ResearchPad - biosynthesis https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Response of cytokinins and nitrogen metabolism in the fronds of <i>Pteris</i> sp. under arsenic stress]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14748 Given the close relationship between cytokinins (CKs), photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism, this study assessed the effect of arsenic (As) contamination on these metabolic components in the As-hyperaccumulators Pteris cretica L. var. Albo-lineata (Pc-A) and var. Parkerii (Pc-P) as well as the As-non-hyperaccumulator Pteris straminea Mett. ex Baker (Ps). The ferns were cultivated in a pot experiment for 23 weeks in soil spiked with As at the levels 20 and 100 mg·kg-1. For the purpose of this study, the CKs were placed into five functionally different groups according to their structure and physiological roles: bioactive forms (bCKs; CK free bases); inactive or weakly active forms (dCKs; CK N-glucosides); transport forms (tCKs; CK ribosides); storage forms (sCKs; O-glucosides); and primary products of CK biosynthesis (ppbCKs; CK nucleotides). An important finding was higher CKs total content, accumulation of sCKs and reduction of dCKs in As-hyperaccumulators in contrast to non-hyperaccumulator ferns. A significant depletion of C resources was confirmed in ferns, especially Ps, which was determined by measuring the photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll fluorescence. A fluorescence decrease signified a reduction in the C/N ratio, inducing an increase of bioactive CKs forms in Pc-P and Ps. The impact of As on N utilization was significant in As-hyperaccumulators. The glutamic acid/glutamine ratio, an indicator of primary N assimilation, diminished in all ferns with increased As level in the soil. In conclusion, the results indicate a large phenotypic diversity of Pteris species to As and suggest that the CKs composition and the glutamic acid/glutamine ratio can be used as a tool to diagnose As stress in plants.

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<![CDATA[Chalcone synthase (CHS) family members analysis from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway and expression patterns in response to heat stress]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0c4703df-5c43-4557-a077-ba839b092c8d

Enzymes of the chalcone synthase (CHS) family participate in the synthesis of multiple secondary metabolites in plants, fungi and bacteria. CHS showed a significant correlation with the accumulation patterns of anthocyanin. The peel color, which is primarily determined by the content of anthocyanin, is an economically important trait for eggplants that is affected by heat stress. A total of 7 CHS (SmCHS1-7) putative genes were identified in a genome-wide analysis of eggplants (S. melongena L.). The SmCHS genes were distributed on 7 scaffolds and were classified into 3 clusters. Phylogenetic relationship analysis showed that 73 CHS genes from 7 Solanaceae species were classified into 10 groups. SmCHS5, SmCHS6 and SmCHS7 were continuously down-regulated under 38°C and 45°C treatment, while SmCHS4 was up-regulated under 38°C but showed little change at 45°C in peel. Expression profiles of key anthocyanin biosynthesis gene families showed that the PAL, 4CL and AN11 genes were primarily expressed in all five tissues. The CHI, F3H, F3’5’H, DFR, 3GT and bHLH1 genes were expressed in flower and peel. Under heat stress, the expression level of 52 key genes were reduced. In contrast, the expression patterns of eight key genes similar to SmCHS4 were up-regulated at a treatment of 38°C for 3 hour. Comparative analysis of putative CHS protein evolutionary relationships, cis-regulatory elements, and regulatory networks indicated that SmCHS gene family has a conserved gene structure and functional diversification. SmCHS showed two or more expression patterns, these results of this study may facilitate further research to understand the regulatory mechanism governing peel color in eggplants.

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<![CDATA[Dysregulation of very-long-chain fatty acid metabolism causes membrane saturation and induction of the unfolded protein response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N05c2222b-36d0-44bb-9b43-69057b3844c5

The unfolded protein response (UPR) senses defects in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and orchestrates a complex program of adaptive cellular remodeling. Increasing evidence suggests an important relationship between lipid homeostasis and the UPR. Defects in the ER membrane induce the UPR, and the UPR in turn controls the expression of some lipid metabolic genes. Among lipid species, the very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) are relatively rare and poorly understood. Here, we show that loss of the VLCFA-coenzyme A synthetase Fat1, which is essential for VLCFA utilization, results in ER stress with compensatory UPR induction. Comprehensive lipidomic analyses revealed a dramatic increase in membrane saturation in the fat1Δ mutant, likely accounting for UPR induction. In principle, this increased membrane saturation could reflect adaptive membrane remodeling or an adverse effect of VLCFA dysfunction. We provide evidence supporting the latter, as the fat1Δ mutant showed defects in the function of Ole1, the sole fatty acyl desaturase in yeast. These results indicate that VLCFAs play essential roles in protein quality control and membrane homeostasis and suggest an unexpected requirement for VLCFAs in Ole1 function.

