ResearchPad - biogeography https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Molecular clocks, biogeography and species diversity in <i>Herichthys</i> with evaluation of the role of Punta del Morro as a vicariant brake along the Mexican Transition Zone in the context of local and global time frame of cichlid diversification]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12834 Using molecular dated phylogenies and biogeographic reconstructions, the species diversity, biogeography and time frame of evolution of the genus Herichthys were evaluated. In particular, we test the role of Punta del Morro (PdM) as a vicariant brake along the Mexican Transition Zone in the context of local and global time frame of cichlid diversification using several sets of calibrations. Species diversity in Herichthys is complex and the here employed dating methods suggest young age and rapid divergence for many species while species delimitation methods did not resolve these young species including both sympatric species pairs. Based on our molecular clock dating analyses, Herichthys has colonized its present distribution area significantly prior to the suggested vicariance by PdM (10–17.1 Ma vs. 5 to 7.5 Ma). The PdM constraint is in conflict with all other paleogeographic and fossil constraints including novel ones introduced in this study that are, however, congruent among each other. Our study demonstrates that any cichlid datings significantly older or younger than the bounds presented by our analyses and discussion have to be taken as highly questionable from the point of view of Middle American paleogeography and cichlid biogeography unless we allow the option that cichlid biogeography is completely independent from ecological and geological constraints.

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<![CDATA[Migratory behaviour and survival of Great Egrets after range expansion in Central Europe]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12772 Great Egret Ardea alba is one of few Western Palearctic species that underwent a rapid range expansion in the recent decades. Originally breeding in central and eastern Europe, the species has spread in northern (up to the Baltic coast) and western (up to the western France) directions and established viable breeding populations throughout almost entire continent. We monitored one of the first Great Egrets colonies established in Poland to infer migratory patterns and survival rates directly after range expansion. For this purpose, we collected resightings from over 200 Great Egret chicks marked between 2002–2017 in central Poland. Direction of migration was non-random, as birds moved almost exclusively into the western direction. Wintering grounds were located mainly in the western Europe (Germany to France) within 800–950 km from the breeding colony. First-year birds migrated farther than adults. We found some, although relatively weak, support for age-dependent survival of Great Egrets and under the best-fitted capture-recapture model, the estimated annual survival rate of adults was nearly twice higher than for first-year birds (φad = 0.85 ± 0.05 vs. φfy = 0.48 ± 0.15). Annual survival rate under the constant model (no age-related variation) was estimated at φ = 0.81 ± 0.05. Our results suggest that Great Egrets rapidly adapted to novel ecological and environmental conditions during range expansion. We suggest that high survival rate of birds from central Poland and their western direction of migration may facilitate further colonization processes in western Europe.

