ResearchPad - bangladesh https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The perceived impact of isoniazid resistance on outcome of first-line rifampicin-throughout regimens is largely due to missed rifampicin resistance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15716 Meta-analyses on impact of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis informed the World Health Organization recommendation of a levofloxacin-strengthened rifampicin-based regimen.We estimated the effect of initial rifampicin resistance (Rr) and/or isoniazid resistance (Hr) on treatment failure or relapse. We also determined the frequency of missed initial and acquired Rr to estimate the impact of true Hr.MethodsRetrospective analysis of 7291 treatment episodes with known initial isoniazid and rifampicin status obtained from individual patient databases maintained by the Damien Foundation Bangladesh over 20 years. Drug susceptibility test results were confirmed by the programme’s designated supra-national tuberculosis laboratory. To detect missed Rr among isolates routinely classified as Hr, rpoB gene sequencing was done randomly and on a sample selected for suspected missed Rr.ResultsInitial Hr caused a large recurrence excess after the 8-month regimen for new cases (rifampicin for two months), but had little impact on rifampicin-throughout regimens: (6 months, new cases; 3.8%; OR 0.8, 95%CI:0.3,2.8; 8 months, retreatment cases: 7.3%, OR 1.8; 95%CI:1.3,2.6). Rr was missed in 7.6% of randomly selected "Hr" strains. Acquired Rr was frequent among recurrences on rifampicin-throughout regimens, particularly after the retreatment regimen (31.9%). It was higher in mono-Hr (29.3%; aOR 3.5, 95%CI:1.5,8.5) and poly-Hr (53.3%; aOR 10.2, 95%CI 4.4,23.7) than in susceptible tuberculosis, but virtually absent after the 8-month new case regimen. Comparing Bangladesh (low Rr prevalence) with a high Rr prevalence setting,true Hr corrected for missed Rr caused only 2–3 treatment failures per 1000 TB cases (of whom 27% were retreatments) in both.ConclusionsOur analysis reveals a non-negligible extent of misclassifying as isoniazid resistance of what is actually missed multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Recommending for such cases a “strengthened” regimen containing a fluoroquinolone provokes a direct route to extensive resistance while offering little benefit against the minor role of true Hr tuberculosis in rifampicin-throughout first-line regimen. ]]> <![CDATA[Disparities by sex in care-seeking behaviors and treatment outcomes for pneumonia among children admitted to hospitals in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8acc42d5eed0c48498f317

Background

Incidence of community acquired pneumonia is high globally. In Bangladesh, more male children than female children are brought to hospitals for pneumonia. We examined if there was disparities in the severity of illness and outcome by sex among children who were admitted with pneumonia to hospitals in Bangladesh.

Methods

Hospitalized children, aged 2 to 59 months, meeting a case definition of pneumonia were recruited in seven hospitals following parental consent. At baseline, study doctors obtained socio-demographic characteristics and care seeking behaviors for pneumonia, and then clinical data were collected throughout the hospital stay. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine if the sex of the child had a relationship with either illness severity on admission or outcome in the hospital.

Results

Between May 2004 and December 2008, 6,856 children, including 35% females, were recruited. A total of 1,371 (19.9%) children had non-severe pneumonia, 4,118 (60.0%) had severe pneumonia, and 1,367 (19.9%) had very severe pneumonia. A higher proportion of hospitalized females had very severe pneumonia as compared to males (21.5% versus 19.1%; P = 0.01), but there was no difference by sex in the proportion of children with severe or non-severe pneumonia. There was no difference by sex observed in the clinical management provided in the hospital, but a greater proportion of females (4.7%) as compared to males (3.6%) died in hospitals (P = 0.04). In multivariate analyses, female sex was associated with very severe pneumonia on admission (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.09–1.47) and fatal outcome in the hospitals (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.01–1.71). Death in female children admitted with very severe pneumonia was 4 times higher than that reported in males (OR: 4.37, 95% CI: 3.24–5.89).

Conclusion

Our data demonstrates a sex-based disparity in the severity of pneumonia and deaths among children admitted to hospitals in Bangladesh, despite no existing disparity by sex in hospital treatment. These findings call for further investigations to explore the determinants of health seeking behavior by parents with children with pneumonia in a community that favors males to females, and to understand the role of differences by sex in childhood pneumonia outcomes in Bangladesh.