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<![CDATA[Coordinated organization of mitochondrial lamellar cristae and gain of COX function during mitochondrial maturation in Drosophila]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd94b5873-e622-4989-8a74-9459218a5772

Mitochondrial cristae contain electron transport chain complexes and are distinct from the inner boundary membrane (IBM). While many details regarding the regulation of mitochondrial structure are known, the relationship between cristae structure and function during organelle development is not fully described. Here, we used serial-section tomography to characterize the formation of lamellar cristae in immature mitochondria during a period of dramatic mitochondrial development that occurs after Drosophila emergence as an adult. We found that the formation of lamellar cristae was associated with the gain of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) function, and the COX subunit, COX4, was localized predominantly to organized lamellar cristae. Interestingly, 3D tomography showed some COX-positive lamellar cristae were not connected to IBM. We hypothesize that some lamellar cristae may be organized by a vesicle germination process in the matrix, in addition to invagination of IBM. OXA1 protein, which mediates membrane insertion of COX proteins, was also localized to cristae and reticular structures isolated in the matrix additional to the IBM, suggesting that it may participate in the formation of vesicle germination-derived cristae. Overall, our study elaborates on how cristae morphogenesis and functional maturation are intricately associated. Our data support the vesicle germination and membrane invagination models of cristae formation.

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<![CDATA[Mutations on ent-kaurene oxidase 1 encoding gene attenuate its enzyme activity of catalyzing the reaction from ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid and lead to delayed germination in rice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3fbe67d9-408b-4f07-a6d8-c659dfb628bd

Rice seed germination is a critical step that determines its entire life circle, with seeds failing to germinate or pre-harvest sprouting both reduce grain yield. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying this complex biological event remain unclear. Previously, gibberellin has been shown to promote seed germination. In this study, a delayed seed germination rice mutant was obtained through screening of the EMS induced mutants. Besides of delayed germination, it also shows semi-dwarfism phenotype, which could be recovered by exogenous GA. Through re-sequencing on the mutant, wild-type and their F2 populations, we identified two continuous mutated sites on ent-kaurene oxidase 1 (OsKO1) gene, which result in the conversion from Thr to Met in the cytochrome P450 domain. Genetic complementary analysis and enzyme assay verified that the mutations in OsKO1 gene block the biosynthesis of GA and result in the defect phenotypes. Further analyses proved that OsKO1 could catalyze the reaction from ent-kaurene into ent-kaurenoic acid in GA biosynthesis mainly at seed germination and seedling stages, and the mutations decrease its activity to catalyze the step from ent-kaurenol to ent-kaurenoic acid in this reaction. Transcriptomic and proteomic data indicate that the defect on GA biosynthesis decreases its ability to mobilize starch and attenuate ABA signaling, therefore delay the germination process. The results provide some new insights into both GA biosynthesis and seed germination regulatory pathway in rice.

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<![CDATA[ER membrane protein complex is required for the insertions of late-synthesized transmembrane helices of Rh1 in Drosophila photoreceptors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N96b62b2e-93ca-416b-af60-386f8ac6548f

Most membrane proteins are synthesized on and inserted into the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in eukaryote. The widely conserved ER membrane protein complex (EMC) facilitates the biogenesis of a wide range of membrane proteins. In this study, we investigated the EMC function using Drosophila photoreceptor as a model system. We found that the EMC was necessary only for the biogenesis of a subset of multipass membrane proteins such as rhodopsin (Rh1), TRP, TRPL, Csat, Cni, SERCA, and Na+K+ATPase α, but not for that of secretory or single-pass membrane proteins. Additionally, in EMC-deficient cells, Rh1 was translated to its C terminus but degraded independently from ER-associated degradation. Thus, EMC exerted its effect after translation but before or during the membrane integration of transmembrane domains (TMDs). Finally, we found that EMC was not required for the stable expression of the first three TMDs of Rh1 but was required for that of the fourth and fifth TMDs. Our results suggested that EMC is required for the ER membrane insertion of succeeding TMDs of multipass membrane proteins.

