ResearchPad - barley https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Optimizing planting geometry for barley-Egyptian clover intercropping system in semi-arid sub-tropical climate]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14568 Intercropping legumes with cereals has been a common cropping system in short-season rainfed environments due to its increased productivity and sustainability. Intercropping barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) could increase the grain yield of barley and improve resource use efficiency of the intercropping system. However, non-optimum planting geometry has been a hurdle in the adaptation of barley-based cropping systems. This study was aimed at optimizing the planting geometry, and assess the productivity and profitability of barley-Egyptian clover intercropping system. Ten different planting geometries, differing in number of rows of barley, width and number of irrigation furrows and planting method were tested. Intercropping barley with Egyptian clover improved 56–68% grain yield of barley compared with mono-cropped barley. Barley remained dominant crop in terms of aggressiveness, relative crowding coefficient and competitive ratio. The amount of water used was linearly increased with increasing size of barley strip from 3 to 8 rows. The highest water use efficiency (4.83 kg/cf3) was recorded for 8-row barley strip system with 120 cm irrigation furrows compared to rest of the planting geometries. In conclusion, 8-rows of barley planted on beds with Egyptian clover in 120 cm irrigation furrows had the highest net income and cost benefit ratio. Therefore, it is recommended that this planting geometry can be used for better economic returns of barley-Egyptian clover intercropping system. However, barley strips with >8 rows were not included in this study, which is limitation of the current study. Therefore, future studies with >8 barley rows in strip should be conducted to infer the economic feasibility and profitability of wider barley strips.

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<![CDATA[Use of multiple traits genomic prediction, genotype by environment interactions and spatial effect to improve prediction accuracy in yield data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14474 Genomic selection has been extensively implemented in plant breeding schemes. Genomic selection incorporates dense genome-wide markers to predict the breeding values for important traits based on information from genotype and phenotype records on traits of interest in a reference population. To date, most relevant investigations have been performed using single trait genomic prediction models (STGP). However, records for several traits at once are usually documented for breeding lines in commercial breeding programs. By incorporating benefits from genetic characterizations of correlated phenotypes, multiple trait genomic prediction (MTGP) may be a useful tool for improving prediction accuracy in genetic evaluations. The objective of this study was to test whether the use of MTGP and including proper modeling of spatial effects can improve the prediction accuracy of breeding values in commercial barley and wheat breeding lines. We genotyped 1,317 spring barley and 1,325 winter wheat lines from a commercial breeding program with the Illumina 9K barley and 15K wheat SNP-chip (respectively) and phenotyped them across multiple years and locations. Results showed that the MTGP approach increased correlations between future performance and estimated breeding value of yields by 7% in barley and by 57% in wheat relative to using the STGP approach for each trait individually. Analyses combining genomic data, pedigree information, and proper modeling of spatial effects further increased the prediction accuracy by 4% in barley and 3% in wheat relative to the model using genomic relationships only. The prediction accuracy for yield in wheat and barley yield trait breeding, were improved by combining MTGP and spatial effects in the model.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of residue management practices on barley residue decomposition]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13875 Optimizing barley (hordeum vulgare L.) production in Idaho and other parts of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) should focus on farm resource management. The effect of post-harvest residue management on barley residue decomposition has not been adequately studied. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of residue placement (surface vs. incorporated), residue size (chopped vs. ground-sieved) and soil type (sand and sandy loam) on barley residue decomposition. A 50-day(d) laboratory incubation experiment was conducted at a temperature of 25°C at the Aberdeen Research and Extension Center, Aberdeen, Idaho, USA. Following the study, a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) modeling approach was applied to investigate the first-order decay kinetics of barley residue. An accelerated initial flush of residue carbon(C)-mineralization was measured for the sieved (Day 1) compared to chopped (Day 3 to 5) residues for both surface incorporated applications. The highest evolution of carbon dioxide (CO2)-C of 8.3 g kg-1 dry residue was observed on Day 1 from the incorporated-sieved application for both soils. The highest and lowest amount of cumulative CO2-C released and percentage residue decomposed over 50-d was observed for surface-chopped (107 g kg-1 dry residue and 27%, respectively) and incorporated-sieved (69 g kg-1 dry residue and 18%, respectively) residues, respectively. There were no significant differences in C-mineralization from barley residue based on soil type or its interactions with residue placement and size (p >0.05). The largest decay constant k of 0.0083 d-1 was calculated for surface-chopped residue where the predicted half-life was 80 d, which did not differ from surface sieved or incorporated chopped. In contrast, incorporated-sieved treatments only resulted in a k of 0.0054 d-1 and would need an additional 48 d to decompose 50% of the residue. Future residue decomposition studies under field conditions are warranted to verify the residue C-mineralization and its impact on residue management.