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<![CDATA[Field evaluation of a locally produced rapid diagnostic test for early detection of cholera in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2d4d5eed0c48441eb87

Background

Cholera remains a substantial health burden in Asia and Africa particularly in resource poor settings. The standard procedures to identify the etiological organism V. cholerae are isolation from microbiological culture from stool as well as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Both the processes are highly lab oriented, labor extensive, time consuming, and expensive. In an effort to control for outbreaks and epidemics; an effective, convenient, quick and relatively less expensive detection method is imperative, without compromising the sensitivity and specificity that exists at present. The objective of this component of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a locally produced rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for cholera diagnosis.

Methods

In Bangladesh, nationwide cholera surveillance is ongoing in 22 hospitals covering all 8 divisions of the country since June, 2016. In the surveillance, stool samples have been collected from patients presenting to hospitals with acute watery diarrhea. Crystal VCTM (Span diagnostics, India) and Cholkit (locally produced RDT) have been used to detect V. cholerae from stool samples. Samples have also been sent to the main laboratory at icddr,b where the culture based isolation is routinely performed. All the tests were carried out for both direct and enriched stool samples. RDT sensitivity and specificity were calculated using stool culture as the gold standard.

Results

A total of 7720 samples were tested. Among these, 5865 samples were solely tested with Crystal VC and 1355 samples with Cholkit whereas 381 samples were tested with both the RDTs. In comparison with culture, direct testing with Crystal VC showed a sensitivity of 72% (95% CI: 50.6% to 87.9%) and specificity of 86.8% (95% CI: 82.8% to 90.1%). After enrichment the sensitivity and specificity was 68% (95% CI: 46.5% to 85.1%) and 97.5% (95% CI: 95.3% to 98.8%) respectively. The direct Cholkit test showed sensitivity of 76% (95% CI: 54.9% to 90.6%) and specificity of 90.2% (95% CI: 86.6% to 93.1%).

Conclusion

This evaluation has demonstrated that the sensitivity and specificity of Cholkit is similar to the commercially available test, Crystal VC when used in field settings for detecting V. cholerae from stool specimens. The findings from this study suggest that the Cholkit could be a possible alternative for cholera endemic regions where V. cholerae O1 is the major causative organism causing cholera.

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<![CDATA[Averting wheat blast by implementing a ‘wheat holiday’: In search of alternative crops in West Bengal, India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe4ad5eed0c484e5b82c

The emergence of wheat-blast in Bangladesh in the 2015–16 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop threatens the food security of South Asia. A potential spread of the disease from Bangladesh to India could have devastating impacts on India’s overall food security as wheat is its second most important staple food crop. West Bengal state in eastern India shares a 2,217 km-long border with Bangladesh and has a similar agro-ecology, enhancing the prospects of the disease entering India via West Bengal. The present study explores the possibility of a ‘wheat holiday’ policy in the nine border districts of West Bengal. Under the policy, farmers in these districts would stop wheat cultivation for at least two years. The present scoping study assesses the potential economic feasibility of alternative crops to wheat. Of the ten crops considered, maize, gram (chickpea), urad (black gram), rapeseed and mustard, and potatoes are found to be potentially feasible alternative crops. Any crop substitution would need support to ease the transition including addressing the challenges related to the management of alternative crops, ensuring adequate crop combinations and value chain development. Still, as wheat is a major staple, there is some urgency to support further research on disease epidemiology and forecasting, as well as the development and dissemination of blast-resistant wheat varieties across South Asia.