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<![CDATA[Asparagine-linked glycosylation is not directly coupled to protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum in Saccharomyces cerevisiae]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6d207864-89ff-47be-9048-bd140efa6ac7

Mammalian cells express two oligosaccharyltransferase complexes, STT3A and STT3B, that have distinct roles in N-linked glycosylation. The STT3A complex interacts directly with the protein translocation channel to mediate glycosylation of proteins using an N-terminal–to–C-terminal scanning mechanism. N-linked glycosylation of proteins in budding yeast has been assumed to be a cotranslational reaction. We have compared glycosylation of several glycoproteins in yeast and mammalian cells. Prosaposin, a cysteine-rich protein that contains STT3A-dependent glycosylation sites, is poorly glycosylated in yeast cells and STT3A-deficient human cells. In contrast, a protein with extreme C-terminal glycosylation sites was efficiently glycosylated in yeast by a posttranslocational mechanism. Posttranslocational glycosylation was also observed for carboxypeptidase Y–derived reporter proteins that contain closely spaced acceptor sites. A comparison of two recent protein structures indicates that the yeast OST is unable to interact with the yeast heptameric Sec complex via an evolutionarily conserved interface due to occupation of the OST binding site by the Sec63 protein. The efficiency of glycosylation in yeast is not enhanced for proteins that are translocated by the Sec61 or Ssh1 translocation channels instead of the Sec complex. We conclude that N-linked glycosylation and protein translocation are not directly coupled in yeast cells.

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<![CDATA[Identification and expression profiling of miRNAs in two color variants of carrot (Daucus carota L.) using deep sequencing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8accd2d5eed0c48499009d

microRNAs represent small endogenous RNAs which are known to play a crucial role in various plant metabolic processes. Carrot being an important vegetable crop, represents one of the richest sources of carotenoids and anthocyanins. Most of the studies on microRNAs have been conducted in the aerial parts of the plants. However, carrot has the rare distinction of storing these compounds in roots. Therefore, carrot represents a good model system to unveil the regulatory roles of miRNAs in the underground edible part of the plant. For the first time, we report the genome wide identification and expression profiling of miRNAs in two contrasting color variants of carrot namely Orange Red and Purple Black using RNA-seq. Illumina sequencing resulted in the generation of 25.5M and 18.9M reads in Orange Red and Purple Black libraries, respectively. In total, 144 and 98 (read count >10), conserved microRNAs and 36 and 66 novel microRNAs were identified in Orange Red and Purple Black, respectively. Functional categorization and differential gene expression revealed the presence of several miRNA genes targeting various secondary metabolic pathways including carotenoid and anthocyanin biosynthetic pathways in the two libraries. 11 known and 2 novel microRNAs were further validated using Stem-Loop PCR and qRT-PCR. Also, target validation was performed for selected miRNA genes using RLM-RACE approach. The present work has laid a foundation towards understanding of various metabolic processes, particularly the color development in carrot. This information can be further employed in targeted gene expression for increasing the carotenoid and anthocyanin content in crop plants.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of transcriptional responses in root tissue of bread wheat landrace (Triticum aestivum L.) reveals drought avoidance mechanisms under water scarcity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c89770fd5eed0c4847d238d

In this study, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-Seq) was utilized to evaluate differential expression of transcripts and their related genes involved in response to terminal drought in root tissues of bread wheat landrace (L-82) and drought-sensitive genotype (Marvdasht). Subsets of 460 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in drought-tolerant genotype and 236 in drought-sensitive genotype were distinguished and functionally annotated with 105 gene ontology (GO) terms and 77 metabolic pathways. Transcriptome profiling of drought-resistant genotype “L-82” showed up-regulation of genes mostly involved in Oxidation-reduction process, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, abiotic stress response, transferase activity and heat shock proteins. On the other hand, down-regulated genes mostly involved in signaling, oxidation-reduction process, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, auxin-responsive protein and lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that the drought tolerance in “L-82” was a result of avoidance strategies. Up-regulation of genes related to the deeper root system and adequate hydraulic characteristics to allow water uptake under water scarcity confirms our hypothesis. The transcriptomic sequences generated in this study provide information about mechanisms of acclimation to drought in the selected bread wheat landrace, “L-82”, and will help us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the ability of crops to reproduce and keep its productivity even under drought stress.

