ResearchPad - bifidobacterium https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Anti-cancer effects of <i>Bifidobacterium</i> species in colon cancer cells and a mouse model of carcinogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14495 Probiotics are suggested to prevent colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate the anticancer properties of some potential probiotics in vitro and in vivo.Materials and methodsAnticancer effects of potential probiotic groups were investigated following of in LS174T cancer cells compared to IEC-18 normal cells. 1. a single strain of Bifidobacterium. breve, 2. a single strain of Lactobacillus. reuteri, 3. a cocktail of 5 strains of Lactobacilli (LC), 4. a cocktail of 5 strains of Bifidobacteria (BC), 5. a cocktail of 10 strains from Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium (L+B). Apoptosis rate, EGFR, HER-2 and PTGS-2 (COX-2 protein) expression levels were assessed as metrics of evaluating anticancer properties. Effect of BC, as the most effective group in vitro, was further assessed in mice models.ResultsBC induced ~21% and only ~3% apoptosis among LS174T and IEC-18 cells respectively. BC decreased the expression of EGFR by 4.4 folds, HER-2 by 6.7 folds, and PTGS-2 by 20 folds among the LS174T cells. In all these cases, BC did not interfere significantly with the expression of the genes in IEC-18 cells. This cocktail has caused only 1.1 folds decrease, 1.8 folds increase and 1.7 folds decrease in EGFR, HER-2 and PTGS-2 expression, respectively. Western blot analysis confirmed these results in the protein level. BC significantly ameliorated the disease activity index, restored colon length, inhibited the increase in incidence and progress of tumors to higher stages and grades.ConclusionsBC was the most efficient treatment in this study. It had considerable “protective” anti-cancer properties and concomitantly down regulated EGFR, HER-2 and PTGS-2 (COX-2), while having significant anti-CRC effects on CRC mice models. In general, this potential probiotic could be considered as a suitable nutritional supplement to treat and prevent CRC. ]]> <![CDATA[Oral Candida administration in a Clostridium difficile mouse model worsens disease severity but is attenuated by Bifidobacterium]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c89d5eed0c484bd2ed3

Gut fungi may influence the course of Clostridium difficile infection either positively or negatively for the host. Fungi are not prominent in the mouse gut, and C. albicans, the major human gastrointestinal commensal yeast, is in low abundance or absent in mice. Bifidobacterium is one of the probiotics that may attenuate the severity of C. difficile infection. Inflammatory synergy between C. albicans and C. difficile, in gut, may provide a state that more closely resembles human infection and be more suitable for testing probiotic effects. We performed fecal mycobiota analysis and administered C. albicans at 1 day prior to C. difficile dosing. Fecal eukaryotic 18S rDNA analysis demonstrated the presence of Ascomycota, specifically, Candida spp., after oral antibiotics, despite negative fecal fungal culture. C. albicans administration enhanced the severity of the C. difficile infection model as determined by mortality rate, weight loss, gut leakage (FITC-dextran assay), and serum and intestinal tissue cytokines. This occurred without increased fecal C. difficile or bacteremia, in comparison with C. difficile gavage alone. Candida lysate with C. difficile increased IL-8 production from HT-29 and Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cell-lines. Bifidobacterium attenuated the disease severity of the C. difficile plus Candida model. The reduced severity was associated with decreased Candida burdens in feces. In conclusion, gut C. albicans worsened C. difficile infection, possibly through exacerbation of inflammation. Hence, a mouse model of Clostridium difficile infection with C. albicans present in the gut may better model the human patient condition. Gut fungal mycobiome investigation in patients with C. difficile is warranted and may suggest therapeutic targets.