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<![CDATA[Regional disparities in maternal and child health indicators: Cluster analysis of districts in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d13d5eed0c484c81eed

Efforts to mitigate public health concerns are showing encouraging results over the time but disparities across the geographic regions still exist within countries. Inadequate researches on the regional disparities of health indicators based on representative and comparable data create challenges to develop evidence-based health policies, planning and future studies in developing countries like Bangladesh. This study examined the disparities among districts on various maternal and child health indicators in Bangladesh. Cluster analysis–an unsupervised learning technique was used based on nationally representative dataset originated from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), 2012–13. According to our results, Bangladesh is classified into two clusters based on different health indicators with substantial variations in districts per clusters for different sets of indicators suggesting regional variation across the indicators. There is a need to differentially focus on community-level interventions aimed at increasing maternal and child health care utilization and improving the socioeconomic position of mothers, especially in disadvantaged regions. The cluster analysis approach is unique in terms of the use of health care metrics in a multivariate setup to study regional similarity and dissimilarity in the context of Bangladesh.

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<![CDATA[District level estimates and mapping of prevalence of diarrhoea among under-five children in Bangladesh by combining survey and census data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df364d5eed0c4845811fe

The demand for district level statistics has increased tremendously in Bangladesh due to existence of decentralised approach to governance and service provision. The Bangladesh Demographic Health Surveys (BDHS) provide a wide range of invaluable data at the national and divisional level but they cannot be used directly to produce reliable district-level estimates due to insufficient sample sizes. The small area estimation (SAE) technique overcomes the sample size challenges and can produce reliable estimates at the district level. This paper uses SAE approach to generate model-based district-level estimates of diarrhoea prevalence among under-5 children in Bangladesh by linking data from the 2014 BDHS and the 2011 Population Census. The diagnostics measures show that the model-based estimates are precise and representative when compared to the direct survey estimates. Spatial distribution of the precise estimates of diarrhoea prevalence reveals significant inequality at district-level (ranged 1.1–13.4%) with particular emphasis in the coastal and north-eastern districts. Findings of the study might be useful for designing effective policies, interventions and strengthening local-level governance.

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<![CDATA[Effectiveness of micronutrient-fortified rice consumption on anaemia and zinc status among vulnerable women in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f790d5eed0c4843863b9

Micronutrient deficiency is one of the biggest public health concerns in Bangladesh. As per World Health Organisation (WHO) in the 2016 report, 40% women of reproductive age suffer from anaemia. According to the National Micronutrient Survey 2011–2012, 57% women suffer from zinc deficiency. The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of fortified rice (FFR in addressing anaemia and zinc deficiency among vulnerable women. Baseline and endline surveys were conducted among female Vulnerable Group Development (VDG) beneficiaries in five districts in Bangladesh before and after 12 months of FFR distribution. The intervention group received 30 kg FFR; the control group received 30 kg non-FFR for every month from January 2013 to December 2013. The sample sizes were 870 women (435/group) at baseline and 800 (400/group) at endline. Difference-in-difference (DID) was estimated to measure the effect of FFR on anaemia and serum zinc. In the baseline survey, 39% of the FFR group and 34% of the non-FFR group had anaemia. At endline, 34% of women in the FFR group were anaemic compared to 40.7% in the non-FFR group. At endline, prevalence of anaemia was reduced in the FFR group by 4.8% but increased in the non-FFR group by 6.7%. The DID estimation showed the reduction in anaemia after 12 months of FFR consumption was significant (p = 0.035). The DID in mean haemoglobin level after 12 months of FFR consumption was also statistically significant (p = 0.002). Zinc deficiency decreased by 6% in the FFR group at endline, though the DID was not significant. Most of the respondents of the FFR group reported that they received their entitled rice on a regular basis however only half of the non-FFR respondents received every month in 12 months. Anaemia was significantly associated with not consuming fortified rice, geographical region, older age and heavy menstrual bleeding (P<0.05). FFR reduced anaemia and zinc deficiency prevalence. Replacement of regular rice with FFR in the VGD programme is recommended to reduce anaemia among vulnerable groups.

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<![CDATA[Level and determinants of birth preparedness and complication readiness among pregnant women: A cross sectional study in a rural area in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c215163d5eed0c4843f9f55

Background

Increasing the level of birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR) is one of the key interventions to promote optimal utilization of skilled maternal health services. It is therefore essential to determine the women’s ability to recognize the danger signs and the level of BP/CR. This information can be used to design more effective health interventions.

Objectives

This study was conducted to determine the knowledge in recognition of maternal complications, and the level and factors associated with BP/CR in rural Matlab, Bangladesh.