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<![CDATA[A specialized MreB-dependent cell wall biosynthetic complex mediates the formation of stalk-specific peptidoglycan in Caulobacter crescentus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df35ad5eed0c48458119b

Many bacteria have complex cell shapes, but the mechanisms producing their distinctive morphologies are still poorly understood. Caulobacter crescentus, for instance, exhibits a stalk-like extension that carries an adhesive holdfast mediating surface attachment. This structure forms through zonal peptidoglycan biosynthesis at the old cell pole and elongates extensively under phosphate-limiting conditions. We analyzed the composition of cell body and stalk peptidoglycan and identified significant differences in the nature and proportion of peptide crosslinks, indicating that the stalk represents a distinct subcellular domain with specific mechanical properties. To identify factors that participate in stalk formation, we systematically inactivated and localized predicted components of the cell wall biosynthetic machinery of C. crescentus. Our results show that the biosynthesis of stalk peptidoglycan involves a dedicated peptidoglycan biosynthetic complex that combines specific components of the divisome and elongasome, suggesting that the repurposing of preexisting machinery provides a straightforward means to evolve new morphological traits.

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<![CDATA[A mutagenesis screen for essential plastid biogenesis genes in human malaria parasites]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d3cd5eed0c484c82311

Endosymbiosis has driven major molecular and cellular innovations. Plasmodium spp. parasites that cause malaria contain an essential, non-photosynthetic plastid—the apicoplast—which originated from a secondary (eukaryote–eukaryote) endosymbiosis. To discover organellar pathways with evolutionary and biomedical significance, we performed a mutagenesis screen for essential genes required for apicoplast biogenesis in Plasmodium falciparum. Apicoplast(−) mutants were isolated using a chemical rescue that permits conditional disruption of the apicoplast and a new fluorescent reporter for organelle loss. Five candidate genes were validated (out of 12 identified), including a triosephosphate isomerase (TIM)-barrel protein that likely derived from a core metabolic enzyme but evolved a new activity. Our results demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first forward genetic screen to assign essential cellular functions to unannotated P. falciparum genes. A putative TIM-barrel enzyme and other newly identified apicoplast biogenesis proteins open opportunities to discover new mechanisms of organelle biogenesis, molecular evolution underlying eukaryotic diversity, and drug targets against multiple parasitic diseases.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm membrane vesicles supports multiple mechanisms of biogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f151dd5eed0c48467ade7

Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) are ubiquitous in bacterial environments and enable interactions within and between species. OMVs are observed in lab-grown and environmental biofilms, but our understanding of their function comes primarily from planktonic studies. Planktonic OMVs assist in toxin delivery, cell-cell communication, horizontal gene transfer, small RNA trafficking, and immune system evasion. Previous studies reported differences in size and proteomic cargo between planktonic and agar plate biofilm OMVs, suggesting possible differences in function between OMV types. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa interstitial biofilms, extracellular vesicles were reported to arise through cell lysis, in contrast to planktonic OMV biogenesis that involves the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS) without appreciable autolysis. Differences in biogenesis mechanism could provide a rationale for observed differences in OMV characteristics between systems. Using nanoparticle tracking, we found that P. aeruginosa PAO1 planktonic and biofilm OMVs had similar characteristics. However, P. aeruginosa PA14 OMVs were smaller, with planktonic OMVs also being smaller than their biofilm counterparts. Large differences in Staphylococcus killing ability were measured between OMVs from different strains, and a smaller within-strain difference was recorded between PA14 planktonic and biofilm OMVs. Across all conditions, the predatory ability of OMVs negatively correlated with their size. To address biogenesis mechanism, we analyzed vesicles from wild type and pqsA mutant biofilms. This showed that PQS is required for physiological-scale production of biofilm OMVs, and time-course analysis confirmed that PQS production precedes OMV production as it does in planktonic cultures. However, a small sub-population of vesicles was detected in pqsA mutant biofilms whose size distribution more resembled sonicated cell debris than wild type OMVs. These results support the idea that, while a small and unique population of vesicles in P. aeruginosa biofilms may result from cell lysis, the PQS-induced mechanism is required to generate the majority of OMVs produced by wild type communities.