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<![CDATA[Phylogeography of the widespread Caribbean spiny orb weaver <i>Gasteracantha cancriformis</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12766 Modern molecular analyses are often inconsistent with pre-cladistic taxonomic hypotheses, frequently indicating higher richness than morphological taxonomy estimates. Among Caribbean spiders, widespread species are relatively few compared to the prevalence of single island endemics. The taxonomic hypothesis Gasteracantha cancriformis circumscribes a species with profuse variation in size, color and body form. Distributed throughout the Neotropics, G. cancriformis is the only morphological species of Gasteracantha in the New World in this globally distributed genus.MethodsWe inferred phylogenetic relationships across Neotropical populations of Gasteracantha using three target genes. Within the Caribbean, we estimated genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow among island populations.ResultsOur findings revealed a single widespread species of Gasteracantha throughout the Caribbean, G. cancriformis, while suggesting two recently divergent mainland populations that may represent separate species, diverging linages, or geographically isolated demes. The concatenated and COI (Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) phylogeny supported a Caribbean clade nested within the New World. Genetic variability was high between island populations for our COI dataset; however, gene flow was also high, especially between large, adjacent islands. We found structured genetic and morphological variation within G. cancriformis island populations; however, this variation does not reflect genealogical relationships. Rather, isolation by distance and local morphological adaptation may explain the observed variation. ]]> <![CDATA[Evolutionary relationships and population genetics of the Afrotropical leaf-nosed bats (, )]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12535 The Old World leaf-nosed bats () are aerial and gleaning insectivores that occur throughout the Paleotropics. Both their taxonomic and phylogenetic histories are confused. Until recently, the family included genera now allocated to the and was recognized as a subfamily of . Evidence that diverged from both and in the Eocene confirmed their family rank, but their intrafamilial relationships remain poorly resolved. We examined genetic variation in the Afrotropical hipposiderids , , and using relatively dense taxon-sampling throughout East Africa and neighboring regions. Variation in both mitochondrial (cyt-b) and four nuclear intron sequences (ACOX2, COPS, ROGDI, STAT5) were analyzed using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. We used intron sequences and the lineage delimitation method BPP—a multilocus, multi-species coalescent approach—on supported mitochondrial clades to identify those acting as independent evolutionary lineages. The program StarBEAST was used on the intron sequences to produce a species tree of the sampled Afrotropical hipposiderids. All genetic analyses strongly support generic monophyly, with and as Afrotropical sister genera distinct from a Paleotropical ; mitochondrial analyses interpose the genera , , and between these clades. Mitochondrial analyses also suggest at least two separate colonizations of Africa by Asian groups of , but the actual number and direction of faunal interchanges will hinge on placement of the unsampled African-Arabian species . Mitochondrial sequences further identify a large number of geographically structured clades within species of all three genera. However, in sharp contrast to this pattern, the four nuclear introns fail to distinguish many of these groups and their geographic structuring disappears. Various distinctive mitochondrial clades are consolidated in the intron-based gene trees and delimitation analyses, calling into question their evolutionary independence or else indicating their very recent divergence. At the same time, there is now compelling genetic evidence in both mitochondrial and nuclear sequences for several additional unnamed species among the Afrotropical . Conflicting appraisals of differentiation among the Afrotropical hipposiderids based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci must be adjudicated by large-scale integrative analyses of echolocation calls, quantitative morphology, and geometric morphometrics. Integrative analyses will also help to resolve the challenging taxonomic issues posed by the diversification of the many lineages associated with and .

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<![CDATA[A second remarkable case of parapatry in a Tasmanian millipede genus (, , )]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9854 Verhoeff, 1936 and Mesibov, 2010 are parapatric in northeast Tasmania, Australia. The parapatric boundary is ca 50 km long and mainly follows streamlines. Three sections of the boundary were intensively sampled. Two gonopod variants of also appear to be parapatric.

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<![CDATA[Diversity, distribution patterns, and fauno-genesis of the millipedes () of mainland China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1422f9f6-c724-4a5b-9342-959a2fee5c76 Based on all available information, 339 species from 71 genera, 26 families, and eleven orders of have hitherto been recorded from mainland China, the fauna thus being very rich, albeit far from completely known, comprising various zoogeographic elements and populating very different environments. Diplopods mainly occur in various woodlands, in caves, and high in the mountains. Most species (> 90 %, usually highly localised, including 160 cavernicoles), 18 genera, and one family are strictly endemic to continental China. Mapping not only the horizontal, but also the vertical distributions of in China shows the bulk of the fauna to be expectedly restricted to forested lowland and mountain biomes or their remnants. Yet some , , , , and even seem to occur only in the subalpine to alpine environments and thus may provisionally be considered as truly high-montane. The long-acknowledged notions of China being a great biogeographic zone transitional between the Palaearctic and Oriental regions generally find good support in millipede distributions, in particular at the higher taxonomic levels (generic, familial, and ordinal). While the Palaearctic/Holarctic components expectedly dominate the fauna of the northern parts of the country, the Oriental ones prevail in its south and along the Pacific coast. Both realms are increasingly mixed and intermingled towards China’s centre. However, in addition to the above traditional views, based on distribution patterns alone, southern China seems to harbour a rather small, but highly peculiar faunal nucleus or origin centre of its own, whence Himalaya, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina and/or Taiwan could have become populated by younger lineages. The millipede fauna of continental China is thus a tangled mixture of zoogeographic elements of various origins and ages, both relict and more advanced. The few anthropochores must have been the latest faunal “layer” to populate China.