Methods

A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from June- October 2015 on a randomly selected 2262 women who delivered live or stillbirth during the year 2014. A pretested and structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were used.

Results

The proportion of study participants with “good knowledge”, measured by the ability to recognise three or more danger signs, in pregnancy and delivery were 26% and 23%, respectively. Out of four BP/CR components, about 15% women saved money, 12% women identified facility for delivery, 9.6% women planned to deliver by skilled birth attendant and 5.3% of women arranged transport. About 12% of women were “well prepared”, measured by planning of at least two components, for skilled childbirth and emergency obstetric complications. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, asset index, antenatal care (ANC) visits and knowledge of danger signs during pregnancy and delivery were associated with BP/CR. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of “well prepared” was 4.09 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.45–6.82) among women with an asset index of five (richest), compared with women in the asset index of one (poorest). The odds of “well prepared” was six times (OR 5.98, 95% CI: 3.85–9.28) higher for women with four or more ANC visits, compared to women with none or one ANC visit. In comparison to women with “poor knowledge” on maternal danger signs during pregnancy and delivery, the odds ratio of “well prepared” among women with good knowledge during pregnancy and in delivery were 1.95 (95% CI: 1.44–2.63) and 1.74 (95% CI: 1.28–2.36), respectively.

Conclusion

The study revealed a low level of maternal knowledge of danger signs and BP/CR among pregnant women. Further, low socioeconomic status, fewer ANC visits and poor knowledge in recognition of dangers signs on maternal health were associated with low BP/CR. More emphasis should be placed on the quality of information offered to the pregnant women during the prenatal contact and women from low socio-economic gradient should be prioritized to optimize the impact of future BP/CR interventions.

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<![CDATA[Geostatistical mapping of the seasonal spread of under-reported dengue cases in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bf71f9dd5eed0c484dcb9b5

Geographical mapping of dengue in resource-limited settings is crucial for targeting control interventions but is challenging due to the problem of zero-inflation because many cases are not reported. We developed a negative binomial generalised linear mixed effect model accounting for zero-inflation, spatial, and temporal random effects to investigate the spatial variation in monthly dengue cases in Bangladesh. The model was fitted to the district-level (64 districts) monthly reported dengue cases aggregated over the period 2000 to 2009 and Bayesian inference was performed using the integrated nested Laplace approximation. We found that mean monthly temperature and its interaction with mean monthly diurnal temperature range, lagged by two months were significantly associated with dengue incidence. Mean monthly rainfall at two months lag was positively associated with dengue incidence. Densely populated districts and districts bordering India or Myanmar had higher incidence than others. The model estimated that 92% of the annual dengue cases occurred between August and September. Cases were identified across the country with 94% in the capital Dhaka (located almost in the middle of the country). Less than half of the affected districts reported cases as observed from the surveillance data. The proportion reported varied by month with a higher proportion reported in high-incidence districts, but dropped towards the end of high transmission season.

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<![CDATA[Association between number of children and carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c06f03ad5eed0c484c6d459

Previous studies on the association between number of children and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) were limited to Western populations. Pregnancy in women is associated with physiologic changes that may influence the risk of cardiovascular disease. Comparing the association between number of children and cIMT in men and women can provide insights on whether the association may be due to pregnancy. We investigated the association between number of children and cIMT among 718 female (mean age 37.5 years) and 417 male participants (mean age 41.3 years), randomly selected from the Health Effect of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS), a population-based cohort study in Bangladesh. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the association and to control for education attainment, history of diabetes, age, smoking, betel use, BMI, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. The average number of children was 4.43 for women and 3.74 for men. There were no nulliparous women. We observed a positive association between number of children and cIMT in women. Mean cIMT increased by 4.5 μm (95% CI, 0.8–8.1) per increment of one birth (P = 0.02). Compared to women with two children, cIMT in women with 4 children and ≥5 children was 23.6μm (95%CI, 2.6–44.7; P = 0.03) and 25.1 μm (95%CI, 3.5–46.6; P = 0.02) greater, respectively. The association was not modified by BMI, SBP, betel use or age. Data in men showed no evidence of association (P = 0.4). The finding suggests a role of high parity in atherosclerosis in women of a low-income, high parity population.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence of Avian Influenza A(H5) and A(H9) Viruses in Live Bird Markets, Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c168694d5eed0c484443f3d