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<![CDATA[Pilot study of probiotic/colostrum supplementation on gut function in children with autism and gastrointestinal symptoms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa56ed5eed0c484ca43d3

Over half of all children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have gastrointestinal (GI) co-morbidities including chronic constipation, diarrhea, and irritable bowel syndrome. The severity of these symptoms has been correlated with the degree of GI microbial dysbiosis. The study objective was to assess tolerability of a probiotic (Bifidobacterium infantis) in combination with a bovine colostrum product (BCP) as a source of prebiotic oligosaccharides and to evaluate GI, microbiome and immune factors in children with ASD and GI co-morbidities. This pilot study is a randomized, double blind, controlled trial of combination treatment (BCP + B. infantis) vs. BCP alone in a cross-over study in children ages 2–11 with ASD and GI co-morbidities (n = 8). This 12-week study included 5 weeks of probiotic-prebiotic supplementation, followed by a two-week washout period, and 5 weeks of prebiotic only supplementation. The primary outcome of tolerability was assessed using validated questionnaires of GI function and atypical behaviors, along with side effects. Results suggest that the combination treatment is well-tolerated in this cohort. The most common side effect was mild gassiness. Some participants on both treatments saw a reduction in the frequency of certain GI symptoms, as well as reduced occurrence of particular aberrant behaviors. Improvement may be explained by a reduction in IL-13 and TNF-α production in some participants. Although limited conclusions can be drawn from this small pilot study, the results support the need for further research into the efficacy of these treatments.

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<![CDATA[Benefits of Bifidobacterium breve M-16V Supplementation in Preterm Neonates - A Retrospective Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da52ab0ee8fa60b8e297

Background

Systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials report that probiotics reduce the risk of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates.

Aim

To determine whether routine probiotic supplementation (RPS) to preterm neonates would reduce the incidence of NEC.

Methods

The incidence of NEC ≥ Stage II and all-cause mortality was compared for an equal period of 24 months ‘before’ (Epoch 1) and ‘after’ (Epoch 2) RPS with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V in neonates <34 weeks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to adjust for relevant confounders.

Results

A total of 1755 neonates (Epoch I vs. II: 835 vs. 920) with comparable gestation and birth weights were admitted. There was a significant reduction in NEC ≥ Stage II: 3% vs. 1%, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.43 (95%CI: 0.21–0.87); ‘NEC ≥ Stage II or all-cause mortality’: 9% vs. 5%, aOR = 0.53 (95%CI: 0.32–0.88); but not all-cause mortality alone: 7% vs. 4%, aOR = 0.58 (95% CI: 0.31–1.06) in Epoch II. The benefits in neonates <28 weeks did not reach statistical significance: NEC ≥ Stage II: 6% vs. 3%, aOR 0.51 (95%CI: 0.20–1.27), ‘NEC ≥ Stage II or all-cause mortality’, 21% vs. 14%, aOR = 0.59 (95%CI: 0.29–1.18); all-cause mortality: 17% vs. 11%, aOR = 0.63 (95%CI: 0.28–1.41). There was no probiotic sepsis.

Conclusion

RPS with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V was associated with decreased NEC≥ Stage II and ‘NEC≥ Stage II or all-cause mortality’ in neonates <34 weeks. Large sample size is required to assess the potential benefits of RPS in neonates <28 weeks.

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<![CDATA[Bifidobacteria Abundance-Featured Gut Microbiota Compositional Change in Patients with Behcet’s Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da89ab0ee8fa60b9d6d1

Gut microbiota compositional alteration may have an association with immune dysfunction in patients with Behcet’s disease (BD). We conducted a fecal metagenomic analysis of BD patients. We analyzed fecal microbiota obtained from 12 patients with BD and 12 normal individuals by sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene. We compared the relative abundance of bacterial taxa. Direct comparison of the relative abundance of bacterial taxa demonstrated that the genera Bifidobacterium and Eggerthella increased significantly and the genera Megamonas and Prevotella decreased significantly in BD patients compared with normal individuals. A linear discriminant analysis of bacterial taxa showed that the phylum Actinobacteria, including Bifidobacterium, and the family Lactobacillaceae exhibited larger positive effect sizes than other bacteria in patients with BD. The phylum Firmicutes and the class Clostridia had large effect sizes in normal individuals. There was no significant difference in annotated species numbers (as numbers of operational taxonomic unit; OTU) and bacterial diversity of each sample (alpha diversity) between BD patients and normal individuals. We next assigned each sample to a position using three axes by principal coordinates analysis of the OTU table. The two groups had a significant distance as beta diversity in the 3-axis space. Fecal sIgA concentrations increased significantly in BD patients but did not correlate with any bacterial taxonomic abundance. These data suggest that the compositional changes of gut microbes may be one type of dysbiosis (unfavorable microbiota alteration) in patients with BD. The dysbiosis may have an association with the pathophysiology of BD.

