ResearchPad - birth-weight https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Cytokine signatures of <i>Plasmodium vivax</i> infection during pregnancy and delivery outcomes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14648 Cytokine and growth factor plasma concentrations were evaluated in women from five countries endemic for malaria vivax, at different moments and blood compartments during pregnancy. P. vivax infection during pregnancy was associated with a pro-inflammatory and TH1 response, together with an antiinflammatory response. Nevertheless, at delivery most associations between cytokines and infection were lost. Of note, CCL11/eotaxin, a chemokine not generally analyzed in malaria studies, presented a lower concentration in P. vivax-infected women and a protective association with hemoglobin levels at delivery. Moreover, IL-4 levels had a negative association with birth weight. Data suggest that a compensated inflammatory/antiinflammatory response in P. vivax infection during pregnancy might avoid poor delivery outcomes, while a predominance of TH2 responses may be detrimental for birth weight. Further research is warranted to unravel the role of CCL11 in malaria infection or exposure.

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<![CDATA[Antibiotic use for Australian Aboriginal children in three remote Northern Territory communities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N999fa4e6-a15c-456a-862e-2e1ce88316a9

Objective

To describe antibiotic prescription rates for Australian Aboriginal children aged <2 years living in three remote Northern Territory communities.

Design

A retrospective cohort study using electronic health records.

Setting

Three primary health care centres located in the Katherine East region.

Participants

Consent was obtained from 149 mothers to extract data from 196 child records. There were 124 children born between January 2010 and July 2014 who resided in one of the three chosen communities and had electronic health records for their first two years of life.

Main outcome measures

Antibiotic prescription rates, factors associated with antibiotic prescription and factors associated with appropriate antibiotic prescription.

Results

There were 5,675 Primary Health Care (PHC) encounters for 124 children (median 41, IQR 25.5, 64). Of the 5,675 PHC encounters, 1,542 (27%) recorded at least one infection (total 1,777) and 1,330 (23%) had at least one antibiotic prescription recorded (total 1,468). Children had a median five (IQR 2, 9) prescriptions in both their first and second year of life, with a prescription rate of 5.99/person year (95% CI 5.35, 6.63). Acute otitis media was the most common infection (683 records, 38%) and Amoxycillin was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic (797 prescriptions, 54%). Of the 1,468 recorded prescriptions, 398 (27%) had no infection recorded and 116 (8%) with an infection recorded were not aligned with local treatment guidelines.

Conclusion

Prescription rates for Australian Aboriginal children in these communities are significantly higher than that reported nationally for non-Aboriginal Australians. Prescriptions predominantly aligned with treatment guidelines in this setting where there is a high burden of infectious disease.

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<![CDATA[Risk of infection in the first year of life in preterm children: An Austrian observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne8c917d2-c06e-4527-bc81-08b9487488ae

Newborns, especially preterm infants, have an immature immune system, which, in combination with the required medical interventions necessary for keeping the neonate alive may lead to an increased risk of infection. Even after reaching stability and adapting to the environment, preterm infants have adverse prognoses regarding infections and long-term outcomes compared to their full-term counterparts. The objective of this study was to research differences in the number and severity of infections between preterm and full-term infants during their first year of life. To answer this question, a monocentric prospective study was conducted in a pediatric practice in Vienna, including 71 full-term infants and 72 preterm infants who were observed during their first year of life regarding occurring infections. In respective samples, there was a significantly higher total number of infections in preterm (mean 6.01 ± 3.90) compared to full-term infants (3.85 ± 1.72) during the observation period of one year. Particularly the count of respiratory and severe infections was considerably higher in preterm infants. Otorhinolaryngeal infections were the most frequent of all types of infections in both groups. The pregnancy period, number of siblings, and length of the postnatal hospital stay, were observed as significantly influencing factors which affected the total number of infections. The group of early term infants (37+0 weeks to 38+6) was not significantly different to late term babies (>39+0). The acquired knowledge about the increased risk of infections should lead to a more extensive care for preterm infants, with the objective of reducing the rates of complications, morbidity and mortality in this vulnerable age group in the future.