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<![CDATA[Restricted Genetic Variation in Populations of Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica outside of East Africa and the Indian Ocean Islands Points to the Indian Ocean Islands as the Earliest Known Common Source]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac9ab0ee8fa60bb3aab

The Giant African Land Snail, Achatina ( = Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822, is a tropical crop pest species with a widespread distribution across East Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, the Caribbean, and North and South America. Its current distribution is attributed primarily to the introduction of the snail to new areas by Man within the last 200 years. This study determined the extent of genetic diversity in global A. fulica populations using the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. A total of 560 individuals were evaluated from 39 global populations obtained from 26 territories. Results reveal 18 distinct A. fulica haplotypes; 14 are found in East Africa and the Indian Ocean islands, but only two haplotypes from the Indian Ocean islands emerged from this region, the C haplotype, now distributed across the tropics, and the D haplotype in Ecuador and Bolivia. Haplotype E from the Philippines, F from New Caledonia and Barbados, O from India and Q from Ecuador are variants of the emergent C haplotype. For the non-native populations, the lack of genetic variation points to founder effects due to the lack of multiple introductions from the native range. Our current data could only point with certainty to the Indian Ocean islands as the earliest known common source of A. fulica across the globe, which necessitates further sampling in East Africa to determine the source populations of the emergent haplotypes.

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<![CDATA[Some new or poorly-known Zephroniidae (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida) from Vietnam]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1c33df72-dbf1-4a33-8fe7-cbacb3918d00

Abstract

Three new species of the giant pill-millipede family Zephroniidae are described from southern Vietnam: Sphaerobelum pumatensesp. nov., Sphaeropoeus honbaensissp. nov. and Sphaeropoeus bidoupensissp. nov. Two species, Sphaerobelum bicorne Attems, 1938 and Sphaeropoeus maculatus (Verhoeff, 1924), are redescribed, the former from new material, the latter from type material with lectotype designation. A new transfer is proposed: Zephronia manca Attems, 1936, to the genus Sphaeropoeus Brandt, 1833, giving the new combination, Sphaeropoeus manca (Attems, 1936) comb. nov.

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<![CDATA[Size matters: micro-evolution in Polynesian rats highlights body size changes as initial stage in evolution]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2dd55868-5849-4fff-8cf7-11bb065f2041

Microevolutionary patterns in populations of introduced rodent species have often been the focus of analytic studies for their potential relevance to understanding vertebrate evolution. The Polynesian rat (Rattus exulans) is an excellent proxy species because of its wide geographic and temporal distribution: its native and introduced combined range spans half the globe and it has been living for at least seven centuries wherever it was introduced. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of long-term isolation (insularity; up to 4,000 years) and geographic variables on skull shape variation using geometric morphometrics. A sample of 513 specimens from 103 islands and four mainland areas was analysed. This study, to my knowledge the first to extensively sample introduced rats, analysed 59 two-dimensional landmarks on the skull. Landmarks were obtained in three separate aspects (dorsal, lateral, ventral skull view). The coordinate data were then subjected to a multivariate ordination analysis (principal components analysis, or PCA), multivariate regressions, and a canonical variates analysis (CVA). Three measures of disparity were evaluated for each view. The results show that introduced Polynesian rats evolve skull shapes that conform to the general mammalian interspecific pattern of cranial evolutionary allometry (CREA), with proportionally longer snouts in larger specimens. In addition, larger skulls are more tubular in shape than the smaller skulls, which are more balloon-shaped with a rounder and wider braincase relative to those of large skulls. This difference is also observed between the sexes (sexual dimorphism), due to the slightly larger average male size. Large, tubular skulls with long snouts are typical for Polynesia and Remote Oceania, where no native mammals occur. The greater disparity of Polynesian rats on mammal species-poor islands (’exulans-only’ region) provides further insight into how diversity may affect diversification through ecological release from predators and competitors.