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<![CDATA[Differences in gut microbiota profile between women with active lifestyle and sedentary women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb942

Physical exercise is a tool to prevent and treat some of the chronic diseases affecting the world’s population. A mechanism through which exercise could exert beneficial effects in the body is by provoking alterations to the gut microbiota, an environmental factor that in recent years has been associated with numerous chronic diseases. Here we show that physical exercise performed by women to at least the degree recommended by the World Health Organization can modify the composition of gut microbiota. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16s rRNA gene, eleven genera were found to be significantly different between active and sedentary women. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed higher abundance of health-promoting bacterial species in active women, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia hominis and Akkermansia muciniphila. Moreover, body fat percentage, muscular mass and physical activity significantly correlated with several bacterial populations. In summary, we provide the first demonstration of interdependence between some bacterial genera and sedentary behavior parameters, and show that not only does the dose and type of exercise influence the composition of gut microbiota, but also the breaking of sedentary behavior.

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<![CDATA[In Vitro Selective Growth-Inhibitory Effect of 8-Hydroxyquinoline on Clostridium perfringens versus Bifidobacteria in a Medium Containing Chicken Ileal Digesta]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db47ab0ee8fa60bd8c65

Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis is generally controlled by antibiotics. However, because of increasing antibiotic resistance, other antibacterial agents are required, preferably ones that do not affect the beneficial intestinal microbiota of the host. This study evaluated the in vitro selective growth-inhibitory effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) on C. perfringens vs. bifidobacteria in a medium containing chicken ileal digesta. Prior to the experiments, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 8HQ and penicillin G were determined by broth microdilution assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of 8HQ for C. perfringens were 16–32 times lower than the values for bifidobacteria. Treatment of autoclaved and non-autoclaved chicken ileal digesta with 8HQ showed a selective anticlostridial effect. After incubation of C. perfringens with autoclaved ileal digesta for 3 h, all 8HQ concentrations tested (32–2048 μg/mL) significantly reduced C. perfringens bacterial count. In contrast, the same treatment had no or only a slight effect on bifidobacteria counts. Unlike 8HQ, penicillin G did not exhibit any selectivity. Similar results were obtained after incubation for 24 h. In non-autoclaved ileal digesta, all 8HQ concentrations tested significantly reduced C. perfringens bacterial counts after incubation for 30 min and 3 h, while no effect was observed on bifidobacteria. These results suggest that 8HQ may serve as a prospective veterinary compound for use against necrotic enteritis in poultry.

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<![CDATA[Microbiota in Breast Milk of Chinese Lactating Mothers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab5ab0ee8fa60baca4a

The microbiota of breast milk from Chinese lactating mothers at different stages of lactation was examined in the framework of a Maternal Infant Nutrition Growth (MING) study investigating the dietary habits and breast milk composition in Chinese urban mothers. We used microbiota profiling based on the sequencing of fragments of 16S rRNA gene and specific qPCR for bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and total bacteria to study microbiota of the entire breast milk collected using standard protocol without aseptic cleansing (n = 60), and the microbiota of the milk collected aseptically (n = 30). We have also investigated the impact of the delivery mode and the stage of lactation on the microbiota composition. The microbiota of breast milk was dominated by streptococci and staphylococci for both collection protocols and, in the case of standard collection protocol, Acinetobacter sp. While the predominance of streptococci and staphylococci was consistently reported previously for other populations, the abundance of Acinetobacter sp. was reported only once before in a study where milk collection was done without aseptic cleansing of the breast and rejection of foremilk. Higher bacterial counts were found in the milk collected using standard protocol. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were present in few samples with low abundance. We observed no effect of the stage of lactation or the delivery mode on microbiota composition. Methodological and geographical differences likely explain the variability in microbiota composition reported to date.