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<![CDATA[Renal injury after uninephrectomy in male and female intrauterine growth-restricted aged rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8acce7d5eed0c48499029e

Epidemiological studies report an inverse association between birth weight and risk for kidney disease that may differ between males and females, but studies investigating this association are limited. This study tested the hypothesis that male intrauterine growth-restricted offspring in a model of low birth weight induced by placental insufficiency in the rat exhibit enhanced renal injury in response to a persistent secondary renal insult while female growth-restricted offspring are protected. For this study, control offspring from sham-operated dams and growth-restricted offspring from reduced uterine perfusion dams underwent uninephrectomy or a sham procedure at 18 months of age. One month later, urinary markers of renal injury, renal function, and histological damage were measured. Results were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA. Male and female offspring were assessed separately. Proteinuria and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin were significantly elevated in male growth-restricted offspring exposed to uninephrectomy when compared to male uninephrectomized control. Urinary kidney injury marker-1 was elevated in male uninephrectomized growth-restricted offspring relative to male sham growth-restricted but not to male uninephrectomized controls. Likewise, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin was elevated in female uninephrectomized growth-restricted offspring but only when compared to female sham growth-restricted offspring. Markers of renal function including glomerular filtration rate and serum creatinine were impaired after uninephrectomy in female offspring regardless of birth weight. Histological parameters did not differ between control and growth-restricted offspring. Collectively, these studies suggest that both male and female growth-restricted offspring demonstrate susceptibility to renal injury following uninephrectomy; however, only male growth-restricted offspring exhibited an increase in renal markers of injury in response to uninephrectomy relative to same-sex control counterparts. These findings further suggest that urinary excretion of protein, kidney injury marker-1, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin may be early markers of kidney injury in growth-restricted offspring exposed to a secondary renal insult such as reduction in renal mass.

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<![CDATA[Exploring clinical, echocardiographic and molecular biomarkers to predict bronchopulmonary dysplasia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c89778ad5eed0c4847d2f5c

Introduction

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common chronic lung disease in childhood, related to prematurity, and the most common cause of pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to pulmonary disease in children. Moderate and severe BPD have a worse outcome and relate more frequently with PH. The prediction of moderate or severe BPD development in extremely premature newborns is vital to implement preventive strategies. Starting with the hypothesis that molecular biomarkers were better than clinical and echocardiographic factors, this study aims to explore the ability of clinical, echocardiographic and analytical variables to predict moderate or severe BPD in a cohort of extremely preterm infants.

Patients and methods

We designed a prospective longitudinal study, in which we followed a cohort of preterm newborns (gestational age <28 weeks and weight ≤ 1250 grams). In these newborns we recorded weekly clinical and echocardiographic variables as well as blood and tracheal aspirate samples, to analyze molecular biomarkers (IL-6, IL-1, IP10, uric acid, HGF, endothelin-1, VEGF, CCL5). Variables and samples were collected since birth up to week 36 (postmenstrual age), time-point at which the diagnosis of BPD is established.

Results

We included 50 patients with a median gestational age of 26 weeks (IQR 25–27) and weight of 871 g (SD 161,0) (range 590-1200g). Three patients were excluded due to an early death. Thirty-five patients (74.5%) developed BPD (mild n = 14, moderate n = 15, severe n = 6). We performed a logistic regression in order to identify risk factors for moderate or severe BPD. We compared two predictive models, one with two variables (mechanical ventilation and inter-ventricular septum flattening), and another-one with an additional molecular biomarker (ET-1).

Conclusions

The combination of clinical and echocardiographic variables is a valuable tool for determining the risk of BPD. We find the two variable model (mechanical ventilation and echocardiographic signs of PH) more practical for clinical and research purposes. Future research on BPD prediction should be oriented to explore the potential role of ET-1.