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<![CDATA[Commented checklist of European Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbd2d13af-80e7-4910-b7bc-bf1275b42954

Abstract

The checklist of European Gelechiidae covers 865 species, belonging to 109 genera, with three species records which require confirmation. Further, it is the first checklist to include a complete coverage of proved synonyms of species and at generic level. The following taxonomic changes are introduced: Pseudosophronia constanti (Nel, 1998) syn. nov. of Pseudosophronia exustellus (Zeller, 1847), Metzneria expositoi Vives, 2001 syn. nov. of Metzneria aestivella (Zeller, 1839); Sophronia ascalis Gozmány, 1951 syn. nov. of Sophronia grandii Hering, 1933, Aproaerema incognitana (Gozmány, 1957) comb. nov., Aproaerema cinctelloides (Nel & Varenne, 2012) comb. nov., Aproaerema azosterella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854) comb. nov., Aproaerema montanata (Gozmány, 1957) comb. nov., Aproaerema cincticulella (Bruand, 1851) comb. nov., Aproaerema buvati (Nel, 1995) comb. nov., Aproaerema linella (Chrétien, 1904) comb. nov., Aproaerema captivella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854) comb. nov., Aproaerema semicostella (Staudinger, 1871) comb. nov., Aproaerema steppicola (Junnilainen, 2010) comb. nov., Aproaerema cottienella (Nel, 2012) comb. nov., Ptocheuusa cinerella (Chrétien, 1908) comb. nov., Pragmatodes melagonella (Constant, 1895) comb. nov., Pragmatodes albagonella (Varenne & Nel, 2010) comb. nov., Pragmatodes parvulata (Gozmány, 1953) comb. nov., Oxypteryx nigromaculella (Millière, 1872) comb. nov., Oxypteryx wilkella (Linnaeus, 1758) comb. nov., Oxypteryx ochricapilla (Rebel, 1903) comb. nov., Oxypteryx superbella (Zeller, 1839) comb. nov., Oxypteryx mirusella (Huemer & Karsholt, 2013) comb. nov., Oxypteryx baldizzonei (Karsholt & Huemer, 2013) comb. nov., Oxypteryx occidentella (Huemer & Karsholt, 2011) comb. nov., Oxypteryx libertinella (Zeller, 1872) comb. nov., Oxypteryx gemerensis (Elsner, 2013) comb. nov., Oxypteryx deserta (Piskunov, 1990) comb. nov., Oxypteryx unicolorella (Duponchel, 1843) comb. nov., Oxypteryx nigritella (Zeller, 1847) comb. nov., Oxypteryx plumbella (Heinemann, 1870) comb. nov., Oxypteryx isostacta (Meyrick, 1926) comb. nov., Oxypteryx helotella (Staudinger, 1859) comb. nov., Oxypteryx parahelotella (Nel, 1995) comb. nov., Oxypteryx graecatella (Šumpich & Skyva, 2012) comb. nov.; Aproaerema genistae (Walsingham, 1908) comb. rev., Aproaerema thaumalea (Walsingham, 1905) comb. rev.; Dichomeris neatodes Meyrick, 1923 sp. rev.; Caryocolum horoscopa (Meyrick, 1926) stat. rev.; Ivanauskiella occitanica (Nel & Varenne, 2013) sp. rev.; Apodia martinii Petry, 1911 sp. rev.; Caulastrocecis cryptoxena (Gozmány, 1952) sp. rev. Following Article 23.9.2 ICZN we propose Caryocolum blandella (Douglas, 1852) (Gelechia) nom. protectum and Caryocolum signatella (Eversmann, 1844) (Lita) nom. oblitum.

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<![CDATA[A taxonomic revision of the south-eastern dragon lizards of the Smaug warreni (Boulenger) species complex in southern Africa, with the description of a new species (Squamata: Cordylidae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndb451581-c430-4504-947d-356b86cda544

A recent multilocus molecular phylogeny of the large dragon lizards of the genus Smaug Stanley et al. (2011) recovered a south-eastern clade of two relatively lightly-armoured, geographically-proximate species (Smaug warreni (Boulenger, 1908) and S. barbertonensis (Van Dam, 1921)). Unexpectedly, S. barbertonensis was found to be paraphyletic, with individuals sampled from northern Eswatini (formerly Swaziland) being more closely related to S. warreni than to S. barbertonensis from the type locality of Barberton in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Examination of voucher specimens used for the molecular analysis, as well as most other available museum material of the three lineages, indicated that the ‘Eswatini’ lineage—including populations in a small area on the northern Eswatini–Mpumalanga border, and northern KwaZulu–Natal Province in South Africa—was readily distinguishable from S. barbertonensis sensu stricto (and S. warreni) by its unique dorsal, lateral and ventral colour patterns. In order to further assess the taxonomic status of the three populations, a detailed morphological analysis was conducted. Multivariate analyses of scale counts and body dimensions indicated that the ‘Eswatini’ lineage and S. warreni were most similar. In particular, S. barbertonensis differed from the other two lineages by its generally lower numbers of transverse rows of dorsal scales, and a relatively wider head. High resolution Computed Tomography also revealed differences in cranial osteology between specimens from the three lineages. The ‘Eswatini’ lineage is described here as a new species, Smaug swazicus sp. nov., representing the ninth known species of dragon lizard. The new species appears to be near-endemic to Eswatini, with about 90% of its range located there. Our study indicates that S. barbertonensis sensu stricto is therefore a South African endemic restricted to an altitudinal band of about 300 m in the Barberton–Nelspruit–Khandizwe area of eastern Mpumalanga Province, while S. warreni is endemic to the narrow Lebombo Mountain range of South Africa, Eswatini and Mozambique. We present a detailed distribution map for the three species, and a revised diagnostic key to the genus Smaug.