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<![CDATA[Intestinal Microbiota and Microbial Metabolites Are Changed in a Pig Model Fed a High-Fat/Low-Fiber or a Low-Fat/High-Fiber Diet]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab3ab0ee8fa60bac26b

The intestinal microbiota and its metabolites appear to be an important factor for gastrointestinal function and health. However, research is still needed to further elaborate potential relationships between nutrition, gut microbiota and host’s health by means of a suitable animal model. The present study examined the effect of two different diets on microbial composition and activity by using the pig as a model for humans. Eight pigs were equally allotted to two treatments, either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF), or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF) diet for 7 weeks. Feces were sampled at day 7 of every experimental week. Diet effects on fecal microbiota were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR, DNA fingerprinting and metaproteomics. Furthermore, fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and ammonia concentrations were determined. Gene copy numbers of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria (P<0.001) and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P<0.05) were higher in the LF pigs, while Enterobacteriaceae were more abundant in the HF pigs (P<0.001). Higher numbers of proteins affiliated to Enterobacteriaceae were also present in the HF samples. Proteins for polysaccharide breakdown did almost exclusively originate from Prevotellaceae. Total and individual fecal SCFA concentrations were higher for pigs of the LF treatment (P<0.05), whereas fecal ammonia concentrations did not differ between treatments (P>0.05). Results provide evidence that beginning from the start of the experiment, the LF diet stimulated beneficial bacteria and SCFA production, especially butyrate (P<0.05), while the HF diet fostered those bacterial groups which have been associated with a negative impact on health conditions. These findings correspond to results in humans and might strengthen the hypothesis that the response of the porcine gut microbiota to a specific dietary modulation is in support of using the pig as suitable animal model for humans to assess diet-gut-microbiota interactions.

Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003447.

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<![CDATA[An In Vitro Approach to Study Effects of Prebiotics and Probiotics on the Faecal Microbiota and Selected Immune Parameters Relevant to the Elderly]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dacbab0ee8fa60bb4385

The aging process leads to alterations of gut microbiota and modifications to the immune response, such changes may be associated with increased disease risk. Prebiotics and probiotics can modulate microbiome changes induced by aging; however, their effects have not been directly compared. The aim of this study was to use anaerobic batch culture fermenters to assess the impact of various fermentable carbohydrates and microorganisms on the gut microbiota and selected immune markers. Elderly volunteers were used as donors for these experiments to enable relevance to an aging population. The impact of fermentation supernatants on immune markers relevant to the elderly were assessed in vitro. Levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture supernatants were measured using flow cytometry. Trans-galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS) and inulin both stimulated bifidobacteria compared to other treatments (p<0.05). Fermentation supernatants taken from faecal batch cultures supplemented with B-GOS, inulin, B. bifidum, L. acidophilus and Ba. coagulans inhibited LPS induced TNF-α (p<0.05). IL-10 production, induced by LPS, was enhanced by fermentation supernatants from faecal batch cultures supplemented with B-GOS, inulin, B. bifidum, L. acidophilus, Ba. coagulans and Bac. thetaiotaomicron (p<0.05). To conclude, prebiotics and probiotics could lead to potentially beneficial effects to host health by targeting specific bacterial groups, increasing saccharolytic fermentation and decreasing inflammation associated with aging. Compared to probiotics, prebiotics led to greater microbiota modulation at the genus level within the fermenters.

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<![CDATA[Bifidobacteria Prevent Tunicamycin-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Subsequent Barrier Disruption in Human Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Monolayers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dacbab0ee8fa60bb423e

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is caused by accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER, thereby compromising its vital cellular functions in protein production and secretion. Genome wide association studies in humans as well as experimental animal models linked ER stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) with intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the mechanisms linking the outcomes of ER stress in IECs to intestinal disease have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ER stress on intestinal epithelial barrier function using human colon carcinoma-derived Caco-2 monolayers. Tunicamycin-induced ER stress decreased the trans-epithelial electrical resistance of Caco-2 monolayers, concomitant with loss of cellular plasma membrane integrity. Epithelial barrier disruption in Caco-2 cells after ER stress was not caused by caspase- or RIPK1-dependent cell death but was accompanied by lysosomal rupture and up-regulation of the ER stress markers Grp78, sXBP1 and Chop. Interestingly, several bifidobacteria species inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress and thereby diminished barrier disruption in Caco-2 monolayers. Together, these results showed that ER stress compromises the epithelial barrier function of Caco-2 monolayers and demonstrate beneficial impacts of bifidobacteria on ER stress in IECs. Our results identify epithelial barrier loss as a potential link between ER stress and intestinal disease development, and suggest that bifidobacteria could exert beneficial effects on this phenomenon.

