ResearchPad - balance-and-falls https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Is postural dysfunction related to sarcopenia? A population-based study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7695 Postural dysfunction is one of the most common community health symptoms and frequent chief complaints in hospitals. Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality, and muscle strength, and is the main contributor to musculoskeletal impairment in the elderly. Previous studies reported that loss of muscle mass is associated with a loss of diverse functional abilities. Meanwhile, there have been limited studies concerning postural dysfunction among older adults with sarcopenia. Although sarcopenia is primarily a disease of the elderly, its development may be associated with conditions that are not exclusively seen in older persons. Also, recent studies recognize that sarcopenia may begin to develop earlier in life. The objective of this paper was to investigate the association between the prevalence of sarcopenia and postural dysfunction in a wide age range of adults using data from a nationally representative cohort study in Korea. Korean National Health & Nutrition Exhibition Survey V (KNHANES V, 2010–2012) data from the fifth cross-sectional survey of the South Korean population performed by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare were used. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM)/height (ht)2 was used to define sarcopenia, and the Modified Romberg test using a foam pad (“foam balance test”) was performed to evaluate postural dysfunction. ASM/ht2 was lower in women and significantly decreased with age in men. Subjects with sarcopenia were significantly more likely to fail the foam balance test, regardless of sex and age. Regression analysis showed a significant relationship between sarcopenia and postural dysfunction (OR: 2.544, 95% CI: 1.683–3.846, p<0.001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that sarcopenia (OR: 1.747, 95% CI: 1.120–2.720, p = 0.014) and age (OR: 1.131, 95% CI: 1.105–1.158, p<0.001) are independent risk factors for postural instability. In middle age subjects, the adjusted OR for sarcopenia was 3.344 (95% CI: 1.350–8.285) (p = 0.009). The prevalence of postural dysfunction is higher in sarcopenia patients, independent of sex and age.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Nordic walking training on quality of life, balance and functional mobility in elderly: A randomized clinical trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b5264d5eed0c4842bc750

Purpose

There is physiological and biomechanical evidence suggesting a possible advantage of using poles in walking training programs. The purpose of this proof-of-concept study was to test the hypothesis that untrained elderly training Nordic walking for eight weeks will show higher improvements on the functional mobility, quality of life and postural balance than that training without poles; more likely to occur in self-selected walking speed (primary outcome), and the locomotor rehabilitation index than the quality of life, the static balance and the dynamic stability. It was a two-arm randomized sample- and load-controlled study.

Methods

Thirty-three untrained older people were randomly assigned into Nordic walking (n = 16, age: 64.6±4.1 years old) and free walking (n = 17, age: 68.6±3.9 years old) training groups.

Results

Improvements in the self-selected walking speed (primary outcome, p = 0.011, ES = 0.42 95%CI -0.31 to 1.16), locomotor rehabilitation index (p = 0.013, ES = 0.36; (95%CI -0.39 to 1.10), quality of life (p<0.05), static balance (p<0.05) and dynamic variability (p<0.05) were found in both groups.

Conclusions

The hypothesis was not supported, our findings indicated that after 8 weeks, the Nordic walking training did not result in greater improvements than free walking training for the primary outcome (self-selected walking speed) and most of the secondary outcomes (including locomotor rehabilitation index, static balance, dynamic stability, and psychological and social participation domains of quality of life).

Trial registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03096964.

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<![CDATA[Who gets lost and why: A representative cross-sectional survey on sociodemographic and vestibular determinants of wayfinding strategies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52bdd5eed0c4842bcf61