We conducted a cross-sectional study in live bird markets (LBMs) in Dhaka and Chittagong, Bangladesh, to estimate the prevalence of avian influenza A(H5) and A(H9) viruses in different types of poultry and environmental areas by using Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression models. We detected these viruses in nearly all LBMs. Prevalence of A(H5) virus was higher in waterfowl than in chickens, whereas prevalence of A(H9) virus was higher in chickens than in waterfowl and, among chicken types, in industrial broilers than in cross-breeds and indigenous breeds. LBMs with >1 wholesaler were more frequently contaminated by A(H5) virus than retail-only LBMs. Prevalence of A(H9) virus in poultry and level of environmental contamination were also higher in LBMs with >1 wholesaler. We found a high level of circulation of both avian influenza viruses in surveyed LBMs. Prevalence was influenced by type of poultry, environmental site, and trading.

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<![CDATA[Determinants of hardship financing in coping with out of pocket payment for care seeking of under five children in selected rural areas of Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b0436ac463d7e0f0e6b97b4

Background

Around 63% of total health care expenditure in Bangladesh is mitigated through out of pocket payment (OOP). Heavy reliance on OOP at the time of care seeking poses great threat for financial impoverishment of the households. Households employ different strategies to cope with the associated financial hardship.

Objective

The aim of this paper is to understand the determinants of hardship financing in coping with OOP adopted for health care seeking of under five childhood illnesses in rural setting of Bangladesh.

Methods

A community based cross sectional survey was conducted during August to October, 2014 in 15 low performing sub-districts of northern and north-east regions of Bangladesh. Of the 7039 mothers of under five children surveyed, 1895 children who suffered from illness and sought care for their illness episodes were reported in this study. Descriptive statistics and ordinal regression analysis were conducted.

Results

A total number of 7,039 under five children reported to have suffered illness by their mothers. Among these children 37% suffered from priority illness. Care was sought for 88% children suffering from illnesses. Among them 26% went to a public or private sector medically trained provider. 5% of households incurred illness cost more than 10% of the household’s monthly expenditure. The need for assistance was higher among those compared to others (31% vs 13%). Different financing mechanisms adopted to meet OOP are loan with interest (6%), loan without interest (9%) and financial help from relatives (6%) Need for financial assistance varied from 19% among households in the lowest quintile to 9% in the highest wealth. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that burden of hardship financing increases by 2.17 times when care is sought from a private trained provider compared to care seeking from untrained provider (CI: 1.49, 3.17). Similarly, for families that incur a health care expenditure that is more than 10% of their total monthly expenditure (CI:1.46, 3.88), the probability of falling into more severe financial burden increases by 2.4 times. We also found severity of the hardship financing to be around half for households with monthly income of more than BDT 7500 (OR = 0.56, CI: 0.37, 0.86). The burden increased by 2.10 times for households with a deficit (CI: 1.53, 2.88) between their monthly income and expenditure. The interaction between family income and severity of illness showed to significantly affect the scale of hardship financing. Children suffering from priority illness belonging to poor households were found have two times (CI: 1.09, 3.47) higher risks of suffering from hardship financing.

Conclusion and policy implications

Findings from this study will help the policy makers to identify the target groups and thereby design effective health financing programs.

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<![CDATA[Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Antibodies in Dromedary Camels, Bangladesh, 2015]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c004f70d5eed0c484d044d8

Dromedary camels are bred domestically and imported into Bangladesh. In 2015, of 55 camels tested for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Dhaka, 17 (31%) were seropositive, including 1 bred locally. None were PCR positive. The potential for infected camels in urban markets could have public health implications and warrants further investigation.

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<![CDATA[Childhood Environment Influences Adrenarcheal Timing among First-Generation Bangladeshi Migrant Girls to the UK]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db48ab0ee8fa60bd92dc

Background

Adrenarche is a key early life event that marks middle childhood at approximately 7 years of age. Earlier work with British-Bangladeshi migrant women suggested that environmental conditions experienced before adrenarche influence adult reproductive function. We therefore investigated whether Bangladeshi children who migrate to the United Kingdom (UK) reach adrenarche earlier than non-migrants in Bangladesh or the United Kingdom.