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<![CDATA[Genome Analysis and Characterisation of the Exopolysaccharide Produced by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum 35624™]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab2ab0ee8fa60baba10

The Bifibobacterium longum subsp. longum 35624 strain (formerly named Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis) is a well described probiotic with clinical efficacy in Irritable Bowel Syndrome clinical trials and induces immunoregulatory effects in mice and in humans. This paper presents (a) the genome sequence of the organism allowing the assignment to its correct subspeciation longum; (b) a comparative genome assessment with other B. longum strains and (c) the molecular structure of the 35624 exopolysaccharide (EPS624). Comparative genome analysis of the 35624 strain with other B. longum strains determined that the sub-speciation of the strain is longum and revealed the presence of a 35624-specific gene cluster, predicted to encode the biosynthetic machinery for EPS624. Following isolation and acid treatment of the EPS, its chemical structure was determined using gas and liquid chromatography for sugar constituent and linkage analysis, electrospray and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for sequencing and NMR. The EPS consists of a branched hexasaccharide repeating unit containing two galactose and two glucose moieties, galacturonic acid and the unusual sugar 6-deoxy-L-talose. These data demonstrate that the B. longum 35624 strain has specific genetic features, one of which leads to the generation of a characteristic exopolysaccharide.

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<![CDATA[Study of the Ability of Bifidobacteria of Human Origin to Prevent and Treat Rotavirus Infection Using Colonic Cell and Mouse Models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da81ab0ee8fa60b9ab88

Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis among children worldwide. Despite effective vaccines, inexpensive alternatives such as probiotics are needed. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of probiotic candidate Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 to inhibit rotavirus infection. Bacterial adhesion to intestinal cells and interference with viral attachment were evaluated in vitro. B. thermophilum RBL67 displayed adhesion indexes of 625 ± 84 and 1958 ± 318 on Caco-2 and HT-29 cells respectively and was comparable or superior to four other bifidobacteria, including B. longum ATCC 15707 and B. pseudolongum ATCC 25526 strains. Incubation of B. thermophilum RBL67 for 30 min before (exclusion) and simultaneously (competition) with human rotavirus strain Wa decreased virus attachment by 2.0 ± 0.1 and 1.5 ± 0.1 log10 (by 99.0% and 96.8% respectively). Displacement of virus already present was negligible. In CD-1 suckling mice fed B. thermophilum RBL67 challenged with simian rotavirus SA-11, pre-infection feeding with RBL 67 was more effective than post-infection feeding, reducing the duration of diarrhea, limiting epithelial lesions, reducing viral replication in the intestine, accelerating recovery, and stimulating the humoral specific IgG and IgM response, without inducing any adverse effect. B. thermophilum RBL67 had little effect on intestinal IgA titer. These results suggest that humoral immunoglobulin might provide protection against the virus and that B. thermophilum RBL67 has potential as a probiotic able to inhibit rotavirus infection and ultimately reduce its spread.

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<![CDATA[Novel molecular, structural and evolutionary characteristics of the phosphoketolases from bifidobacteria and Coriobacteriales]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcb04