When we think of our family and friends, we probably know someone who is good at finding their way and someone else that easily gets lost. We still know little about the biological and environmental factors that influence our navigational ability. Here, we investigated the frequency and sociodemographic determinants of wayfinding and their association with vestibular function in a representative cross-sectional sample (N = 783) of the adult German-speaking population. Wayfinding was assessed using the Wayfinding Strategy Scale, a self-report scale that produces two scores for each participant representing to what degree they rely on route-based or orientation (map-based) strategies. We were interested in the following research questions: (1) the frequency and determinants of wayfinding strategies in a population-based representative sample, (2) the relationship between vestibular function and strategy choice and (3) how sociodemographic factors influence general wayfinding ability as measured using a combined score from both strategy scores. Our linear regression models showed that being male, having a higher education, higher age and lower regional urbanization increased orientation strategy scores. Vertigo/dizziness reduced the scores of both the orientation and the route strategies. Using a novel approach, we grouped participants by their combined strategy scores in a multinomial regression model, to see whether individuals prefer one strategy over the other. The majority of individuals reported using either both or no strategy, instead of preferring one strategy over the other. Young age and reduced vestibular function were indicative of using no strategy. In summary, wayfinding ability depends on both biological and environmental factors; all sociodemographic factors except income. Over a third of the population, predominantly under the age of 35, does not successfully use either strategy. This represents a change in our wayfinding skills, which may result from the technological advances in navigational aids over the last few decades.

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<![CDATA[Antagonist muscle activity during reactive balance responses is elevated in Parkinson’s disease and in balance impairment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e6c8d5eed0c484ef3d8a

Background

Abnormal antagonist leg muscle activity could indicate increased muscle co-contraction and clarify mechanisms of balance impairments in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Prior studies in carefully selected patients showed PD patients demonstrate earlier, longer, and larger antagonist muscle activation during reactive balance responses to perturbations.

Research question

Here, we tested whether antagonist leg muscle activity was abnormal in a group of PD patients who were not selected for phenotype and most of whom had volunteered for exercise-based rehabilitation.

Methods

We compared antagonist activation during reactive balance responses to multidirectional support-surface translation perturbations in 31 patients with mild-moderate PD (age 68±9; H&Y 1–3; UPDRS-III 32±10) and 13 matched individuals (age 65±9). We quantified modulation of muscle activity (i.e., the ability to activate and inhibit muscles appropriately according to the perturbation direction) using modulation indices (MI) derived from minimum and maximum EMG activation levels observed across perturbation directions.

Results

Antagonist leg muscle activity was abnormal in unselected PD patients compared to controls. Linear mixed models identified significant associations between impaired modulation and PD (P<0.05) and PD severity (P<0.01); models assessing the entire sample without referencing PD status identified associations with balance ability (P<0.05), but not age (P = 0.10).

Significance

Antagonist activity is increased during reactive balance responses in PD patients who are not selected on phenotype and are candidates for exercise-based rehabilitation. This activity may be a mechanism of balance impairment in PD and a potential rehabilitation target or outcome measure.

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<![CDATA[Postural stability and visual impairment: Assessing balance in children with strabismus and amblyopia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bd2324c40307c60de5e9971

Background

Vision plays an important role in controlling posture and balance in children. Reduced postural control has been reported in children with strabismus, but little has been reported specifically in amblyopia.

Objective

To investigate whether children with amblyopia have reduced balance compared to both children with strabismus without amblyopia and healthy controls.

Study design and methods

In this cross-sectional study, a total of 56 patients and healthy controls were recruited from the Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology Clinics at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto. Participants were divided into three groups: (1) 18 with unilateral amblyopia (strabismic amblyopia or mixed mechanism); (2) 16 with strabismus only without amblyopia; and (3) 22 visually-normal controls. The primary outcome was the balance performance as measured by the balance subtest of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 [BOT2].

Results

The age and gender-adjusted BOT2 balance scores were significantly reduced in the amblyopia group (mean score 9.0 ± 3.1 SD) and the strabismus without amblyopia group (mean score 8.6 ± 2.4 SD) compared to visually normal controls (mean score 18.9 ± 4.2) (p<0.0001), but no statistical difference was demonstrated between the two patient groups (p = 0.907). Further subgroup analysis of the strabismus only group did not reveal a statistically significant difference in performance on BOT2 balance score between strabismus only patients with good stereopsis 60 sec or better (BOT2 mean score 9.8±3.0 SD) to patients with 3000 sec or no stereopsis (BOT2 mean score 7.9±1.7) (p = 0.144).