Methods and Findings

Healthy girls, aged 5–16 years, were recruited from schools in Sylhet, Bangladesh and London, England comprising four groups: Sylhetis (n = 165), first-generation migrants to the United Kingdom (n = 42), second-generation girls (n = 162), and British girls of European origin (n = 50). Anthropometric measurements were collected together with questionnaire data for migration and socioeconomic characteristics. Saliva samples were assayed for dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Multiple linear regressions tested for group differences in anthropometric and socioeconomic variables and DHEAS levels. Median ages at adrenarche (DHEAS>400 pg/ml) were estimated using Weibull regression models for parametric survival analysis. Hazard ratios for reaching adrenarche earlier and 95% confidence intervals (CI), both unadjusted and adjusted for anthropometric variables, were estimated from the survival analyses. First-generation migrants had a median age at adrenarche (5.3 years) that was significantly earlier than Sylheti (7.2), second-generation (7.4), and European (7.1) girls. In univariate analyses, first-generation girls reached adrenarche significantly earlier than Sylhetis [HR (CI): 2.8 (1.4–5.5]. In multivariate models, first generation girls still reached adrenarche earlier than Sylhetis after adjusting for height [HR(CI): 1.9 (0.9–4.1)] and weight [HR(CI):1.7 (0.8–3.8)], but these results were attenuated.

Conclusions

We suggest that rapid catch-up growth experienced by first generation girls during early childhood may explain their advanced adrenarche. The environmental conditions leading to an earlier adrenarche, as well as the health implications of this early transition, merit further exploration.

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<![CDATA[Intimate partner violence around the time of pregnancy and postpartum depression: The experience of women of Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf5fd

Background and objectives

Intimate partner violence (IPV) around the time of pregnancy is a serious public health concern and is known to have an adverse effect on perinatal mental health. In order to craft appropriate and effective interventions, it is important to understand how the association between IPV and postpartum depression (PPD) may differ as a function of the type and timing of IPV victimization. Here we evaluate the influence of physical, sexual and psychological IPV before, during and after pregnancy on PPD.

Methods

Cross-sectional survey data was collected between October 2015 and January 2016 in the Chandpur District of Bangladesh from 426 new mothers, aged 15–49 years, who were in the first six months postpartum. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between IPV and PPD, adjusted for socio-demographic, reproductive and psychosocial confounding factors.

Results

Approximately 35.2% of women experienced PPD within the first six months following childbirth. Controlling for confounders, the odds of PPD was significantly greater among women who reported exposure to physical (AOR: 1.79, 95% CI [1.25, 3.43]), sexual (AOR: 2.25, 95% CI [1.14, 4.45]) or psychological (AOR: 6.92, 95% CI [1.71, 28.04]) IPV during pregnancy as opposed to those who did not. However, both before and after pregnancy, only physical IPV evidences a direct effect on PPD. Results highlight the mental health consequences of IPV for women of Bangladesh, as well as the influence of timing and type of IPV on PPD outcomes.

Conclusions and implications

The findings confirm that exposure to IPV significantly increases the odds of PPD. The association is particularly strong for physical IPV during all periods and psychological IPV during pregnancy. Results reinforce the need to conduct routine screening during pregnancy to identify women with a history of IPV who may at risk for PPD and to offer them necessary support.

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<![CDATA[Sexual and reproductive health behaviors of female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc223

Objectives

The objective of this study was to document sexual and reproductive health (SRH) practices among female sex workers (FSWs) including abortion, pregnancy, use of maternal healthcare services and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with the aim of developing recommendations for action.

Methods

A total of 731 FSWs aged between 15 and 49 years were surveyed using a stratified sampling in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A workshop with 23 participants consisted of policy makers, researchers, program implementers was conducted to formulate recommendations.