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<![CDATA[Metabarcoding targeting the EF1 alpha region to assess Fusarium diversity on cereals]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c42436cd5eed0c4845e0155

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a major cereal disease caused by a complex of Fusarium species. These species vary in importance depending on climatic conditions, agronomic factors or host genotype. In addition, Fusarium species can release toxic secondary metabolites. These mycotoxins constitute a significant food safety concern as they have health implications in both humans and animals. The Fusarium species involved in FHB differ in their pathogenicity, ability to produce mycotoxins, and fungicide sensitivity. Accurate and exhaustive identification of Fusarium species in planta is therefore of great importance. In this study, using a new set of primers targeting the EF1α gene, the diversity of Fusarium species on cereals was evaluated using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The PCR amplification parameters and bioinformatic pipeline were optimized with mock and artificially infected grain communities and further tested on 65 field samples. Fusarium species were retrieved from mock communities and good reproducibility between different runs or PCR cycle numbers was be observed. The method enabled the detection of as few as one single Fusarium-infected grain in 10,000. Up to 17 different Fusarium species were detected in field samples of barley, durum and soft wheat harvested in France. This new set of primers enables the assessment of Fusarium diversity by high-throughput sequencing on cereal samples. It provides a more exhaustive picture of the Fusarium community than the currently used techniques based on isolation or species-specific PCR detection. This new experimental approach may be used to show changes in the composition of the Fusarium complex or to detect the emergence of new Fusarium species as far as the EF1α sequence of these species show a sufficient amount of polymorphism in the portion of sequence analyzed. Information on the distribution and prevalence of the different Fusarium species in a given geographical area, and in response to various environmental factors, is of great interest for managing the disease and predicting mycotoxin contamination risks.

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<![CDATA[Imputation accuracy of wheat genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data using barley and wheat genome references]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d0126d5eed0c484038b91

Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) provides high SNP coverage and has recently emerged as a popular technology for genetic and breeding applications in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and many other plant species. Although GBS can discover millions of SNPs, a high rate of missing data is a major concern for many applications. Accurate imputation of those missing data can significantly improve the utility of GBS data. This study compared imputation accuracies among four genome references including three wheat references (Chinese Spring survey sequence, W7984, and IWGSC RefSeq v1.0) and one barley reference genome by comparing imputed data derived from low-depth sequencing to actual data from high-depth sequencing. After imputation, the average number of imputed data points was the highest in the B genome (~48.99%). The D genome had the lowest imputed data points (~15.02%) but the highest imputation accuracy. Among the four reference genomes, IWGSC RefSeq v1.0 reference provided the most imputed data points, but the lowest imputation accuracy for the SNPs with < 10% minor allele frequency (MAF). The W7984 reference, however, provided the highest imputation accuracy for the SNPs with < 10% MAF.

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<![CDATA[Identification of barley powdery mildew resistances in gene bank accessions and the use of gene diversity for verifying seed purity and authenticity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141ec3d5eed0c484d2821a

