection against H/R. This study demonstrates that melatonin differentially modulates autophagy and the Nrf2 pathway in normal vs. tumor trophoblast cells, being cytoprotective in normal cells whilst increasing apoptosis in tumoral trophoblast cells.

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<![CDATA[The ESCRT and autophagy machineries cooperate to repair ESX-1-dependent damage at the Mycobacterium-containing vacuole but have opposite impact on containing the infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6059d0d5eed0c4847cbf91

Phagocytic cells capture and kill most invader microbes within the bactericidal phagosome, but some pathogens subvert killing by damaging the compartment and escaping to the cytosol. To prevent the leakage of pathogen virulence and host defence factors, as well as bacteria escape, host cells have to contain and repair the membrane damage, or finally eliminate the cytosolic bacteria. All eukaryotic cells engage various repair mechanisms to ensure plasma membrane integrity and proper compartmentalization of organelles, including the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) and autophagy machineries. We show that during infection of Dictyostelium discoideum with Mycobacterium marinum, the ESCRT-I component Tsg101, the ESCRT-III protein Snf7/Chmp4/Vps32 and the AAA-ATPase Vps4 are recruited to sites of damage at the Mycobacterium-containing vacuole. Interestingly, damage separately recruits the ESCRT and the autophagy machineries. In addition, the recruitment of Vps32 and Vps4 to repair sterile membrane damage depends on Tsg101 but appears independent of Ca2+. Finally, in absence of Tsg101, M. marinum accesses prematurely the cytosol, where the autophagy machinery restricts its growth. We propose that ESCRT has an evolutionary conserved function to repair small membrane damage and to contain intracellular pathogens in intact compartments.

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<![CDATA[Differential and convergent utilization of autophagy components by positive-strand RNA viruses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390bb7d5eed0c48491df88

Many viruses interface with the autophagy pathway, a highly conserved process for recycling cellular components. For three viral infections in which autophagy constituents are proviral (poliovirus, dengue, and Zika), we developed a panel of knockouts (KOs) of autophagy-related genes to test which components of the canonical pathway are utilized. We discovered that each virus uses a distinct set of initiation components; however, all three viruses utilize autophagy-related gene 9 (ATG9), a lipid scavenging protein, and LC3 (light-chain 3), which is involved in membrane curvature. These results show that viruses use noncanonical routes for membrane sculpting and LC3 recruitment. By measuring viral RNA abundance, we also found that poliovirus utilizes these autophagy components for intracellular growth, while dengue and Zika virus only use autophagy components for post-RNA replication processes. Comparing how RNA viruses manipulate the autophagy pathway reveals new noncanonical autophagy routes, explains the exacerbation of disease by starvation, and uncovers common targets for antiviral drugs.

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<![CDATA[Formation of high molecular weight p62 by CORM-3]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e502ed5eed0c484d7e7b2

CORM-3 is a water-soluble carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecule developed for possible therapeutic use of CO. CORM-3 belongs to a group of metal carbonyl compounds that contain transition metals and carbonyls as the central scaffold and coordinated ligands, respectively. CORM-3 has been reported to be reactive with many proteins in eukaryotes including mammals. Among them, several extracellular proteins, such as lysozyme, as well as plasma albumin and fibronectin, have been shown to interact directly with CORM-3. p62 is an intracellular adaptor protein required for targeting ubiquitinated (Ub) proteins to lysosomal degradation through autophagy. p62 has been shown to undergo self-oligomerization via covalent crosslinking in response to treatment with verteporfin, a benzoporphyrin derivative used for photodynamic therapy. Here we show that CORM-3 also interacts directly with p62. When applied to mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) at a high concentration (1 mM), CORM-3 causes the formation of reduction- and detergent-resistant high molecular weight (HMW)-p62. HMW-p62 accumulates more in atg5-/- MEFs than in wild type (WT) MEFs, showing the elimination of HMW-p62 through autophagy. HMW-p62 is also generated in H9c2 rat cardiomyoblastoma as well as A549 human alveolar epithelial cells, suggesting that HMW-p62 formation is not specific to MEFs, but, rather, is a general event in mammalian cells. HMW-p62 formation by CORM-3 can be reproduced using purified p62 in vitro, demonstrating the direct interaction between CORM-3 and p62. These results show that p62 is a CORM-3-interactive intracellular protein.

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<![CDATA[Genetic variants in genes related to inflammation, apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer risk]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c366807d5eed0c4841a6e4b

Background

Inflammation contributes to breast cancer development through its effects on cell damage. This damage is usually dealt with by key genes involved in apoptosis and autophagy pathways.

Methods

We tested 206 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 54 genes related to inflammation, apoptosis and autophagy in a population-based breast cancer study of women of European (658 cases and 795 controls) and East Asian (262 cases and 127 controls) descent. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for breast cancer risk, and case-only analysis to compare breast cancer subtypes (defined by ER/PR/HER2 status), with adjustment for confounders. We assessed statistical interactions between the SNPs and lifestyle factors (smoking status, physical activity and body mass index).

Results and conclusion

Although no SNP was associated with breast cancer risk among women of European descent, we found evidence for an association among East Asians for rs1800925 (IL-13) and breast cancer risk (OR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.32–3.28; p = 0.000779), which remained statistically significant after multiple testing correction (padj = 0.0350). This association was replicated in a meta-analysis of 4305 cases and 4194 controls in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Genetics Study (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03–1.21, p = 0.011). Further, we found evidence of an interaction between rs7874234 (TSC1) and physical activity among women of East Asian descent.

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<![CDATA[Effects of caloric restriction on neuropathic pain, peripheral nerve degeneration and inflammation in normometabolic and autophagy defective prediabetic Ambra1 mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c18138bd5eed0c484775367

There is a growing interest on the role of autophagy in diabetes pathophysiology, where development of neuropathy is one of the most frequent comorbidities. We have previously demonstrated that neuropathic pain after nerve damage is exacerbated in autophagy-defective heterozygous Ambra1 mice. Here, we show the existence of a prediabetic state in Ambra1 mice, characterized by hyperglycemia, intolerance to glucose and insulin resistance. Thus, we further investigate the hypothesis that prediabetes may account for the exacerbation of allodynia and chronic pain and that counteracting the autophagy deficit may relieve the neuropathic condition. We took advantage from caloric restriction (CR) able to exert a double action: a powerful increase of autophagy and a control on the metabolic status. We found that CR ameliorates neuropathy throughout anti-inflammatory and metabolic mechanisms both in Ambra1 and in WT animals subjected to nerve injury. Moreover, we discovered that nerve lesion represents, per se, a metabolic stressor and CR reinstates glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, incomplete fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism. As autophagy inducer, CR promotes and anticipates Schwann cell autophagy via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that facilitates remyelination in peripheral nerve. In summary, we provide new evidence for the role of autophagy in glucose metabolism and identify in energy depletion by dietary restriction a therapeutic approach in the fight against neuropathic pain.

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