Conclusion

Our findings suggest that normal vision plays an important role in the development and maintenance of balance control. When normal binocular vision is disrupted in childhood in strabismus and/or amblyopia, not only is the vision affected, but balance is also reduced. Our results indicate that the presence of even mild binocular discordance/dysfunction (patients with intermittent strabismus and good stereopsis) may lead to postural instability.

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<![CDATA[Stance Postural Strategies in Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db39ab0ee8fa60bd4117

Introduction

Polyneuropathy leads to postural instability and an increased risk of falling. We investigated how impaired motor impairment and proprioceptive input due to neuropathy influences postural strategies.

Methods

Platformless bisegmental posturography data were recorded in healthy subjects and patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Each subject stood on the floor, wore a head and a hip electromagnetic tracker. Sway amplitude and velocity were recorded and the mean direction difference (MDD) in the velocity vector between trackers was calculated as a flexibility index.

Results

Head and hip postural sway increased more in patients with CIDP than in healthy controls. MDD values reflecting hip strategies also increased more in patients than in controls. In the eyes closed condition MDD values in healthy subjects decreased but in patients remained unchanged.

Discussion

Sensori-motor impairment changes the balance between postural strategies that patients adopt to maintain upright quiet stance. Motor impairment leads to hip postural strategy overweight (eyes open), and prevents strategy re-balancing when the sensory context predominantly relies on proprioceptive input (eyes closed).

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<![CDATA[Post-ischemic stroke rehabilitation is associated with a higher risk of fractures in older women: A population-based cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc735

Background

Rehabilitation can improve physical activity after stroke. However, patients may be more prone to falls and fractures because of balance and gait deficits. Few reports have studied the relationship between rehabilitation and subsequent fractures after ischemic stroke.

Objective

To investigate whether post-stroke rehabilitation affects fracture risk.

Methods

We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study based on the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with a newly diagnosed ischemic stroke between 2000 and 2012 were included. After propensity score matching, a total of 8,384 patients were enrolled. Half of the patients (4,192) received post-stroke rehabilitation within 1 month; the other half did not receive any post-stroke rehabilitation. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for fractures among patients with and without rehabilitation within 1 year after ischemic stroke. Patients were further stratified by sex and age (20–64 and ≥65 years).

Results

Patients receiving post-stroke rehabilitation had a higher incidence of fracture (6.2 per 100 person-years) than those who did not (4.1 per 100 person-years) after adjustment for sociodemographic and coexisting medical conditions [HR = 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25–1.87, p < 0.001]. The analyses performed after stratifying for sex and age showed that only older women undergoing rehabilitation had a significantly higher risk of fracture (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.21–2.17, p = 0.001).

Conclusion

Rehabilitation after ischemic stroke is associated with an increased fracture risk in older women.

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<![CDATA[Loss of Breathing Modulation of Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Recent and Long Standing Diabetes Mellitus Type II]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab1ab0ee8fa60bab87d

Healthy subjects under rhythmic breathing have heart interbeat intervals with a respiratory band in the frequency domain that can be an index of vagal activity. Diabetes Mellitus Type II (DM) affects the autonomic nervous system of patients, thus it can be expected changes on the vagal activity. Here, the influence of DM on the breathing modulation of the heart rate is evaluated by analyzing in the frequency domain heart interbeat interval (IBI) records obtained from 30 recently diagnosed, 15 long standing DM patients, and 30 control subjects during standardized clinical tests of controlled breathing at 0.1 Hz, supine rest and standing upright. Fourier spectral analysis of IBI records quantifies heart rate variability in different regions: low-frequencies (LF, 0.04–0.15 Hz), high-frequencies (HF, 0.15–0.4 Hz), and a controlled breathing peak (RP, centered around 0.1 Hz). Two new parameters are introduced: the frequency radius rf (square root of the sum of LF and HF squared) and β (power of RP divided by the sum of LF and HF). As diabetes evolves, the controlled breathing peak loses power and shifts to smaller frequencies, indicating that heart rate modulation is slower in diabetic patients than in controls. In contrast to the traditional parameters LF, HF and LF/HF, which do not show significant differences between the three populations in neither of the clinical tests, the new parameters rf and β, distinguish between control and diabetic subjects in the case of controlled breathing. Sympathetic activity that is driven by the baroreceptor reflex associated with the 0.1 Hz breathing modulations is affected in DM patients. Diabetes produces not only a rigid heartbeat with less autonomic induced variability (rf diminishes), but also alters the coupling between breathing and heart rate (reduced β), due to a progressive decline of vagal and sympathetic activity.