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<![CDATA[Cirripectes matatakaro, a new species of combtooth blenny from the Central Pacific, illuminates the origins of the Hawaiian fish fauna]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N671aed45-2c4e-4dde-bb24-bc1bd53d1a1e

Included among the currently recognized 23 species of combtooth blennies of the genus Cirripectes (Blenniiformes: Blenniidae) of the Indo-Pacific are the Hawaiian endemic C. vanderbilti, and the widespread C. variolosus. During the course of a phylogeographic study of these species, a third species was detected, herein described as C. matatakaro. The new species is distinguished primarily by the configuration of the pore structures posterior to the lateral centers of the transverse row of nuchal cirri in addition to 12 meristic characters and nine morphometric characters documented across 72 specimens and ∼4.2% divergence in mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I. The new species is currently known only from the Marquesas, Gambier, Pitcairns, Tuamotus, and Australs in the South Pacific, and the Northern Line Islands and possibly Johnston Atoll south of Hawaiʻi. Previous researchers speculated that the geographically widespread C. variolosus was included in an unresolved trichotomy with the Hawaiian endemic and other species based on a morphological phylogeny. Our molecular-phylogenetic analysis resolves many of the previously unresolved relationships within the genus and reveals C. matatakaro as the sister lineage to the Hawaiian C. vanderbilti. The restricted geographic distribution of Cirripectes matatakaro combines with its status as sister to C. vanderbilti to indicate a southern pathway of colonization into Hawaiʻi.

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<![CDATA[Ship rats and island reptiles: patterns of co-existence in the Mediterranean]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N78e6fe1d-c135-4760-ad79-6e419b3a946a

Background

The western Mediterranean archipelagos have a rich endemic fauna, which includes five species of reptiles. Most of these archipelagos were colonized since early historic times by anthropochoric fauna, such as ship rats (Rattus rattus). Here, I evaluated the influence of ship rats on the occurrence of island reptiles, including non-endemic species.

Methodology

I analysed a presence-absence database encompassing 159 islands (Balearic Islands, Provence Islands, Corso-Sardinian Islands, Tuscan Archipelago, and Galite) using Bayesian-regularized logistic regression.

Results

The analysis indicated that ship rats do not influence the occurrence of endemic island reptiles, even on small islands. Moreover, Rattus rattus co-occurred positively with two species of non-endemic reptiles, including a nocturnal gecko, a guild considered particularly vulnerable to predation by rats. Overall, the analyses showed a very different pattern than that documented in other regions of the globe, possibly attributable to a long history of coexistence.

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<![CDATA[Phylogeography of post-Pleistocene population expansion in Dasyscyphella longistipitata (Leotiomycetes, Helotiales), an endemic fungal symbiont of Fagus crenata in Japan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N769974b5-a75a-4c02-adb2-df539465e4d8
Abstract

During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), drastic environmental changes modified the topology of the Japanese Archipelago, impacting species distributions. An example is Fagus crenata, which has a present continuous distribution throughout Japan. However, by the end of the LGM it was restricted to southern refugia. Similarly, Dasyscyphella longistipitata (Leotiomycetes, Helotiales, Lachnaceae) occurs strictly on cupules of F. crenata, sharing currently an identical distribution. As the effects of the LGM remain poorly understood for saprobiotic microfungal species, herein we identified past structuring forces that shaped the current genetic diversity within D. longistipitata in relation to its host using a phylogeographic approach. We inferred present and past potential distributions through species distribution modeling, identifying environmental suitability areas in mid-southern Japan from which subsequent colonizations occurred. Our findings suggest that current high genetic diversity and lack of genetic structure within D. longistipitata are the result of recent multiple re-colonization events after the LGM.