Human activities including those in crop gene banks are subject to errors, especially during seed multiplication and maintenance of seed germination. Therefore, the most serious problem of gene banks is authenticity of the accessions and their genotypic purity. There are many methods for determining the identity of varieties, but comparisons between current data and past records are not easy since the latter are often missing. Breeding barley resistant to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh) was traditionally based on incorporating major genes into new varieties and the results have been published. Our goal was to identify resistance genes to powdery mildew in accessions of the Czech spring barley core collection and compare these data with earlier information to establish the authenticity of the accessions. Two hundred and twenty-three accessions of the collection including 665 single plant progenies were tested. Sixty-four selected reference isolates of Bgh representing the world diversity of the pathogen were used for resistance tests. Twenty-two known resistance genes were postulated either separately or in combinations. In the collection, 151 homogeneous accessions were found, but the resistances of nine of them were inconsistent with published data and in 12 accessions their authenticity is doubtful. The remaining 72 accessions were heterogeneous and comprised 176 resistance genotypes, 54 of which were probably mechanical admixtures of other varieties. There are several pathogens of cereals, e.g. rusts and mildews, against which many resistance genes in host crops have also been exploited. Knowledge of these resistances can assist in maintaining pure and genuine stocks in gene banks. Seed purity and the authenticity of accessions can subsequently be checked with more advanced methods.

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<![CDATA[phiC31 Integrase-Mediated Site-Specific Recombination in Barley]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1fab0ee8fa60b7e4c1

The Streptomyces phage phiC31 integrase was tested for its feasibility in excising transgenes from the barley genome through site-specific recombination. We produced transgenic barley plants expressing an active phiC31 integrase and crossed them with transgenic barley plants carrying a target locus for recombination. The target sequence involves a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP), which is flanked by the attB and attP recognition sites for the phiC31 integrase. This sequence disruptively separates a gusA coding sequence from an upstream rice actin promoter. We succeeded in producing site-specific recombination events in the hybrid progeny of 11 independent barley plants carrying the above target sequence after crossing with plants carrying a phiC31 expression cassette. Some of the hybrids displayed fully executed recombination. Excision of the GFP gene fostered activation of the gusA gene, as visualized in tissue of hybrid plants by histochemical staining. The recombinant loci were detected in progeny of selfed F1, even in individuals lacking the phiC31 transgene, which provides evidence of stability and generative transmission of the recombination events. In several plants that displayed incomplete recombination, extrachromosomal excision circles were identified. Besides the technical advance achieved in this study, the generated phiC31 integrase-expressing barley plants provide foundational stock material for use in future approaches to barley genetic improvement, such as the production of marker-free transgenic plants or switching transgene activity.

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<![CDATA[HvDep1 Is a Positive Regulator of Culm Elongation and Grain Size in Barley and Impacts Yield in an Environment-Dependent Manner]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da5eab0ee8fa60b907c5

Heterotrimeric G proteins are intracellular membrane-attached signal transducers involved in various cellular processes in both plants and animals. They consist of three subunits denoted as α, β and γ. The γ-subunits of the so-called AGG3 type, which comprise a transmembrane domain, are exclusively found in plants. In model species, these proteins have been shown to participate in the control of plant height, branching and seed size and could therefore impact the harvestable yield of various crop plants. Whether AGG3-type γ-subunits influence yield in temperate cereals like barley and wheat remains unknown. Using a transgenic complementation approach, we show here that the Scottish malting barley cultivar (cv.) Golden Promise carries a loss-of-function mutation in HvDep1, an AGG3-type subunit encoding gene that positively regulates culm elongation and seed size in barley. Somewhat intriguingly, agronomic field data collected over a 12-year period reveals that the HvDep1 loss-of-function mutation in cv. Golden Promise has the potential to confer either a significant increase or decrease in harvestable yield depending on the environment. Our results confirm the role of AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes in shaping plant architecture, but interestingly also indicate that the impact HvDep1 has on yield in barley is both genotypically and environmentally sensitive. This may explain why widespread exploitation of variation in AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes has not occurred in temperate cereals while in rice the DEP1 locus is widely exploited to improve harvestable yield.

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<![CDATA[Alternative Splicing of Barley Clock Genes in Response to Low Temperature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf4ab0ee8fa60bc275a