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<![CDATA[Postural Responses to a Suddenly Released Pulling Force in Older Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain: An Experimental Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad2ab0ee8fa60bb6c14

Chronic low back pain (CLBP), one of the most common musculoskeletal conditions in older adults, might affect balance and functional independence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the postural responses to a suddenly released pulling force in older adults with and without CLBP. Thirty community-dwelling older adults with CLBP and 26 voluntary controls without CLBP were enrolled. Participants were required to stand on a force platform while, with one hand, they pulled a string that was fastened at the other end to a 2-kg or to a 4-kg force in the opposite direction at a random order. The number of times the participants lost their balance and motions of center of pressure (COP) when the string was suddenly released were recorded. The results demonstrated that although the loss of balance rates for each pulling force condition did not differ between groups, older adults with CLBP had poorer postural responses: delayed reaction, larger displacement, higher velocity, longer path length, and greater COP sway area compared to the older controls. Furthermore, both groups showed larger postural responses in the 4-kg pulling force condition. Although aging is generally believed to be associated with declining balance and postural control, these findings highlight the effect of CLBP on reactive balance when responding to an externally generated force in an older population. This study also suggests that, for older adults with CLBP, in addition to treating them for pain and disability, reactive balance evaluation and training, such as reaction and movement strategy training should be included in their interventions. Clinicians and older patients with CLBP need to be made aware of the significance of impaired reactive balance and the increased risk of falls when encountering unexpected perturbations.

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<![CDATA[Barefoot Plantar Pressure Indicates Progressive Neurological Damage in Patients with Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da32ab0ee8fa60b84ceb

Background

The human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with neurological alterations; individuals with HTLV-1 infection may develop HTLV-1 associated myelopathy / tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Frequent neurological complaints include foot numbness and leg weakness. In this study, we compared the distribution of the body weight on different areas of the foot in HTLV-1 patients with HAM/TSP, asymptomatic HTLV-1 patients, and healthy individuals.

Methodology

We studied 36 HTLV-1 infected patients, who were divided in two groups of 18 patients each based on whether or not they had been diagnosed with HAM/TSP, and 17 control subjects. The evaluation included an interview on the patient’s clinical history and examinations of the patient’s reflexes, foot skin tactile sensitivity, and risk of falling. The pressure distribution on different areas of the foot was measured with baropodometry, using a pressure platform, while the patients had their eyes open or closed.

Main Findings

The prevalence of neurological disturbances—altered reflexes and skin tactile sensitivity and increased risk of falling—was higher in HTLV-1 HAM/TSP patients than in HTLV-1 asymptomatic patients. The medium and maximum pressure values were higher in the forefoot than in the midfoot and hindfoot in both HTLV-1 groups. In addition, the pressure on the hindfoot was lower in HAM/TSP patients compared to control subjects.

Conclusions

The neurological disturbances associated with HTLV-1 infection gradually worsened from HTLV-1 asymptomatic patients to HAM/TSP patients. Baropodometry is a valuable tool to establish the extent of neurological damage in patients suffering from HTLV-1 infection.

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<![CDATA[Moving beyond pain scores: Multidimensional pain assessment is essential for adequate pain management after surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf6a8

Background

Clinical experience teaches us that patients are willing to accept postoperative pain, despite high pain intensity scores. Nevertheless, relationships between pain scores and other methods of pain assessment, e.g. acceptability of pain or its interference with physical functioning, are not fully established. Our aims were to examine these relationships.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients who underwent major surgery between January 2008 and August 2013. Using logistic regression, we quantified the relationships between movement-evoked pain scores on the numerical rating scale (NRS-MEP) and three dichotomous dependent variables: patient’s opinion on acceptability of pain (PO: acceptable or unacceptable pain); nurses’ observation of patient’s performance of necessary activities to expedite recovery (NO: good or bad performance); a compound measure judging the presence of the clinically desirable situation of acceptable pain associated with good patients’ performance (PONO: present or not). Using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis, NRS cut-off points were determined such that they best discriminate between patients having one versus the other outcome for PO, NO and PONO.