Results

About 61.3% of 731 FSWs reported SRH-related experiences in the past one year, including abortion (15.5%), ongoing pregnancy (9.0%), childbirth (8.3%) or any symptoms of STIs (41.6%). Among FSWs who had an abortion (n = 113), the most common methods included menstrual regulation through manual vacuum aspiration (47.8%), followed by Dilation and Curettage procedure (31%) and oral medicine from pharmacies (35.4%). About 57.5% of 113 cases reported post abortion complications. Among FSWs with delivery in the past year (n = 61), 27.7% attended the recommended four or more antenatal care visits and more than half did not have any postnatal visit. Adopting sustainable and effective strategies to provide accessible and adequate SRH services for FSWs was prioritized by workshop participants.

Conclusion

There was substantial unmet need for SRH care among FSWs in urban areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Therefore, it is important to integrate SRH services for FSWs in the formal healthcare system or integration of abortion and maternal healthcare services within existing HIV prevention services.

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<![CDATA[Socioeconomic inequalities in skilled birth attendance and child stunting in selected low and middle income countries: Wealth quintiles or deciles?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf500

Background

Wealth quintiles derived from household asset indices are routinely used for measuring socioeconomic inequalities in the health of women and children in low and middle-income countries. We explore whether the use of wealth deciles rather than quintiles may be advantageous.

Methods

We selected 46 countries with available national surveys carried out between 2003 and 2013 and with a sample size of at least 3000 children. The outcomes were prevalence of under-five stunting and delivery by a skilled birth attendant (SBA). Differences and ratios between extreme groups for deciles (D1 and D10) and quintiles (Q1 and Q5) were calculated, as well as two summary measures: the slope index of inequality (SII) and concentration index (CIX).

Results

In virtually all countries, stunting prevalence was highest among the poor, and there were larger differences between D1 and D10 than between Q1 and Q5. SBA coverage showed pro-rich patterns in all countries; in four countries the gap was greater than 80 pct points. With one exception, differences between extreme deciles were larger than between quintiles. Similar patterns emerged when using ratios instead of differences. The two summary measures provide very similar results for quintiles and deciles. Patterns of top or bottom inequality varied with national coverage levels.

Conclusion

Researchers and policymakers should consider breakdowns by wealth deciles, when sample sizes allow. Use of deciles may contribute to advocacy efforts, monitoring inequalities over time, and targeting health interventions. Summary indices of inequalities were unaffected by the use of quintiles or deciles in their calculation.

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<![CDATA[Efficacy, Safety and Cost of Insecticide Treated Wall Lining, Insecticide Treated Bed Nets and Indoor Wall Wash with Lime for Visceral Leishmaniasis Vector Control in the Indian Sub-continent: A Multi-country Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4aab0ee8fa60bd9e33

Background

We investigated the efficacy, safety and cost of lime wash of household walls plus treatment of sand fly breeding places with bleach (i.e. environmental management or EM), insecticide impregnated durable wall lining (DWL), and bed net impregnation with slow release insecticide (ITN) for sand fly control in the Indian sub-continent.

Methods

This multi-country cluster randomized controlled trial had 24 clusters in each three sites with eight clusters per high, medium or low sand fly density stratum. Every cluster included 45–50 households. Five households from each cluster were randomly selected for entomological measurements including sand fly density and mortality at one, three, nine and twelve months post intervention. Household interviews were conducted for socioeconomic information and intervention acceptability assessment. Cost for each intervention was calculated. There was a control group without intervention.

Findings

Sand fly mortality [mean and 95%CI] ranged from 84% (81%-87%) at one month to 74% (71%-78%) at 12 months for DWL, 75% (71%-79%) at one month to 49% (43%-55%) at twelve months for ITN, and 44% (34%-53%) at one month to 22% (14%-29%) at twelve months for EM. Adjusted intervention effect on sand fly density measured by incidence rate ratio ranged from 0.28 (0.23–0.34) at one month to 0.62 (0.51–0.75) at 12 months for DWL; 0.72 (0.62–0.85) at one month to 1.02 (0.86–1.22) at 12 months for ITN; and 0.89 (0.76–1.03) at one months to 1.49 (1.26–1.74) at 12 months for EM. Household acceptance of EM was 74% compared to 94% for both DWL and ITN. Operational cost per household in USD was about 5, 8, and 2 for EM, DWL and ITN, respectively. Minimal adverse reactions were reported for EM and ITN while 36% of households with DWL reported transient itching.