Alternative splicing (AS) is a regulated mechanism that generates multiple transcripts from individual genes. It is widespread in eukaryotic genomes and provides an effective way to control gene expression. At low temperatures, AS regulates Arabidopsis clock genes through dynamic changes in the levels of productive mRNAs. We examined AS in barley clock genes to assess whether temperature-dependent AS responses also occur in a monocotyledonous crop species. We identify changes in AS of various barley core clock genes including the barley orthologues of Arabidopsis AtLHY and AtPRR7 which showed the most pronounced AS changes in response to low temperature. The AS events modulate the levels of functional and translatable mRNAs, and potentially protein levels, upon transition to cold. There is some conservation of AS events and/or splicing behaviour of clock genes between Arabidopsis and barley. In addition, novel temperature-dependent AS of the core clock gene HvPPD-H1 (a major determinant of photoperiod response and AtPRR7 orthologue) is conserved in monocots. HvPPD-H1 showed a rapid, temperature-sensitive isoform switch which resulted in changes in abundance of AS variants encoding different protein isoforms. This novel layer of low temperature control of clock gene expression, observed in two very different species, will help our understanding of plant adaptation to different environments and ultimately offer a new range of targets for plant improvement.

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<![CDATA[A Transgenic Transcription Factor (TaDREB3) in Barley Affects the Expression of MicroRNAs and Other Small Non-Coding RNAs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da8cab0ee8fa60b9e7ea

Transcription factors (TFs), microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and other functional non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) are important gene regulators. Comparison of sRNA expression profiles between transgenic barley over-expressing a drought tolerant TF (TaDREB3) and non-transgenic control barley revealed many group-specific sRNAs. In addition, 42% of the shared sRNAs were differentially expressed between the two groups (|log2| >1). Furthermore, TaDREB3-derived sRNAs were only detected in transgenic barley despite the existence of homologous genes in non-transgenic barley. These results demonstrate that the TF strongly affects the expression of sRNAs and siRNAs could in turn affect the TF stability. The TF also affects size distribution and abundance of sRNAs including miRNAs. About half of the sRNAs in each group were derived from chloroplast. A sRNA derived from tRNA-His(GUG) encoded by the chloroplast genome is the most abundant sRNA, accounting for 42.2% of the total sRNAs in transgenic barley and 28.9% in non-transgenic barley. This sRNA, which targets a gene (TC245676) involved in biological processes, was only present in barley leaves but not roots. 124 and 136 miRNAs were detected in transgenic and non-transgenic barley, respectively. miR156 was the most abundant miRNA and up-regulated in transgenic barley, while miR168 was the most abundant miRNA and up-regulated in non-transgenic barley. Eight out of 20 predicted novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two groups. All the predicted novel miRNA targets were validated using a degradome library. Our data provide an insight into the effect of TF on the expression of sRNAs in barley.

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<![CDATA[The FgHOG1 Pathway Regulates Hyphal Growth, Stress Responses, and Plant Infection in Fusarium graminearum]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3cab0ee8fa60b882f8

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is a destructive disease of wheat and barley worldwide. In a previous study of systematic characterization of protein kinase genes in F. graminearum, mutants of three putative components of the osmoregulation MAP kinase pathway were found to have distinct colony morphology and hyphal growth defects on PDA plates. Because the osmoregulation pathway is not known to regulate aerial hyphal growth and branching, in this study we further characterized the functions of the FgHog1 pathway in growth, pathogenesis, and development. The Fghog1, Fgpbs2, and Fgssk2 mutants were all reduced in growth rate, aerial hyphal growth, and hyphal branching angle. These mutants were not only hypersensitive to osmotic stress but also had increased sensitivity to oxidative, cytoplasm membrane, and cell wall stresses. The activation of FgHog1 was blocked in the Fgpbs2 and Fgssk2 mutants, indicating the sequential activation of FgSsk2-FgPbs2-FgHog1 cascade. Interestingly, the FgHog1 MAPK pathway mutants appeared to be sensitive to certain compounds present in PDA. They were female sterile but retained male fertility. We also used the metabolomics profiling approach to identify compatible solutes that were accumulated in the wild type but not in the Fghog1 deletion mutant. Overall, our results indicate that the FgSsk2-FgPbs2-FgHog1 MAPK cascade is important for regulating hyphal growth, branching, plant infection, and hyperosmotic and general stress responses in F. graminearum.

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<![CDATA[Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy Affects Testicular and Bone Development, Glucose Metabolism and Response to Overnutrition in Weaned Horses Up to Two Years]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bd4109ad5eed0c4847c6667

Introduction

Pregnant mares and post-weaning foals are often fed concentrates rich in soluble carbohydrates, together with forage. Recent studies suggest that the use of concentrates is linked to alterations of metabolism and the development of osteochondrosis in foals. The aim of this study was to determine if broodmare diet during gestation affects metabolism, osteoarticular status and growth of yearlings overfed from 20 to 24 months of age and/or sexual maturity in prepubertal colts.