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<![CDATA[Solanum lycopersicum GOLDEN 2-LIKE 2 transcription factor affects fruit quality in a light- and auxin-dependent manner]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75a8d5eed0c4843cff97

Plastids are organelles responsible for essential aspects of plant development, including carbon fixation and synthesis of several secondary metabolites. Chloroplast differentiation and activity are highly regulated by light, and several proteins involved in these processes have been characterised. Such is the case of the GOLDEN 2-LIKE (GLK) transcription factors, which induces the expression of genes related to chloroplast differentiation and photosynthesis. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genome harbours two copies of this gene, SlGLK1 and SlGLK2, each with distinct expression patterns. While the former predominates in leaves, the latter is mainly expressed in fruits, precisely at the pedicel region. During tomato domestication, the selection of fruits with uniform ripening fixed the mutation Slglk2, nowadays present in most cultivated varieties, what penalised fruit metabolic composition. In this study, we investigated how SlGLK2 is regulated by light, auxin and cytokinin and determined the effect of SlGLK2 on tocopherol (vitamin E) and sugar metabolism, which are components of the fruit nutritional and industrial quality. To achieve this, transcriptional profiling and biochemical analysis were performed throughout fruit development and ripening from SlGLK2, Slglk2, SlGLK2-overexpressing genotypes, as well as from phytochrome and hormonal deficient mutants. The results revealed that SlGLK2 expression is regulated by phytochrome-mediated light perception, yet this gene can induce chloroplast differentiation even in a phytochrome-independent manner. Moreover, auxin was found to be a negative regulator of SlGLK2 expression, while SlGLK2 enhances cytokinin responsiveness. Additionally, SlGLK2 enhanced chlorophyll content in immature green fruits, leading to an increment in tocopherol level in ripe fruits. Finally, SlGLK2 overexpression resulted in higher total soluble solid content, possibly by the regulation of sugar metabolism enzyme-encoding genes. The results obtained here shed light on the regulatory network that interconnects SlGLK2, phytohormones and light signal, promoting the plastidial activity and consequently, influencing the quality of tomato fruit.

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<![CDATA[Control of basal autophagy rate by vacuolar peduncle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c67309ed5eed0c484f37df3

Basal autophagy is as a compressive catabolic mechanism engaged in the breakdown of damaged macromolecules and organelles leading to the recycling of elementary nutrients. Thought essential to cellular refreshing, little is known about the origin of a constitutional rate of basal autophagy. Here, we found that loss of Drosophila vacuolar peduncle (vap), a presumed GAP enzyme, is associated with enhanced basal autophagy rate and physiological alterations resulting in a wasteful cell energy balance, a hallmark of overactive autophagy. By contrast, starvation-induced autophagy was disrupted in vap mutant conditions, leading to a block of maturation into autolysosomes. This phenotype stem for exacerbated biogenesis of PI(3)P-dependent endomembranes, including autophagosome membranes and ectopic fusions of vesicles. These findings shed new light on the neurodegenerative phenotype found associated to mutant vap adult brains in a former study. A partner of Vap, Sprint (Spri), acting as an endocytic GEF for Rab5, had the converse effect of leading to a reduction in PI(3)P-dependent endomembrane formation in mutants. Spri was conditional to normal basal autophagy and instrumental to the starvation-sensitivity phenotype specific of vap. Rab5 activity itself was essential for PI(3)P and for pre-autophagosome structures formation. We propose that Vap/Spri complexes promote a cell surface-derived flow of endocytic Rab5-containing vesicles, the traffic of which is crucial for the implementation of a basal autophagy rate.

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<![CDATA[Targeted lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic intermediate analysis with normal-phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6730d1d5eed0c484f38198

Lipopolysacharride (LPS) forms the outer leaflet of the outer membrane in Gram-negative bacteria and contributes to the permeability barrier and immune response. In this study, we established a method for monitoring the LPS biosynthetic intermediates of the Raetz pathway (lpxA-lpxK) in Escherichia coli. Metabolites from compound-treated cells and genetically-perturbed cells were extracted from whole cells and concentrated by mixed-mode weak anion exchange (WAX) solid-phase extraction (SPE) prior to analysis by normal phase (NP)LC-MS/MS. Data was normalized to cell density and an internal standard prior to comparison against untreated cells in order to determine fold accumulation and depletion for affected metabolites. Using this LC-MS/MS method, we were able to reliably monitor changes in levels of the LPS intermediates in response to compound-treatment and genetic modification. In addition, we found that deletion of periplasmic CDP-diacylglycerol pyrophosphatase dramatically increased levels of the UDP-containing LPS intermediates, suggesting the enzymatic breakdown during sample preparation. This assay allows for probing a key essential pathway in Gram-negative bacteria in an effort to discover antibacterial agents that inhibit enzymes in the LPS biosynthetic pathway.