Members from the order Bifidobacteriales, which include many species exhibiting health promoting effects, differ from all other organisms in using a unique pathway for carbohydrate metabolism, known as the “bifid shunt”, which utilizes the enzyme phosphoketolase (PK) to carry out the phosphorolysis of both fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) and xylulose-5-phosphate (X5P). In contrast to bifidobacteria, the PKs found in other organisms (referred to XPK) are able to metabolize primarily X5P and show very little activity towards F6P. Presently, very little is known about the molecular or biochemical basis of the differences in the two forms of PKs. Comparative analyses of PK sequences from different organisms reported here have identified multiple high-specific sequence features in the forms of conserved signature inserts and deletions (CSIs) in the PK sequences that clearly distinguish the X5P/F6P phosphoketolases (XFPK) of bifidobacteria from the XPK homologs found in most other organisms. Interestingly, most of the molecular signatures that are specific for the XFPK from bifidobacteria are also shared by the PK homologs from the Coriobacteriales order of Actinobacteria. Similarly to the Bifidobacteriales, the order Coriobacteriales is also made up of commensal organisms, that are saccharolytic and able to metabolize wide variety of carbohydrates, producing lactate and other metabolites. Phylogenetic studies provide evidence that the XFPK from bifidobacteria are specifically related to those found in the Coriobacteriales and suggest that the gene for PK (XFPK) was horizontally transferred between these two groups. A number of the identified CSIs in the XFPK sequence, which serve to distinguish the XFPK homologs from XPK homologs, are located at the subunit interface in the structure of the XFPK dimer protein. The results of protein modelling and subunit docking studies indicate that these CSIs are involved in the formation/stabilization of the protein dimer. The significance of these observations regarding the differences in the activities of the XFPK and XPK homologs are discussed. Additionally, this work also discusses the significance of the XFPK-like homologs, similar to those found in bifidobacteria, in the order Coriobacteriales.

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<![CDATA[Transition of the intestinal microbiota of cats with age]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5aafcd75463d7e7f0523454e

The transition of intestinal microbiota with age has been well described in humans. However, the age-related changes in intestinal microbiota of cats have not been well studied. In the present study, we investigated the composition of intestinal microbiota of cats in 5 different age groups (pre-weanling, weanling, young, aged, senile) with a culture-based method. For lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, we also quantified with molecular-based method, real-time PCR. The results suggested that the composition of the feline intestinal microbiota changes with age, while the changes were different from those of humans and dogs. Bifidobacteria which are predominant in human intestine or lactobacilli which are predominant in dog intestine, did not appear to be important in cat intestines. Enterococci, instead, seem to be major lactic acid producing bacteria in cats. We also identified lactobacilli and bifidobacteria at the species level based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and found that the species composition of Lactobacillus also changed with age.

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<![CDATA[Effects of a Lactobacillus salivarius mixture on performance, intestinal health and serum lipids of broiler chickens]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db59ab0ee8fa60bdf1c6

The ban or severe restriction on the use of antibiotics in poultry feeds to promote growth has led to considerable interest to find alternative approaches. Probiotics have been considered as such alternatives. In the present study, the effects of a Lactobacillus mixture composed from three previously isolated Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CI1, CI2 and CI3) from chicken intestines on performance, intestinal health status and serum lipids of broiler chickens has been evaluated. Supplementation of the mixture at a concentration of 0.5 or 1 g kg-1 of diet to broilers for 42 days improved body weight, body weight gain and FCR, reduced total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, increased populations of beneficial bacteria such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, decreased harmful bacteria such as E. coli and total aerobes, reduced harmful cecal bacterial enzymes such as β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase, and improved intestinal histomorphology of broilers. Because of its remarkable efficacy on broiler chickens, the L. salivarius mixture could be considered as a good potential probiotic for chickens, and its benefits should be further evaluated on a commercial scale.

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<![CDATA[Altered Gut Microbiota Composition Associated with Eczema in Infants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafaab0ee8fa60bc4368

Eczema is frequently the first manifestation of an atopic diathesis and alteration in the diversity of gut microbiota has been reported in infants with eczema. To identify specific bacterial communities associated with eczema, we conducted a case-control study of 50 infants with eczema (cases) and 51 healthy infants (controls). We performed high-throughput sequencing for V3–V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA genes from the gut fecal material. A total of 12,386 OTUs (operational taxonomic units) at a 97% similarity level were obtained from the two groups, and we observed a difference in taxa abundance, but not the taxonomic composition, of gut microbiota between the two groups. We identified four genera enriched in healthy infants: Bifidobacterium, Megasphaera, Haemophilus and Streptococcus; and five genera enriched in infants with eczema: Escherichia/Shigella, Veillonella, Faecalibacterium, Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis and Clostridium XlVa. Several species, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Ruminococcus gnavus, that are known to be associated with atopy or inflammation, were found to be significantly enriched in infants with eczema. Higher abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila in eczematous infants might reduce the integrity of intestinal barrier function and therefore increase the risk of developing eczema. On the other hand, Bacteroides fragilis and Streptococcus salivarius, which are known for their anti-inflammatory properties, were less abundant in infants with eczema. The observed differences in genera and species between cases and controls in this study may provide insight into the link between the microbiome and eczema risk.