Material and methods

Twenty-four saddlebred mares were fed forage only (n = 12, group F) or cracked barley and forage (n = 12, group B) from mid-gestation until foaling. Colts were gelded at 12 months of age. Between 20 and 24 months of age, all yearlings were overfed (+140% of requirements) using an automatic concentrate feeder. Offspring were monitored for growth between 6 and 24 months of age, glucose homeostasis was evaluated via modified frequently sampled intra veinous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) at 19 and 24 months of age and osteoarticular status was investigated using radiographic examinations at 24 months of age. The structure and function of testicles from prepubertal colts were analyzed using stereology and RT-qPCR.

Results

Post-weaning weight growth was not different between groups. Testicular maturation was delayed in F colts compared to B colts at 12 months of age. From 19 months of age, the cannon bone was wider in B vs F yearlings. F yearlings were more insulin resistant at 19 months compared to B yearlings but B yearlings were affected more severely by overnutrition with reduced insulin sensitivity. The osteoarticular status at 24 months of age was not different between groups.

Conclusion

In conclusion, nutritional management of the pregnant broodmare and the growing foal may affect sexual maturity of colts and the metabolism of foals until 24 months of age. These effects may be deleterious for reproductive and sportive performances in older horses.

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<![CDATA[Genomic Prediction of Seed Quality Traits Using Advanced Barley Breeding Lines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e0ab0ee8fa60b69733

Genomic selection was recently introduced in plant breeding. The objective of this study was to develop genomic prediction for important seed quality parameters in spring barley. The aim was to predict breeding values without expensive phenotyping of large sets of lines. A total number of 309 advanced spring barley lines tested at two locations each with three replicates were phenotyped and each line was genotyped by Illumina iSelect 9Kbarley chip. The population originated from two different breeding sets, which were phenotyped in two different years. Phenotypic measurements considered were: seed size, protein content, protein yield, test weight and ergosterol content. A leave-one-out cross-validation strategy revealed high prediction accuracies ranging between 0.40 and 0.83. Prediction across breeding sets resulted in reduced accuracies compared to the leave-one-out strategy. Furthermore, predicting across full and half-sib-families resulted in reduced prediction accuracies. Additionally, predictions were performed using reduced marker sets and reduced training population sets. In conclusion, using less than 200 lines in the training set can result in low prediction accuracy, and the accuracy will then be highly dependent on the family structure of the selected training set. However, the results also indicate that relatively small training sets (200 lines) are sufficient for genomic prediction in commercial barley breeding. In addition, our results indicate a minimum marker set of 1,000 to decrease the risk of low prediction accuracy for some traits or some families.

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<![CDATA[Transcriptional Activity of rRNA Genes in Barley Cells after Mutagenic Treatment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da09ab0ee8fa60b770cd

In the present study, the combination of the micronucleus test with analysis of the activity of the rRNA genes in mutagen-treated Hordeum vulgare (barley) by maleic hydrazide (MH) cells was performed. Simultaneously fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 25S rDNA as probes and an analysis of the transcriptional activity of 35S rRNA genes with silver staining were performed. The results showed that transcriptional activity is always maintained in the micronuclei although they are eliminated during the next cell cycle. The analysis of the transcriptional activity was extended to barley nuclei. MH influenced the fusion of the nucleoli in barley nuclei. The silver staining enabled detection of the nuclear bodies which arose after MH treatment. The results confirmed the usefulness of cytogenetic techniques in the characterization of micronuclei. Similar analyses can be now extended to other abiotic stresses to study the response of plant cells to the environment.