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<![CDATA[Identification of new regulators through transcriptome analysis that regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in apple leaves at low temperatures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59fef2d5eed0c4841357fd

Anthocyanin pigments play many roles in plants, including providing protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. To identify new regulatory genes in apple (Malus domestica) that may be involved in regulating low temperature induced anthocyanin biosynthesis, we performed RNA-seq analysis of leaves from the ‘Gala’ apple cultivar following exposure to a low temperature (16 °C). A visible red color appeared on the upper leaves and the anthocyanin content increased significantly after the low temperature treatment. Genes from the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway were significantly enriched among the differentially expressed genes, and the expression of several transcription factors was shown by WGCNA (weighted gene co-expression network analysis) to correlate with anthocyanin accumulation, including members of the MYB, MADS, WRKY, WD40, Zinc Finger and HB-ZIP families. Three MYB transcription factors (MdMYB12, MdMYB22 and MdMYB114), which had several CBF/DREB response elements in their promoters, were significantly induced by low temperature exposure and their expression also correlated highly with anthocyanin accumulation. We hypothesize that they may act as regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis and be regulated by CBF/DREB transcription factors in apple leaves under low temperature conditions. The analyses presented here provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation during low temperature exposure.

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<![CDATA[Fine mapping of the major QTL for seed coat color in Brassica rapa var. Yellow Sarson by use of NIL populations and transcriptome sequencing for identification of the candidate genes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e930d5eed0c48496f960

Yellow seed is a desirable trait in Brassica oilseed crops. The B. rapa var. Yellow Sarson carry unique yellow seed color genes which are not only important for the development of yellow-seeded oilseed B. rapa cultivars but this variant can also be used to develop yellow-seeded B. napus. In this study, we developed near-isogenic lines (NILs) of Yellow Sarson for the major seed coat color QTL SCA9-2 of the chromosome A9 and used the NILs to fine map this QTL region and to identify the candidate genes through linkage mapping and transcriptome sequencing of the developing seeds. From the 18.4 to 22.79 Mb region of SCA9-2, six SSR markers showing 0.63 to 5.65% recombination were developed through linkage analysis and physical mapping. A total of 55 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the SCA9-2 region through transcriptome analysis; these included three transcription factors, Bra028039 (NAC), Bra023223 (C2H2 type zinc finger), Bra032362 (TIFY), and several other genes which encode unknown or nucleic acid binding protein; these genes might be the candidates and involved in the regulation of seed coat color in the materials used in this study. Several biosynthetic pathways, including the flavonoid, phenylpropanoid and suberin biosynthetic pathways were significantly enriched through GO and KEGG enrichment analysis of the DEGs. This is the first comprehensive study to understand the yellow seed trait of Yellow Sarson through employing linkage mapping and global transcriptome analysis approaches.

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<![CDATA[Artificial selection on storage protein 1 possibly contributes to increase of hatchability during silkworm domestication]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c457d5eed0c4845e85bf