Results

15,394 assessments were obtained in 9,082 patients in the first three postoperative days. Nine percent of the patients had unacceptable pain while having an NRS-MEP of 0–4. An estimated 47% (95%CI = 45%-49%) of patients with an NRS-MEP of 7 described their pain as acceptable on day one. Moreover, 33% (31%-35%) performed all required physical activities, and 22% (21%-24%) combined acceptable pain with appropriate movement. NRS cut-off points for PO, NO and PONO were five, four and four, respectively, but had insufficient discriminatory power.

Conclusions

Our results suggest pain management should be guided by the many dimensions of the patient’s pain experience, not solely by NRS cut-off points. Future research should evaluate the impact of such multidimensional pain assessment on patients’ functional outcome.

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<![CDATA[Gait asymmetry, ankle spasticity, and depression as independent predictors of falls in ambulatory stroke patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60bdffaa

Background

Falls are the leading cause of injury in stroke patients. However, the cause of a fall is complicated, and several types of risk factors are involved. Therefore, a comprehensive model to predict falls with high sensitivity and specificity is needed.

Methods

This study was a prospective study of 112 inpatients in a rehabilitation ward with follow-up interviews in patients’ homes. Evaluations were performed 1 month after stroke and included the following factors: (1) status of cognition, depression, fear of fall and limb spasticity; (2) functional assessments [walking velocity and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM)]; and (3) objective, computerized gait and balance analyses. The outcome variable was the number of accidental falls during the 6-month follow-up period after baseline measurements.

Results

The non-faller group exhibited significantly better walking velocity and FIM scale compared to the faller group (P < .001). The faller group exhibited higher levels of spasticity in the affected limbs, asymmetry of gait parameters in single support (P < .001), double support (P = .027), and step time (P = .003), and lower stability of center of gravity in the medial-lateral direction (P = .008). Psychological assessments revealed that the faller group exhibited more severe depression and lower confidence without falling. A multivariate logistic regression model identified three independent predictors of falls with high sensitivity (82.6%) and specificity (86.5%): the asymmetry ratio of single support [adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 2.2, 95% CI (1.2–3.8)], the level of spasticity in the gastrocnemius [aOR = 3.2 (1.4–7.3)], and the degree of depression [aOR = 1.4 (1.2–1.8)].

Conclusions

This study revealed depression, in additional to gait asymmetry and spasticity, as another independent factor for predicting falls. These results suggest that appropriate gait training, reduction of ankle spasticity, and aggressive management of depression may be critical to prevent falls in stroke patients.

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<![CDATA[Locomotor Trajectories of Stroke Patients during Oriented Gait and Turning]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac4ab0ee8fa60bb1db0

Background

The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is widely used to assess locomotion in patients with stroke and is considered to predict the risk of falls. The analysis of locomotor trajectories during the TUG appears pertinent in stroke patients. The aims of this study were i) to analyze locomotor trajectories in patients with stroke during the walking and turning sub-tasks of the TUG, and to compare them with healthy subjects, ii) to determine whether trajectory parameters provide additional information to that provided by the conventional measure (performance time), iii) to compare the trajectory parameters of fallers and non-fallers with stroke and of patients with right and left hemisphere stroke, and iv) to evaluate correlations between trajectory parameters and Berg Balance Scale scores.

Methods

29 patients with stroke (mean age 54.2±12.2 years, 18 men, 8 fallers) and 25 healthy subjects (mean age 51.6±8.7 years, 11 men) underwent three-dimensional analysis of the TUG. The trajectory of the center of mass was analyzed by calculation of the global trajectory length, Hausdorff distance and Dynamic Time Warping. The parameters were compared with a reference trajectory during the total task and each sub-task (Go, Turn, Return) of the TUG.