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<![CDATA[Vascular plants of Victoria Island (Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada): a specimen-based study of an Arctic flora]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N437ccf97-61eb-45b5-921f-807daa17038e
Abstract

Victoria Island in Canada’s western Arctic is the eighth largest island in the world and the second largest in Canada. Here, we report the results of a floristic study of vascular plant diversity of Victoria Island. The study is based on a specimen-based dataset comprising 7031 unique collections from the island, including some 2870 new collections gathered between 2008 and 2019 by the authors and nearly 1000 specimens variously gathered by N. Polunin (in 1947), M. Oldenburg (1940s–1950s) and S. Edlund (1980s) that, until recently, were part of the unprocessed backlog of the National Herbarium of Canada and unavailable to researchers. Results are presented in an annotated checklist, including keys and distribution maps for all taxa, citation of specimens, comments on taxonomy, distribution and the history of documentation of taxa across the island, and photographs for a subset of taxa. The vascular plant flora of Victoria Island comprises 38 families, 108 genera, 272 species, and 17 additional taxa. Of the 289 taxa known on the island, 237 are recorded from the Northwest Territories portion of the island and 277 from the Nunavut part. Thirty-nine taxa are known on the island from a single collection, seven from two collections and three from three collections. Twenty-one taxa in eight families are newly recorded for the flora of Victoria Island: Artemisia tilesii, Senecio lugens, Taraxacum scopulorum (Asteraceae); Crucihimalaya bursifolia, Draba fladnizensis, D. juvenilis, D. pilosa, D. simmonsii (Brassicaceae); Carex bigelowii subsp. bigelowii, Eriophorum russeolum subsp. albidum (Cyperaceae); Anthoxanthum monticola subsp. monticola, Bromus pumpellianus, Deschampsia cespitosa subsp. cespitosa, D. sukatschewii, Festuca rubra subsp. rubra, Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis subsp. pratensis (Poaceae); Stuckenia filiformis (Potamogetonaceae); Potentilla × prostrata (Rosaceae); Galium aparine (Rubiaceae); and Salix ovalifolia var. ovalifolia (Salicaceae). Eight of these are new to the flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Senecio lugens, Draba juvenilis, D. pilosa, Anthoxanthum monticola subsp. monticola, Bromus pumpellianus, Deschampsia cespitosa subsp. cespitosa, Poa pratensis subsp. pratensis and Salix ovalifolia var. ovalifolia. One of these, Galium aparine, is newly recorded for the flora of Nunavut. Four first records for Victoria Island are introduced plants discovered in Cambridge Bay in 2017: three grasses (Festuca rubra subsp. rubra, Lolium perenne, and Poa pratensis subsp. pratensis) and Galium aparine. One taxon, Juncus arcticus subsp. arcticus, is newly recorded from the Northwest Territories. Of the general areas on Victoria Island that have been botanically explored the most, the greatest diversity of vascular plants is recorded in Ulukhaktok (194 taxa) and the next most diverse area is Cambridge Bay (183 taxa). The floristic data presented here represent a new baseline on which continued exploration of the vascular flora of Victoria Island – particularly the numerous areas of the island that remain unexplored or poorly explored botanically – will build.

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<![CDATA[Differences of soil enzyme activities and its influencing factors under different flooding conditions in Ili Valley, Xinjiang]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd46c9f2a-6ae5-4b33-9680-47f7b9e35fae

Background

A wetland is a special ecosystem formed by the interaction of land and water. The moisture content variation will greatly affect the function and structure of the wetland internal system.

Method

In this paper, three kinds of wetlands with different flooding levels (Phragmites australis wetland (long-term flooding), Calamagrostis epigeios wetland(seasonal flooding) and Ditch millet wetland (rarely flooded)) in Ili Valley of Xinjiang China were selected as research areas. The changes of microbial biomass carbon, soil physical and chemical properties in wetlands were compared, and redundancy analysis was used to analyze the correlation between soil physical and chemical properties, microbial biomass carbon and enzyme activities (soil sucrase, catalase, amylase and urease). The differences of soil enzyme activities and its influencing factors under different flooding conditions in Ili Valley were studied and discussed.

