ResearchPad - biotechnological-products-and-process-engineering https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against the sialidase of <i>Gardnerella vaginalis</i> using a synthetic peptide in a MAP8 format]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13321 Bacterial vaginosis is one of the most frequent vaginal infections. Its main etiological agent is Gardnerella vaginalis, which produces several virulence factors involved in vaginal infection and colonization, in particular, sialidase (SLD), a potential clinical biomarker that participates in immune response modulation and mucus degradation. The main objective of this work was the production and evaluation of a monoclonal antibody against G. vaginalis sialidase and its validation in immunoassays. For immunization of mice, a synthetic multiantigenic peptide was used, and hybridomas were generated. After fusion, hybridomas were evaluated for antibody production and cloned by limited dilution. One clone producing IgG1 was selected and characterized by indirect ELISA, dot blot, and Western blot, and we also tested clinical isolates and HeLa cells infected with G. vaginalis. The results showed that the anti-SLD antibody recognized a single protein of ~90 kDa that correlated with the estimated molecular weight of SLD. In addition, anti-SLD antibody recognized SLD from complete bacteria and from culture supernatants of infected Hela cells. In conclusion, our results showed that the anti-SLD antibody recognized SLD from different sources and could be considered a new tool for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.Key Points • Anti-sialidase mAb was generated using a synthetic peptide • The mAb recognizes synthetic peptide and intact protein from multiple sources • The antibody was characterized by several immunological methods ]]> <![CDATA[High-throughput screening of environmental polysaccharide-degrading bacteria using biomass containment and complex insoluble substrates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9e9cbb28-c156-462d-9f72-57e555be8d3e

Carbohydrate degradation by microbes plays an important role in global nutrient cycling, human nutrition, and biotechnological applications. Studies that focus on the degradation of complex recalcitrant polysaccharides are challenging because of the insolubility of these substrates as found in their natural contexts. Specifically, current methods to examine carbohydrate-based biomass degradation using bacterial strains or purified enzymes are not compatible with high-throughput screening using complex insoluble materials. In this report, we developed a small 3D printed filter device that fits inside a microplate well that allows for the free movement of bacterial cells, media, and enzymes while containing insoluble biomass. These devices do not interfere with standard microplate readers and can be used for both short- (24–48 h) and long-duration (> 100 h) experiments using complex insoluble substrates. These devices were used to quantitatively screen in a high-throughput manner environmental isolates for their ability to grow using lignocellulose or rice grains as a sole nutrient source. Additionally, we determined that the microplate-based containment devices are compatible with existing enzymatic assays to measure activity against insoluble biomass. Overall, these microplate containment devices provide a platform to study the degradation of complex insoluble materials in a high-throughput manner and have the potential to help uncover ecologically important aspects of bacterial metabolism as well as to accelerate biotechnological innovation.

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The online version of this article (10.1007/s00253-020-10469-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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<![CDATA[Chemoenzymatic synthesis of the pH responsive surfactant octyl β-D-glucopyranoside uronic acid]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfffdcd34-4ce9-460d-8aff-2f685ad17d56

Methodology was developed to expand the range of benign alkyl glycoside surfactants to include also anionic types. This was demonstrated possible through conversion of the glycoside to its carboxyl derivative. Specifically, octyl β-D-glucopyranoside (OG) was oxidised to the corresponding uronic acid (octyl β-D-glucopyranoside uronic acid, OG-COOH) using the catalyst system T. versicolor laccase/2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy (TEMPO) and oxygen from air as oxidant. The effects of oxygen supply methodology, concentrations of laccase, TEMPO and OG as well as reaction temperature were evaluated. At 10 mM substrate concentration, the substrate was almost quantitatively converted into product, and even at a substrate concentration of 60 mM, 85% conversion was reached within 24 h. The surfactant properties of OG-COOH were markedly dependent on pH. Foaming was only observed at low pH, while no foam was formed at pH values above 5.0. Thus, OG-COOH can be an attractive low-foaming surfactant, for example for cleaning applications and emulsification, in a wide pH range (pH 1.5–10.0).

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (10.1007/s00253-019-10254-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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<![CDATA[Production and characterisation of a marine Halomonas surface-active exopolymer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Naf04ce6b-068b-4e83-9fec-2a0cfafccf1a

During screening for novel emulsifiers and surfactants, a marine gammaproteobacterium, Halomonas sp. MCTG39a, was isolated and selected for its production of an extracellular emulsifying agent, P39a. This polymer was produced by the new isolate during growth in a modified Zobell’s 2216 medium amended with 1% glucose, and was extractable by cold ethanol precipitation. Chemical, chromatographic and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis confirmed P39a to be a high-molecular-weight (~ 261,000 g/mol) glycoprotein composed of carbohydrate (17.2%) and protein (36.4%). The polymer exhibited high emulsifying activities against a range of oil substrates that included straight-chain aliphatics, mono- and alkyl- aromatics and cycloparaffins. In general, higher emulsification values were measured under low (0.1 M PBS) compared to high (synthetic seawater) ionic strength conditions, indicating that low ionic strength is more favourable for emulsification by the P39a polymer. However, as observed with other bacterial emulsifying agents, the polymer emulsified some aromatic hydrocarbon species, as well as refined and crude oils, more effectively under high ionic strength conditions, which we posit could be due to steric adsorption to these substrates as may be conferred by the protein fraction of the polymer. Furthermore, the polymer effected a positive influence on the degradation of phenanthrene by other marine bacteria, such as the specialist PAH-degrader Polycyclovorans algicola. Collectively, based on the ability of this Halomonas high-molecular-weight glycoprotein to emulsify a range of pure hydrocarbon species, as well as refined and crude oils, it shows promise for the bioremediation of contaminated sites.

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<![CDATA[Preparation of the inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine by plasma activated water and evaluation of its protection efficacy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd811a866-5104-4038-b801-5150d90ad072

Vaccination has been regarded as the most effective way to reduce death and morbidity caused by infectious diseases in the livestock industry. In this study, plasma activated water (PAW) was introduced to prepare the inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine. Humoral immune response was tested by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, cell-mediated immune response was evaluated by lymphocyte proliferation assay and flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that the vaccine prepared by PAW at appropriate volume ratio could induce similar antibody titers in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens compared with the formaldehyde-inactivated vaccine. The challenge experiment further confirmed that the vaccine prepared by PAW conferred solid protection against virulent NDV. Moreover, it was found that the vaccine could promote the proliferation of lymphocytes and stimulate cell-mediated immunity of SPF chickens. Furthermore, analysis of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and physicochemical properties of PAW suggested reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) played an essential role in the virus inactivation. Therefore, this study indicated that NDV treated by PAW in an appropriate ratio retained immunogenicity on the premise of virus inactivation. PAW as a promising strategy could be used to prepare inactivated vaccine for Newcastle disease.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (10.1007/s00253-019-10106-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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