Interpretation

DWL is the most effective, durable and acceptable control method followed by ITN. The Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) Elimination Program in the Indian sub-continent should consider DWL and ITN for sand fly control in addition to IRS.

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<![CDATA[Socio-Economic Inequality of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da2aab0ee8fa60b8206d

Introduction

Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a major public health challenge, and undermine social and economic development in much of the developing world, including Bangladesh. Epidemiologic evidence on the socioeconomic status (SES)-related pattern of NCDs remains limited in Bangladesh. This study assessed the relationship between three chronic NCDs and SES among the Bangladeshi population, paying particular attention to the differences between urban and rural areas.

Materials and Method

Data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were used for this study. Using a concentration index (CI), we measured relative inequality across pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension, hypertension, and BMI (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) in urban and rural areas in Bangladesh. A CI and its associated curve can be used to identify whether socioeconomic inequality exists for a given health variable. In addition, we estimated the health achievement index, integrating mean coverage and the distribution of coverage by rural and urban populations.

Results

Socioeconomic inequalities were observed across diseases and risk factors. Using CI, significant inequalities observed for pre-hypertension (CI = 0.09, p = 0.001), hypertension (CI = 0.10, p = 0.001), pre-diabetes (CI = -0.01, p = 0.005), diabetes (CI = 0.19, p<0.001), and overweight/obesity (CI = 0.45, p<0.001). In contrast to the high prevalence of the chronic health conditions among the urban richest, a significant difference in CI was observed for pre-hypertension (CI = -0.20, p = 0.001), hypertension (CI = -0.20, p = 0.005), pre-diabetes (CI = -0.15, p = 0.005), diabetes (CI = -0.26, p = 0.004) and overweight/obesity (CI = 0.25, p = 0.004) were observed more among the low wealth quintiles of rural population. In the same vein, the poorest rural households had more co-morbidities compared to the richest rural households (p = 0.003), and prevalence of co-morbidities was much higher for the richest urban households compared to the poorest urban households. On the other hand in rural the “disachievement” of health indicators is more noticeable than the urban ones.

Conclusion

The findings indicate the high burden of selected NCDs among the low wealth quintile populations in rural areas and wealthy populations in urban areas. Particular attentions may be necessary to address the problem of NCDs among these groups.

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<![CDATA[How Do People Become W.E.I.R.D.? Migration Reveals the Cultural Transmission Mechanisms Underlying Variation in Psychological Processes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da38ab0ee8fa60b8707f

Cultural psychologists have shown that people from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic (WEIRD) countries often exhibit different psychological processing to people from less-WEIRD countries. The former exhibit more individualistic and less collectivistic social orientation, and more analytic and less holistic cognition, than non-Westerners. Yet the mechanisms responsible for maintaining this cultural variation are unclear. Immigration is an ideal ‘natural experiment’ for uncovering such mechanisms. We used a battery of psychological measures previously shown to vary cross-culturally to compare the social orientation and cognitive style of 286 residents of East London from three cultural backgrounds: (i) 1st-generation British Bangladeshi immigrants; (ii) 2nd-generation British Bangladeshis raised in the UK to Bangladeshi-raised parents; and (iii) non-migrants whose parents were born and raised in the UK. Model comparison revealed that individualism and dispositional attribution, typical of Western societies, are driven primarily by horizontal cultural transmission (e.g. via mass media), with parents and other family members having little or no effect, while collectivism, social closeness and situational attribution were driven by a mix of vertical/oblique cultural transmission (e.g. via family contact) and horizontal cultural transmission. These individual-level transmission dynamics can explain hitherto puzzling population-level phenomena, such as the partial acculturation of 2nd-generation immigrants on measures such as collectivism (due to the mix of vertical and horizontal cultural transmission), or the observation in several countries of increasing individualism (which is transmitted horizontally and therefore rapidly) despite little corresponding change in collectivism (which is transmitted partly vertically and therefore more slowly). Further consideration of cultural transmission mechanisms, in conjunction with the study of migrant communities and model comparison statistics, can shed light on the persistence of, and changes in, culturally-variable psychological processes.

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