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<![CDATA[Bayesian Inference of Baseline Fertility and Treatment Effects via a Crop Yield-Fertility Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f9ab0ee8fa60b71547

To effectively manage soil fertility, knowledge is needed of how a crop uses nutrients from fertilizer applied to the soil. Soil quality is a combination of biological, chemical and physical properties and is hard to assess directly because of collective and multiple functional effects. In this paper, we focus on the application of these concepts to agriculture. We define the baseline fertility of soil as the level of fertility that a crop can acquire for growth from the soil. With this strict definition, we propose a new crop yield-fertility model that enables quantification of the process of improving baseline fertility and the effects of treatments solely from the time series of crop yields. The model was modified from Michaelis-Menten kinetics and measured the additional effects of the treatments given the baseline fertility. Using more than 30 years of experimental data, we used the Bayesian framework to estimate the improvements in baseline fertility and the effects of fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) on maize (Zea mays), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and soybean (Glycine max) yields. Fertilizer contributed the most to the barley yield and FYM contributed the most to the soybean yield among the three crops. The baseline fertility of the subsurface soil was very low for maize and barley prior to fertilization. In contrast, the baseline fertility in this soil approximated half-saturated fertility for the soybean crop. The long-term soil fertility was increased by adding FYM, but the effect of FYM addition was reduced by the addition of fertilizer. Our results provide evidence that long-term soil fertility under continuous farming was maintained, or increased, by the application of natural nutrients compared with the application of synthetic fertilizer.

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<![CDATA[Genetic Variation of HvCBF Genes and Their Association with Salinity Tolerance in Tibetan Annual Wild Barley]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db46ab0ee8fa60bd89ec

The evaluation of both the genetic variation and the identification of salinity tolerant accessions of Tibetan annual wild barley (hereafter referred to as Tibetan barley) (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. Spontaneum and H. vulgare L. ssp. agriocrithum) are essential for discovering and exploiting novel alleles involved in salinity tolerance. In this study, we examined tissue dry biomass and the Na+ and K+ contents of 188 Tibetan barley accessions in response to salt stress. We investigated the genetic variation of transcription factors HvCBF1, HvCBF3 and HvCBF4 within these accessions, conducting association analysis between these three genes and the respective genotypic salt tolerance. Salt stress significantly reduced shoot and root dry weight by 27.6% to 73.1% in the Tibetan barley lines. HvCBF1, HvCBF3 and HvCBF4 showed diverse sequence variation in amplicon as evident by the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 3, 8 and 13 haplotypes, respectively. Furthermore, the decay of Linkage disequilibrium (LD) of chromosome 5 was 8.9 cM (r2<0.1). Marker bpb-4891 and haplotype 13 (Ps 610) of the HvCBF4 gene were significantly (P<0.05) and highly significantly (P<0.001) associated with salt tolerance. However, HvCBF1 and HvCBF3 genes were not associated with salinity tolerance. The accessions from haplotype 13 of the HvCBF4 gene showed high salinity tolerance, maintaining significantly lower Na+/K+ ratios and higher dry weight. It is thus proposed that these Tibetan barley accessions could be of value for enhancing salinity tolerance in cultivated barley.

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<![CDATA[Dynamics of Molecular Evolution and Phylogeography of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da39ab0ee8fa60b87224

Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) species PAV occurs frequently in irrigated wheat fields worldwide and can be efficiently transmitted by aphids. Isolates of BYDV-PAV from different countries show great divergence both in genomic sequences and pathogenicity. Despite its economical importance, the genetic structure of natural BYDV-PAV populations, as well as of the mechanisms maintaining its high diversity, remain poorly explored. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of BYDV-PAV genome evolution utilizing time-structured data sets of complete genomic sequences from 58 isolates from different hosts obtained worldwide. First, we observed that BYDV-PAV exhibits a high frequency of homologous recombination. Second, our analysis revealed that BYDV-PAV genome evolves under purifying selection and at a substitution rate similar to other RNA viruses (3.158×10−4 nucleotide substitutions/site/year). Phylogeography analyses show that the diversification of BYDV-PAV can be explained by local geographic adaptation as well as by host-driven adaptation. These results increase our understanding of the diversity, molecular evolutionary characteristics and epidemiological properties of an economically important plant RNA virus.

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<![CDATA[A Single Locus Is Responsible for Salinity Tolerance in a Chinese Landrace Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db07ab0ee8fa60bc8aea

Introduction

Salinity and waterlogging are two major abiotic stresses severely limiting barley production. The lack of a reliable screening method makes it very hard to improve the tolerance through breeding programs.