Result

The results of this study were the following: (1) The activities of sucrase and amylase in rarely flooded wetlands and seasonally flooded wetlands were significantly higher than those in long-term flooded wetlands; the difference of catalase activity in seasonal flooded wetland was significant and the highest. (2) Redundancy analysis showed that soil organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total phosphorus and soil microbial biomass carbon had significant effects on soil enzyme activity (p < 0.05). (3) The correlation between soil organic carbon and the sucrase activity, total phosphorus and the catalase activity was the strongest; while soil organic carbon has a significant positive correlation with invertase, urease and amylase activity, with a slight influence on catalase activity. The results of this study showed that the content of organic carbon, total phosphorus and other soil fertility factors in the soil would be increased and the enzyme activity would be enhanced if the flooding degree was changed properly.

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<![CDATA[Airborne microbial biodiversity and seasonality in Northern and Southern Sweden]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3a3510f6-76d5-47a9-aa64-73b6cabf18f1

Microorganisms are essential constituents of ecosystems. To improve our understanding of how various factors shape microbial diversity and composition in nature it is important to study how microorganisms vary in space and time. Factors shaping microbial communities in ground level air have been surveyed in a limited number of studies, indicating that geographic location, season and local climate influence the microbial communities. However, few have surveyed more than one location, at high latitude or continuously over more than a year. We surveyed the airborne microbial communities over two full consecutive years in Kiruna, in the Arctic boreal zone, and Ljungbyhed, in the Southern nemoral zone of Sweden, by using a unique collection of archived air filters. We mapped both geographic and seasonal differences in bacterial and fungal communities and evaluated environmental factors that may contribute to these differences and found that location, season and weather influence the airborne communities. Location had stronger influence on the bacterial community composition compared to season, while location and season had equal influence on the fungal community composition. However, the airborne bacterial and fungal diversity showed overall the same trend over the seasons, regardless of location, with a peak during the warmer parts of the year, except for the fungal seasonal trend in Ljungbyhed, which fluctuated more within season. Interestingly, the diversity and evenness of the airborne communities were generally lower in Ljungbyhed. In addition, both bacterial and fungal communities varied significantly within and between locations, where orders like Rhizobiales, Rhodospirillales and Agaricales dominated in Kiruna, whereas Bacillales, Clostridiales and Sordariales dominated in Ljungbyhed. These differences are a likely reflection of the landscape surrounding the sampling sites where the landscape in Ljungbyhed is more homogenous and predominantly characterized by artificial and agricultural surroundings. Our results further indicate that local landscape, as well as seasonal variation, shapes microbial communities in air.

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<![CDATA[Population genetics of swamp eel in the Yangtze River: comparative analyses between mitochondrial and microsatellite data provide novel insights]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc43376eb-1976-473f-88de-4adb57ed8032

The swamp eel (Monopterus albus) is a typical sex reversal fish with high economic value. Several phylogeographic studies have been performed using various markers but comparative research between mitochondrial and nuclear markers is rare. Here, a fine-scale study was performed across six sites along the Yangtze River including three sites on the main stem and three sites from tributaries. A total of 180 swamp eel individuals were collected. Genetic structure and demographic history were explored using data from two mitochondrial genes and eight microsatellite loci. The results revealed the samples from tributary sites formed three separate clades which contained site-specific lineages. Geographic isolation and the habitat patchiness caused by seasonal cutoff were inferred to be the reasons for this differentiation. Strong gene flow was detected among the sites along the main stem. Rapid flow of the river main stem may provide the dynamic for the migration of swamp eel. Interestingly, the comparative analyses between the two marker types was discordant. Mitochondrial results suggested samples from three tributary sites were highly differentiated. However, microsatellite analyses indicated the tributary samples were moderately differentiated. We conclude this discordance is mainly caused by the unique life history of sex reversal fish. Our study provides novel insights regarding the population genetics of sex reversal fish.