Results

Values of trajectory parameters were significantly higher for the stroke group during the total TUG and the Go and Turn sub-tasks (p<0.05). Moreover, logistic regression indicated that these parameters better discriminated stroke patients and healthy subjects than the conventional timed performance during the Go sub-task. In addition, fallers were distinguished by higher Dynamic Time Warping during the Go (p<0.05). There were no differences between patients with right and left hemisphere stroke.

Discussion and Conclusion

The trajectories of the stroke patients were longer and more deviated during the turn and the preceding phase. Trajectory parameters provided additional information to timed performance of this locomotor task. Focusing rehabilitation programs on lead-up to turn and turning could be relevant for stroke patients since the Turn was related to the balance and the phase preceding the turn seemed to distinguish fallers.

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<![CDATA[Frailty Markers and Treatment Decisions in Patients Seen in Oncogeriatric Clinics: Results from the ASRO Pilot Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daabab0ee8fa60ba9582

Background

Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is the gold standard to help oncologists select the best cancer treatment for their older patients. Some authors have suggested that the concept of frailty could be a more useful approach in this population. We investigated whether frailty markers are associated with treatment recommendations in an oncogeriatric clinic.

Methods

This prospective study included 70 years and older patients with solid tumors and referred for an oncogeriatric assessment. The CGA included nine domains: autonomy, comorbidities, medication, cognition, nutrition, mood, neurosensory deficits, falls, and social status. Five frailty markers were assessed (nutrition, physical activity, energy, mobility, and strength). Patients were categorized as Frail (three or more frailty markers), pre-frail (one or two frailty markers), or not-frail (no frailty marker). Treatment recommendations were classified into two categories: standard treatment with and without any changes and supportive/palliative care. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyze factors associated with treatment recommendations.

Results

217 patients, mean age 83 years (± Standard deviation (SD) 5.3), were included. In the univariate analysis, number of frailty markers, grip strength, physical activity, mobility, nutrition, energy, autonomy, depression, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Scale of Performance Status (ECOG-PS), and falls were significantly associated with final treatment recommendations. In the multivariate analysis, the number of frailty markers and basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) were significantly associated with final treatment recommendations (p<0.001 and p = 0.010, respectively).

Conclusion

Frailty markers are associated with final treatment recommendations in older cancer patients. Longitudinal studies are warranted to better determine their use in a geriatric oncology setting.

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<![CDATA[Balance and Muscle Strength in Elderly Women Who Dance Samba]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da53ab0ee8fa60b8e61c

Considering the growth of the aging population, and the increasing risk for falls and related morbidity, it is vital to seek efficient, comprehensive, and culturally relevant prevention programs for elderly people to reduce risks for falls. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the postural balance and muscle strength among women participating in the "Wing of Baianas" in the carnival parades. One hundred and ten women, with an average age of 67.4±5.9 years, were divided into two groups: Baianas group—elderly participants of the carnival parades in the “Wing of Baianas”, and a Control group of women who do not dance samba. Assessments included a physical activity questionnaire, isokinetic muscle strength testing for the knee extensors and flexors, and a postural balance assessment completed on a force platform. There were no differences between groups, for postural balance outcomes, during the eyes open condition; however, with eyes closed, there was a significant effect between groups (Baianas vs Control) in all variables. The Baianas group showed less medio-lateral displacement (p < 0.04); and anteroposterior displacement (p < 0.007); larger amplitudes of medio-lateral displacement (p < 0.001); and anteroposterior displacement (p < 0.001); increased mean velocity (p < 0.01); and elliptical area (p < 0.01) There were no differences in the isokinetic peak torque corrected by body weight, total work and flexor/extensor ratio. Participation in the Wing of Baianas is associated with better balance with closed eyes, but there were no differences between dancers and non-dancers for muscle strength.