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<![CDATA[A multifactorial approach of nutritional, intellectual, brain development, cardiovascular risk, socio-economic, demographic and educational variables affecting the scholastic achievement in Chilean students: An eight- year follow-up study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe17d5eed0c484e5b473

The aim of this study was to quantitate the relative impact of nutritional, intellectual, brain development, cardiovascular risk, socio-economic, demographic and educational variables on the results of the 2009 Quality Education Measurement System (SIMCE) tests of language and mathematics for scholastic achievement (SA) applying a multifactorial approach, in school-age children of the 2010 5th elementary school grade (5ESG) and of the 1st grade of high school (1HSG). The purposes were: i) to test the hypothesis that intellectual ability, the level of SA of the educational establishments in the 2009 SIMCE tests, sex, parental schooling levels, and head circumference-for-age Z-score are the most relevant parameters associated with 2009 SIMCE outcomes; ii) to determine the predictive ability of the 2009 SIMCE results in determining the 2013 SIMCE outcomes for the 2010 5ESG cohort (when they graduated from elementary school, 8th grade) and for determining the 2013 University Selection Test (PSU) outcomes for the 2010 1HSG group (for university admission, when they graduated from high school, 4th grade); iii) to determine the association between the 2009 SIMCE results with the 2017 PSU outcomes for the 2010 5ESG group (for university admission, when they graduated from high school, 4th grade). A representative, proportional and stratified sample of 33 schools of the Metropolitan Region of Chile was randomly chosen. In these schools, 1,353 school-age children of both sexes, of the 2010 5ESG (n = 682; mean age = 10.8 years, SD = 0.6) and of the 2010 1HSG (n = 671; mean age = 14.8 years, SD = 0.6) participated. In both grades and tests, the findings confirm the hypotheses formulated. 2009 SIMCE outcomes were positively and significantly associated with 2013 SIMCE and with 2017 PSU and, with 2013 PSU outcomes in school-age children from 2010 5ESG and 1HSG, respectively. These findings may be useful for educational and health planning in Chile and countries in a comparable stage of development.

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<![CDATA[Natural evolution of ductus arteriosus with noninterventional conservative management in extremely preterm infants born at 23-28 weeks of gestation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9e3d5eed0c48452a424

This study aimed to determine the natural course of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with noninterventional conservative management and whether the presence and/or prolonged duration of hemodynamically significant (HS) PDA increased the risk of mortality and morbidities in extremely preterm (EPT) infants. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of EPT infants born at 23–28 weeks of gestation (n = 195) from January 2011 to June 2014, when PDA was managed with noninterventional conservative treatment. We stratified infants into three subgroups of 23–24, 25–26, and 27–28 weeks and analyzed the prevalence and natural evolution of HS PDA, defined as ventilator dependency and PDA size ≥2 mm. Multivariate regression analyses determined if the presence and/or prolonged duration of HS PDA increased the risk for mortality and/or morbidities. The overall incidence of HS PDA was 57% (111/195) at the end of the first postnatal week. In subgroup analyses, infants with 23–24 weeks of gestation had the highest incidence (93%, 50/54), with 64% (47/74) for 25–26 weeks and 21% (14/67) for 27–28 weeks. Six (5%) of 111 infants with HS PDA were discharged without ductus closure, 4 had spontaneous PDA closure on follow up, and device closure was performed for 2 infants. In the multivariate analyses, the presence or prolonged duration (per week) of HS PDA was not associated with the risk of mortality and/or morbidities. Spontaneous closure of HS PDA was mostly achieved, even in EPT infants, with a noninterventional conservative approach. In conclusion, our data showed the incidence and natural course of HS PDA in EPT infants and suggested that the presence or prolonged duration of HS PDA might not increase the rate of mortality or morbidities.

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<![CDATA[Carriage and colonization of C. difficile in preterm neonates: A longitudinal prospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe0ed5eed0c484e5b398

Background

Premature neonates (PN) present multiple risk factors for high frequencies and high levels of colonization by C. difficile, yet data is missing about this specific pediatric population. Here, we investigated PN C. difficile carriage and colonization dynamics, analyzed the impact of perinatal determinants on colonization, and characterized the isolates.