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<![CDATA[Effect of a probiotic beverage consumption (Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707) in rats with chemically induced colitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdd17b

Background

Some probiotic strains have the potential to assist in relieving the symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. The impact of daily ingestion of a soy-based product fermented by Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416 with the addition of Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707 on chemically induced colitis has been investigated thereof within a period of 30 days.

Methods

Colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium. The animals were randomly assigned into five groups: Group C: negative control; Group CL: positive control; Group CLF: DSS with the fermented product; Group CLP: DSS with the non-fermented product (placebo); Group CLS: DSS with sulfasalazine. The following parameters were monitored: disease activity index, fecal microbial analyses, gastrointestinal survival of probiotic microorganisms and short-chain fatty acids concentration in the feces. At the end of the protocol the animals’ colons were removed so as to conduct a macroscopical and histopathological analysis, cytokines and nitrite quantification.

Results

Animals belonging to the CLF group showed fewer symptoms of colitis during the induction period and a lower degree of inflammation and ulceration in their colon compared to the CL, CLS and CLP groups (p<0.05). The colon of the animals in groups CL and CLS presented severe crypt damage, which was absent in CLF and CLP groups. A significant increase in the population of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. at the end of the protocol was verified only in the CLF animals (p<0.05). This group also showed an increase in short-chain fatty acids (propionate and acetate). Furthermore, the intestinal survival of E. faecium CRL 183 and B. longum ATCC 15707 in the CLF group has been confirmed by biochemical and molecular analyzes.

Conclusions

The obtained results suggest that a regular intake of the probiotic product, and placebo to a lesser extent, can reduce the severity of DSS-induced colitis on rats.

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<![CDATA[Impact of Gluten-Friendly Bread on the Metabolism and Function of In Vitro Gut Microbiota in Healthy Human and Coeliac Subjects]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9aab0ee8fa60ba37e0

The main aim of this paper was to assess the in vitro response of healthy and coeliac human faecal microbiota to gluten-friendly bread (GFB). Thus, GFB and control bread (CB) were fermented with faecal microbiota in pH-controlled batch cultures. The effects on the major groups of microbiota were monitored over 48 h incubations by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Furthermore, the death kinetics of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella Typhimurium in a saline solution supplemented with GFB or CB were also assessed. The experiments in saline solution pinpointed that GFB prolonged the survival of L. acidophilus and exerted an antibacterial effect towards S. aureus and S. Typhimurium. Moreover, GFB modulated the intestinal microbiota in vitro, promoting changes in lactobacilli and bifidobacteria members in coeliac subjects. A final multivariate approach combining both viable counts and metabolites suggested that GFB could beneficially modulate the coeliac gut microbiome; however, human studies are needed to prove its efficacy.

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<![CDATA[Allergic Patients with Long-Term Asthma Display Low Levels of Bifidobacterium adolescentis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db1dab0ee8fa60bce810

Accumulated evidence suggests a relationship between specific allergic processes, such as atopic eczema in children, and an aberrant fecal microbiota. However, little is known about the complete microbiota profile of adult individuals suffering from asthma. We determined the fecal microbiota in 21 adult patients suffering allergic asthma (age 39.43 ± 10.98 years old) and compare it with the fecal microbiota of 22 healthy controls (age 39.29 ± 9.21 years old) using culture independent techniques. An Ion-Torrent 16S rRNA gene-based amplification and sequencing protocol was used to determine the fecal microbiota profile of the individuals. Sequence microbiota analysis showed that the microbial alpha-diversity was not significantly different between healthy and allergic individuals and no clear clustering of the samples was obtained using an unsupervised principal component analysis. However, the analysis of specific bacterial groups allowed us to detect significantly lower levels of bifidobacteria in patients with long-term asthma. Also, in allergic individuals the Bifidobacterium adolescentis species prevailed within the bifidobacterial population. The reduction in the levels on bifidobacteria in patients with long-term asthma suggests a new target in allergy research and opens possibilities for the therapeutic modulation of the gut microbiota in this group of patients.

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