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<![CDATA[Variability of spatial temporal gait parameters and center of pressure displacements during gait in elderly fallers and nonfallers: A 6-month prospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbc38

Considering that most of the falls in elderly population arise during walking, tests derived from walking performance would be desirable for comprehensive fall risk assessment. The analysis of spatial temporal parameters and the center of pressure displacement, which represents the interaction between the human body and the ground, would be beneficial. The aim of this study was to compare spatial temporal gait parameters and their variability and the variability of the center of pressure displacement between elderly fallers and nonfallers during gait at self-selected, defined and fast speeds. A prospective study design was used. At the baseline, measurements of ground reaction force during gait at self-selected, defined and fast walking speeds by two force plates were performed. In addition, the Tinetti balance assessment tool, the Falls Efficacy Scale-International and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale were used. Mean and coefficient of variation of spatial temporal gait parameters and standard deviations of center of pressure displacement during loading response, midstance, terminal stance and preswing phases were calculated. Comparison of the fallers and nonfallers exhibited no significant difference in clinical tool, scales or spatial temporal parameters. Compared to nonfallers’ increased variability of walking speed at self-selected and defined speed, step width at fast walking speed and center of pressure displacement during preswing phase in medial-lateral directions at defined walking speed was found in fallers. However, application of the Holm-Bonferroni procedure for multiple comparisons exhibited no significant effect of group in any of the gait parameters. In general, our study did not observe an effect of group (fallers vs. nonfallers) on variability of spatial temporal parameters and center of pressure movement during gait. However, walking speed, step width as well as standard deviation of COP displacement in the medial-lateral direction during preswing exhibited a certain potential for distinguishing between elderly fallers and nonfallers.

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<![CDATA[Recommendations for patient engagement in guideline development panels: A qualitative focus group study of guideline-naïve patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbf56

Background

Patient and consumer engagement in clinical practice guideline development is internationally advocated, but limited research explores mechanisms for successful engagement.

Objective

To investigate the perspectives of potential patient/consumer guideline representatives on topics pertaining to engagement including guideline development group composition and barriers to and facilitators of engagement.

Setting and participants

Participants were guideline-naïve volunteers for programs designed to link community members to academic research with diverse ages, gender, race, and degrees of experience interacting with health care professionals.

Methods

Three focus groups and one key informant interview were conducted and analyzed using a qualitative descriptive approach.

Results

Participants recommended small, diverse guideline development groups engaging multiple patient/consumer stakeholders with no prior relationships with each other or professional panel members. No consensus was achieved on the ideal balance of patient/consumer and professional stakeholders. Pre-meeting reading/training and an identified contact person were described as keys to successful early engagement; skilled facilitators, understandable speech and language, and established mechanisms for soliciting patient opinions were suggested to enhance engagement at meetings.

Conclusions

Most suggestions for effective patient/consumer engagement in guidelines require forethought and planning but little additional expense, making these strategies easily accessible to guideline developers desiring to achieve more meaningful patient and consumer engagement.

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<![CDATA[Hemorrhagic versus ischemic stroke: Who can best benefit from blended conventional physiotherapy with robotic-assisted gait therapy?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be029a

Background

Contrary to common belief of clinicians that hemorrhagic stroke survivors have better functional prognoses than ischemic, recent studies show that ischemic survivors could experience similar or even better functional improvements. However, the influence of stroke subtype on gait and posture outcomes following an intervention blending conventional physiotherapy with robotic-assisted gait therapy is missing.

Objective

This study compared gait and posture outcome measures between ambulatory hemorrhagic patients and ischemic patients, who received a similar 4 weeks’ intervention blending a conventional bottom-up physiotherapy approach and an exoskeleton top-down robotic-assisted gait training (RAGT) approach with Lokomat.

Methods

Forty adult hemiparetic stroke inpatient subjects were recruited: 20 hemorrhagic and 20 ischemic, matched by age, gender, side of hemisphere lesion, stroke severity, and locomotor impairments. Functional Ambulation Category, Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, 6 Minutes Walk Test, Timed Up and Go and 10-Meter Walk Test were performed before and after a 4-week long intervention. Functional gains were calculated for all tests.

Results

Hemorrhagic and ischemic subjects showed significant improvements in Functional Ambulation Category (P<0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively), Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke (P<0.001 and P = 0.003), 6 Minutes Walk Test (P = 0.003 and P = 0.015) and 10-Meter Walk Test (P = 0.001 and P = 0.024). Ischemic patients also showed significant improvements in Timed Up and Go. Significantly greater mean Functional Ambulation Category and Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment gains were observed for hemorrhagic compared to ischemic, with large (dz = 0.81) and medium (dz = 0.66) effect sizes, respectively.