Methods

A one year longitudinal monocentric prospective cohort study was performed on 121 PN. C. difficile strains isolated from fecal samples on selective medium were identified and characterized by PCR (tpi housekeeping gene; tcdA and tcdB, and binary toxin genes), capillary gel-based electrophoresis PCR-ribotyping, and Multi-Locus Variable-number tandem-repeat Analysis (MLVA).

Results

Of the 379 samples analyzed, 199 (52%) were C. difficile culture positive with the mean levels of C. difficile colonization decreasing significantly (P = .027) over time. During hospitalization, C. difficile colonization frequency increased up to 61% with 95% of the strains belonging to both non-toxigenic PCR-ribotypes (RTs) FR082 (35%) and 032 (60%). After hospital discharge, if a higher diversity in RTs was observed, RTs FR082 and 032 remained predominant (respectively 40% and 28%). MLVA showed clonal relationship within each FR082 and 032 RTs. Ten toxigenic strains (5%) were isolated, all tcdA+/tcdB+ except for one tcdA-/tcdB+, and all being acquired after hospitalization. At 1 week, the only factors found to be linked with a higher frequency of C. difficile colonization were a higher gestational age (P = 0.006) and a higher birth weight (P = 0.016).

Conclusion

The dynamics of C. difficile colonization in PN followed a specific pattern. C. difficile colonization rapidly occurred after birth with a low diversity of non-toxigenic RTs. After hospitalization, non-toxigenic RTs diversity increased. Sporadic carriage of toxigenic strains was observed after hospitalization.

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<![CDATA[The association between inter-twin birth weight discordance and hepatitis C: The United States 2011–2015 twin birth registration data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b526bd5eed0c4842bc7c6

Background

Twins with discordant growth have increased risks of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Previous studies have identified a number of risk factors for inter-twin birth weight discordance, yet no study has examined the effect of maternal hepatitis C infection.

Methods

We used the twin birth records extracted from the 2011 to 2015 United States birth records created by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The outcome variable of this study was inter-twin birth weight discordance, defined as [(birth weight of larger twin–birth weight of smaller twin) / birth weight of larger twin]. The independent association of hepatitis C infection with birth weight discordance was examined using the gamma regression or log binomial regression, adjusted by potential confounders.

Results

Of the 270,256 twin pairs included in the final analysis, 850 (0.31%) had positive hepatitis C. Compared to mothers without hepatitis C, mothers with hepatitis C positive tended to have higher risk of birth weight discordance, but with no statistical significance. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, hepatitis C positive became a significant risk factor for birth weight discordance >25% (relative risk 1.14, 95% confidence interval 1.02−1.29). Sensitivity analyses (by treating birth weight discordance as a continuous outcome or dichotomizing into by different cutoffs) yielded similar results, with relative risks ranging from 1.07 to 1.12 (all P<0.05).

Conclusion

Maternal hepatitis C positive is associated with inter-twin birth weight discordance, an important adverse infant outcome in twin pregnancies, although the effect size is small.

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<![CDATA['Nasal mask’ in comparison with ‘nasal prongs’ or ‘rotation of nasal mask with nasal prongs’ reduce the incidence of nasal injury in preterm neonates supported on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP): A randomized controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2add5eed0c48441e87c

Background

With increasing use of nCPAP, the safety and comfort associated with nCPAP have come into the forefront. The reported incidence of nasal injuries associated with the use of nCPAP is 20% to 60%. A recent meta-analysis concluded that the use of nasal masks significantly decreases CPAP failure and the incidence of moderate to severe nasal injury and stress the need for a well powered RCT to confirm their findings.