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<![CDATA[The world woodlouse flies (Diptera, Rhinophoridae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nae993fba-0a08-49f2-958c-66b0401d3b94
Abstract

The world Rhinophoridae are catalogued, recognising 33 genera and 177 species. Nomenclatural information is provided for all genus-group and species-group names, including lists of synonyms and name-bearing type data. Species distributions are recorded by country. A key to the world genera is presented. Four new genera are erected to accommodate five new species, which do not fit within any of the current generic concepts in Rhinophoridae, according to the results of a morphology-based phylogenetic analysis: Marshallicona Cerretti & Pape with type species Marshallicona quitu Cerretti & Pape, gen. et sp. nov. (Ecuador); Maurhinophora Cerretti & Pape with type species Maurhinophora indoceanica Cerretti & Pape, gen. et sp. nov. (Mauritius); Neotarsina Cerretti & Pape with type species Neotarsina caraibica Cerretti & Pape, gen. et sp. nov. (Trinidad and Tobago) and Neotarsina andina Cerretti & Pape, sp. nov. (Peru); Kinabalumyia Cerretti & Pape with type species Kinabalumyia pinax Cerretti & Pape, gen. et sp. nov. (Malaysia, Sabah). The genus Aporeomyia Pape & Shima (type species Aporeomyia antennalis Pape & Shima), originally assigned to Tachinidae, is here reassigned to Rhinophoridae based on a reassessment of the homologies of the male terminalia. The following five species-group names, which were previously treated as junior synonyms or nomina dubia, are recognised as valid species names: Acompomintho caucasica (Villeneuve, 1908), stat. rev. [from nomen dubium to valid species]; Acompomintho sinensis (Villeneuve, 1936), stat. rev. [from nomen dubium to valid species]; Stevenia bertei (Rondani, 1865), stat. rev. [from nomen dubium to valid species]; Stevenia sardoa Villeneuve, 1920, stat. rev. [from junior synonym of Rhinophora deceptoria Loew, 1847 to valid species]; Stevenia subalbida (Villeneuve, 1911), stat. rev. [from junior synonym of Rhinophora deceptoria Loew, 1847 to valid species]. Reversal of precedence is invoked for the following case of subjective synonymy to promote stability in nomenclature: Rhinophora lepida (Meigen, 1824), nomen protectum, and Musca parcus Harris, 1780: 144, nomen oblitum. New generic and specific synonymies are proposed for the following two names: Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935, junior synonym of Tromodesia Rondani, 1856, syn. nov. and Ptilocheta tacchetti Rondani, 1865, junior synonym of Stevenia obscuripennis (Loew, 1847), syn. nov. The following new combinations are proposed: Acompomintho sinensis (Villeneuve, 1936), comb. nov. [transferred from Tricogena Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830]; Tromodesia guzari (Rohdendorf, 1935), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935]; Tromodesia intermedia (Rohdendorf, 1935), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935]; Tromodesia lindneriana (Rohdendorf, 1961), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935]; Tromodesia magnifica (Rohdendorf, 1935), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935]; Tromodesia obscurior (Rohdendorf, 1935), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935]; Tromodesia pallidissima (Rohdendorf, 1935), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935]; Tromodesia setiventris (Rohdendorf, 1935), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935] and Tromodesia shachrudi (Rohdendorf, 1935), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935].

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<![CDATA[Molecular phylogeny of Hiptage (Malpighiaceae) reveals a new species from Southwest China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N34551777-ca16-4830-8a84-24c7b0fbc82b
Abstract

Hiptage is an Asia-endemic genus of Malpighiaceae currently placed in the tetrapteroid clade, representing one of the seven inter-continent dispersions from New to Old World. A molecular phylogeny based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was recovered for the first time for the genus. Our results showed that the most recent common ancestor of Hiptage probably originated in the South Indo-China Peninsula and diversified in this region. Based on phylogenetic evidence and relevant morphological traits, we propose a new species; Hiptage incurvatum is characterised by mericarps with arcuate anterior lateral wings, two large glands on the dorsal sepals, and small glands on the remaining sepals. The new species is from Mt. Cangshan, Dali City (25°35'N, 100°02'E) in North Yunnan, Southwest China and is notable for its occurrence at high altitude, 1400 m (the highest distribution currently known for the genus). The implications of this unusual species for the dispersal and evolution of the genus are discussed.

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