Methods

This work used 188 DH lines from a cross between a Chinese landrace variety, TX9425 (waterlogging and salinity tolerant), and a Japanese malting barley, Naso Nijo (waterlogging and salinity sensitive), to identify QTLs associated with the tolerance.

Results

Four QTLs were found for waterlogging tolerance. The salinity tolerance was evaluated with both a hydroponic system and in potting mixture. In the trial with potting mixture, only one major QTL was identified to associate with salinity tolerance. This QTL explained nearly 50% of the phenotypic variation, which makes it possible for further fine mapping and cloning of the gene. This QTL was also identified in the hydroponic experiment for different salt-related traits. The position of this QTL was located at a similar position to one of the major QTLs for waterlogging tolerance, indicating the possibility of similar mechanisms controlling both waterlogging and salinity tolerance.

Conclusion

The markers associated with the QTL provided a unique opportunity in breeding programs for selection of salinity and waterlogging tolerance.

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<![CDATA[Starch Granule Re-Structuring by Starch Branching Enzyme and Glucan Water Dikinase Modulation Affects Caryopsis Physiology and Metabolism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa5ab0ee8fa60ba7354

Starch is of fundamental importance for plant development and reproduction and its optimized molecular assembly is potentially necessary for correct starch metabolism. Re-structuring of starch granules in-planta can therefore potentially affect plant metabolism. Modulation of granule micro-structure was achieved by decreasing starch branching and increasing starch-bound phosphate content in the barley caryopsis starch by RNAi suppression of all three Starch Branching Enzyme (SBE) isoforms or overexpression of potato Glucan Water Dikinase (GWD). The resulting lines displayed Amylose-Only (AO) and Hyper-Phosphorylated (HP) starch chemotypes, respectively. We studied the influence of these alterations on primary metabolism, grain composition, starch structural features and starch granule morphology over caryopsis development at 10, 20 and 30 days after pollination (DAP) and at grain maturity. While HP showed relatively little effect, AO showed significant reduction in starch accumulation with re-direction to protein and β-glucan (BG) accumulation. Metabolite profiling indicated significantly higher sugar accumulation in AO, with re-partitioning of carbon to accumulate amino acids, and interestingly it also had high levels of some important stress-related metabolites and potentially protective metabolites, possibly to elude deleterious effects. Investigations on starch molecular structure revealed significant increase in starch phosphate and amylose content in HP and AO respectively with obvious differences in starch granule morphology at maturity. The results demonstrate that decreasing the storage starch branching resulted in metabolic adjustments and re-directions, tuning to evade deleterious effects on caryopsis physiology and plant performance while only little effect was evident by increasing starch-bound phosphate as a result of overexpressing GWD.

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<![CDATA[Spatio-Temporal Metabolite Profiling of the Barley Germination Process by MALDI MS Imaging]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9faab0ee8fa60b71b0b

MALDI mass spectrometry imaging was performed to localize metabolites during the first seven days of the barley germination. Up to 100 mass signals were detected of which 85 signals were identified as 48 different metabolites with highly tissue-specific localizations. Oligosaccharides were observed in the endosperm and in parts of the developed embryo. Lipids in the endosperm co-localized in dependency on their fatty acid compositions with changes in the distributions of diacyl phosphatidylcholines during germination. 26 potentially antifungal hordatines were detected in the embryo with tissue-specific localizations of their glycosylated, hydroxylated, and O-methylated derivates. In order to reveal spatio-temporal patterns in local metabolite compositions, multiple MSI data sets from a time series were analyzed in one batch. This requires a new preprocessing strategy to achieve comparability between data sets as well as a new strategy for unsupervised clustering. The resulting spatial segmentation for each time point sample is visualized in an interactive cluster map and enables simultaneous interactive exploration of all time points. Using this new analysis approach and visualization tool germination-dependent developments of metabolite patterns with single MS position accuracy were discovered. This is the first study that presents metabolite profiling of a cereals’ germination process over time by MALDI MSI with the identification of a large number of peaks of agronomically and industrially important compounds such as oligosaccharides, lipids and antifungal agents. Their detailed localization as well as the MS cluster analyses for on-tissue metabolite profile mapping revealed important information for the understanding of the germination process, which is of high scientific interest.

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