Methods

In this Open label, 3 arms, sequential, stratified randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the incidence and severity of nasal injury at removal of nCPAP when using two different nasal interfaces and in three groups (i.e. rotation group, mask continue group, prong continue group). Preterm infants with gestation ≤ 30 weeks and respiratory distress within the first 6 hours of birth and in need of CPAP were eligible for the study.

Results

Among the 175 newborns included in the study, incidence of nasal injury in mask continue group [n = 19/57 (33.3%)] was significantly less as compared to prong continue group [n = 55/60 (91.6%)] and rotation group [33/ 58 (56.9%), p value <0.0001]. Median maximum nasal injury score was significantly less in Mask continue group as compared to Prong continue group and Rotation group [Injury Score 0 (IQR 0–1) vs. Injury Score 3 (IQR 2–5) vs. Injury Score 1 (IQR 0–2), p value = <0.0001] respectively. The proportion of infants failing nCPAP was similar across the three groups.

Conclusion

nCPAP with nasal masks significantly reduces nasal injury in comparison with nasal prongs or rotation of nasal prongs and nasal masks. However, the type of interface did not affect the nCPAP failure rates.

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<![CDATA[Longitudinal growth and emotional and behavioral problems at age 7 in moderate and late preterms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2cad5eed0c48441eb0c

Objectives

Moderately and late preterm children (MLPs, 32.0–36.9 weeks gestational age) have a greater risk of poorer growth. This seems to be associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning. Evidence is limited on whether this also holds for emotional and behavioral (EB) problems. Therefore, we assessed whether longitudinal growth from birth until age 7 was associated with EB problems at age 7 in MLPs.

Study design

This study was part of the Longitudinal Preterm Outcome Project, a prospective cohort study. Data on growth (height, weight, head circumference, and extent of catch-up growth) were obtained from assessments from birth until age 7. EB problems were assessed at age 7 with the Child Behavior Checklist. We assessed whether growth and EB problems were associated using logistic regression analyses, adjusting for multiple birth, parity, and socioeconomic status.

Results

We included 248 MLPs. Median gestational age was 34 weeks (interquartile range: 33–35 weeks). Mean birth weight was 2.2 kg (standard deviation: 0.5 kg). Postnatal growth measures were below the Dutch reference norm. EB problems were more prevalent in MLPs than in the general Dutch population. Generally, we found no associations between growth and EB problems; odds ratios ranged from 0.20 to 2.72.

Conclusions

In MLPs, postnatal growth from birth until age 7 was not associated with EB problems at age 7. Poorer growth thus seems to relate to neuropsychological problems, but not to EB problems. This suggests that the etiologies of these problems differ at least partially.

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<![CDATA[Paternal investment and low birth weight – The mediating role of parity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536a43d5eed0c484a4712d

According to life-history theory, paternal investment affects the well-being of offspring. We hypothesized that environmental stress caused by a lack of paternal investment may diminish maternal resource allocation during pregnancy, especially for women who already have dependent children. Our study was conducted on a representative group of more than 80,500 singleton, live-born, full-term infants born in Krakow, Poland in the period 1995–2009. Birth data were obtained from the birth registry. We found that missing data about fathers (a proxy measure of low paternal investment) was associated with higher probability of multiparous mothers giving birth to low-birth-weight infants (1.48; 95% CI 1.05–2.08), but this was not the case with primiparous mothers (1.19; 95% CI 0.89–1.59). The statistically significant synergistic effect between parity and paternal investment was found (Synergy Factor = 2.12; 95% CI 1.47–3.05, p<0.001). These findings suggest that in situations of low paternal investment, multiparous mothers face trade-offs between investing in existing versus unborn children, therefore investment in the latter is lower. Such a strategy may benefit maternal fitness due to investment in older children, who have higher reproductive value.

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<![CDATA[The intestinal fatty acid-binding protein as a marker for intestinal damage in gastroschisis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c466552d5eed0c48451897c

Background/Purpose

We analyzed the capacity of urinary Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) to quantify the degree of mucosal injury in neonates with gastroschisis (GS) and to predict the speed of their clinical recovery after surgery.