Conclusion

Overall, both groups exhibited quasi similar functional improvements and benefits from the same type, length and frequency of blended conventional physiotherapy and RAGT protocol. The use of intensive treatment plans blending top-down physiotherapy and bottom-up robotic approaches is promising for post-stroke rehabilitation.

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<![CDATA[Comparing the Incidence of Falls/Fractures in Parkinson’s Disease Patients in the US Population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da4eab0ee8fa60b8d445

Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) may experience falls and/or fractures as a result of disease symptoms. There are limited data available from long-term studies estimating the incidence of falls/fractures in patients with PD. The objective was to compare the incidence rate of falls/fractures in PD patients with non-PD patients in a US population. This was a retrospective study using a US-based claims database (Truven Health MarketScan®) that compared the incidence rate of falls/fractures in PD subjects with non-PD subjects. The study period included the 12 months prior to index date (defined as earliest PD diagnosis [International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 332.0]) and a postindex period to the end of data availability. Fractures were defined by inpatient/outpatient claims as a principal or secondary diagnosis and accompanying procedure codes during the postindex period. Incidence rates and 95% CIs for falls/fractures were calculated as the number of events per 10,000 person-years of follow-up using negative binomial or Poisson regression models. Twenty-eight thousand two hundred and eighty PD subjects were matched to non-PD subjects for the analysis (mean [SD] age, 71.4 [11.8] years; 53% male). A higher incidence rate (adjusted for comorbidities and medications) of all fall/fracture cases and by fall and fracture types was observed for PD subjects versus non-PD subjects; the overall adjusted incidence rate ratio comparing PD to non-PD subjects was 2.05; 95% CI, 1.88–2.24. The incidence rate of falls/fractures was significantly higher in subjects with PD compared with non-PD subjects in a US population.

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<![CDATA[Rehabilitation in progressive supranuclear palsy: Effectiveness of two multidisciplinary treatments]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb8f6

Background

to date, there are no medical or surgical treatments for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). It is possible to speculate that patients with PSP could benefit from rehabilitative treatments designed for Parkinson’s disease, including the use of robot-assisted walking training.

Objective

to evaluate whether the use of the robotic device Lokomat® is superior in PSP patients to the use of treadmill with visual cues and auditory feedbacks (treadmill-plus) in the context of an aerobic, multidisciplinary, intensive, motor-cognitive and goal-based rehabilitation treatment (MIRT) conceived for Parkinsonian patients.

Methods

we enrolled twenty-four PSP patients. Twelve subjects underwent a 4-week MIRT exploiting the use of the treadmill-plus (MIRT group). Twelve subjects underwent the same treatment, but replacing the treadmill-plus with Lokomat® (MIRT-Lokomat group). Subjects were evaluated with clinical and functional scales at admission and discharge. The primary outcomes were the total PSP Rating Scale (PSPRS) score and its “limb” and “gait” sub-scores. Secondary outcomes were Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Six Minutes Walking test (6MWT) and the number of falls.

Results

total PSPRS, PSPRS-gait sub-score, BBS, 6MWT and number of falls improved significantly in both groups (p ≤ 0.003 all, except 6MWT, p = 0.032 and p = 0.018 in MIRT-Lokomat and MIRT group respectively). The PSPRS-limb sub-score improved significantly only in the MIRT group (p = 0.002). A significant difference between groups was observed only for total PSPRS, indicating a slightly better improvement for patients in the MIRT group (p = 0.047). No differences between groups were revealed for the other outcomes, indicating that the effect of rehabilitation was similar in both groups.

Conclusions

Lokomat® training, in comparison with treadmill-plus training, does not provide further benefits in PSP patients undergoing MIRT. Our findings suggest the usefulness of an aerobic, multidisciplinary, intensive, motor-cognitive and goal-based approach for the rehabilitation of patients suffering from such a complex disease as PSP.

Trial Registration

This trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02109393.

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