Like other domesticates, the efficient utilization of nitrogen resources is also important for the only fully domesticated insect, the silkworm. Deciphering the way in which artificial selection acts on the silkworm genome to improve the utilization of nitrogen resources and to advance human-favored domestication traits, will provide clues from a unique insect model for understanding the general rules of Darwin's evolutionary theory on domestication. Storage proteins (SPs), which belong to a hemocyanin superfamily, basically serve as a source of amino acids and nitrogen during metamorphosis and reproduction in insects. In this study, through blast searching on the silkworm genome and further screening of the artificial selection signature on silkworm SPs, we discovered a candidate domestication gene, i.e., the methionine-rich storage protein 1 (SP1), which is clearly divergent from other storage proteins and exhibits increased expression in the ova of domestic silkworms. Knockout of SP1 via the CRISPR/Cas9 technique resulted in a dramatic decrease in egg hatchability, without obvious impact on egg production, which was similar to the effect in the wild silkworm compared with the domestic type. Larval development and metamorphosis were not affected by SP1 knockout. Comprehensive ova comparative transcriptomes indicated significant higher expression of genes encoding vitellogenin, chorions, and structural components in the extracellular matrix (ECM)-interaction pathway, enzymes in folate biosynthesis, and notably hormone synthesis in the domestic silkworm, compared to both the SP1 mutant and the wild silkworm. Moreover, compared with the wild silkworms, the domestic one also showed generally up-regulated expression of genes enriched in the structural constituent of ribosome and amide, as well as peptide biosynthesis. This study exemplified a novel case in which artificial selection could act directly on nitrogen resource proteins, further affecting egg nutrients and eggshell formation possibly through a hormone signaling mediated regulatory network and the activation of ribosomes, resulting in improved biosynthesis and increased hatchability during domestication. These findings shed new light on both the understanding of artificial selection and silkworm breeding from the perspective of nitrogen and amino acid resources.

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<![CDATA[The role of microtubules and the dynein/dynactin motor complex of host cells in the biogenesis of the Coxiella burnetii-containing vacuole]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c466526d5eed0c484517b0f

Microtubules (Mts) are dynamic cytoskeleton structures that play a key role in vesicular transport. The Mts-mediated transport depends on motor proteins named kinesins and the dynein/dynactin motor complex. The Rab7 adapter protein FYCO1 controls the anterograde transport of the endocytic compartments through the interaction with the kinesin KIF5. Rab7 and its partner RILP induce the recruitment of dynein/dynactin to late endosomes regulating its retrograde transport to the perinuclear area to fuse with lysosomes. The late endosomal-lysosomal fusion is regulated by the HOPS complex through its interaction with RILP and the GTPase Arl8. Coxiella burnetii (Cb), the causative agent of Q fever, is an obligate intracellular pathogen, which generates a large compartment with autophagolysosomal characteristics named Cb-containing vacuole (CCV). The CCV forms through homotypic fusion between small non-replicative CCVs (nrCCV) and through heterotypic fusion with other compartments, such as endosomes and lysosomes. In this work, we characterise the role of Mts, motor proteins, RILP/Rab7 and Arl8 on the CCV biogenesis. The formation of the CCV was affected when either the dynamics and/or the acetylation state of Mts were modified. Similarly, the overexpression of the dynactin subunit non-functional mutants p150Glued and RILP led to the formation of small nrCCVs. This phenomenon is not observed in cells overexpressing WT proteins, the motor KIF5 or its interacting protein FYCO1. The formation of the CCV was normal in infected cells that overexpressed Arl8 alone or together with hVps41 (a HOPS subunit) or in cells co-overexpressing hVps41 and RILP. The dominant negative mutant of Arl8 and the non-functional hVps41 inhibited the formation of the CCV. When the formation of CCV was affected, the bacterial multiplication diminished. Our results suggest that nrCCVs recruit the molecular machinery that regulate the Mts-dependent retrograde transport, Rab7/RILP and the dynein/dynactin system, as well as the tethering processes such as HOPS complex and Arl8 to finally originate the CCV where C. burnetii multiplies.

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<![CDATA[KDM2B regulates choline kinase expression and neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7add5eed0c4843865c6

The process of neuronal differentiation is associated with neurite elongation and membrane biogenesis, and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) is the major membrane phospholipid in mammalian cells. During neuroblast differentiation, the transcription of two genes involved in PtdCho biosynthesis are stimulated: Chka gene for choline kinase (CK) alpha isoform and Pcyt1a gene for CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) alpha isoform. Here we show that CKα is essential for neuronal differentiation. In addition, we demonstrated that KDM2B regulates CKα expression and, as a consequence, neuronal differentiation. This factor is up-regulated in the course of the neuroblasts proliferative and undifferentiated state and down-regulated during differentiation induced by retinoic acid (RA). During proliferation, KDM2B binds to the Box2 located in the Chka promoter repressing its transcription. Interestingly, KDM2B knockdown enhances the levels of CKα expression in neuroblast cells and induces neuronal differentiation even in the absence of RA. These results suggest that KDM2B is required for the appropriate regulation of CKα during neuronal differentiation and to the maintaining of the undifferentiated stage of neuroblast cells.

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