Methods

In this prospective study, we collected urine during the first 48h after surgery from neonates operated between 2012 and 2015 for GS. Neonates with surgery that did not include gut mucosa served as controls for simple GS and neonates with surgery for intestinal atresia served as control for complex GS patients. The I-FABP levels were analyzed by ELISA.

Results

Urinary I-FABP after the surgery is significantly higher in GS newborns than in control group; I-FABP in complex GS is higher than in simple GS. I-FABP can predict subsequent operation for ileus in patients with complex GS. Both ways of abdominal wall closure (i.e. primary closure and stepwise reconstruction) led to similar levels of I-FABP. None of the static I-FABP values was useful for the outcome prediction. The steep decrease in I-FABP after the surgery is associated with faster recovery, but it cannot predict early start of minimal enteral feeding, full enteral feeding or length of hospitalization.

Conclusion

Urinary I-FABP reflects the mucosal damage in gastroschisis but it has only a limited predictive value for patients’ outcome.

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<![CDATA[Increased frequency of rare missense PPP1R3B variants among Danish patients with type 2 diabetes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7a2d5eed0c4843864e8

Background

PPP1R3B has been suggested as a candidate gene for monogenic forms of diabetes as well as type 2 diabetes (T2D) due to its association with glycaemic trait and its biological role in glycogen synthesis.

Objectives

To study if rare missense variants in PPP1R3B increase the risk of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), T2D or affect measures of glucose metabolism.

Method

Targeted resequencing of PPP1R3B was performed in 8,710 samples; MODY patients with unknown etiology (n = 54), newly diagnosed patients with T2D (n = 2,930) and population-based control individuals (n = 5,726, of whom n = 4,569 had normal glucose tolerance). All population-based sampled individuals were examined using an oral glucose tolerance test.

Results

Among n = 396 carriers, we identified twenty-three PPP1R3B missense mutations, none of which segregated with MODY. The burden of likely deleterious PPP1R3B variants was significantly increased with a total of 17 carriers among patients with T2D (0.58% (95% CI: 0.36–0.93)) compared to 18 carriers among non-diabetic individuals (0.31% (95% CI: 0.20–0.49)), resulting in an increased risk of T2D (OR (95% CI) = 2.57 (1.14–5.79), p = 0.02 (age and sex adjusted)). Furthermore, carriers with diabetes had less abdominal fat and a higher serum concentration of LDL-cholesterol compared to patients with T2D without rare missense PPP1R3B variants. In addition, non-diabetic carriers had a higher birth weight compared to non-carriers.

Conclusion

Rare missense PPP1R3B variants may predispose to T2D.

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<![CDATA[Genetic regulation of the placental transcriptome underlies birth weight and risk of childhood obesity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c33c3add5eed0c48459e848

GWAS identified variants associated with birth weight (BW), childhood obesity (CO) and childhood BMI (CBMI), and placenta is a critical organ for fetal development and postnatal health. We examined the role of placental transcriptome and eQTLs in mediating the genetic causes for BW, CO and CBMI, and applied integrative analysis (Colocalization and MetaXcan). GWAS loci associated with BW, CO, and CBMI were substantially enriched for placenta eQTLs (6.76, 4.83 and 2.26 folds, respectively). Importantly, compared to eQTLs of adult tissues, only placental eQTLs contribute significantly to both anthropometry outcomes at birth (BW) and childhood phenotypes (CO/CBMI). Eight, six and one transcripts colocalized with BW, CO and CBMI risk loci, respectively. Our study reveals that placental transcription in utero likely plays a key role in determining postnatal body size, and as such may hold new possibilities for therapeutic interventions to prevent childhood obesity.

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<![CDATA[Mode of delivery and offspring adiposity in late adolescence: The modifying role of maternal pre-pregnancy body size]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b7c2d5eed0c484490c0d

Objective

To study the association between mode of delivery and offspring BMI in late adolescence in a large cohort that predated the obesity epidemic, and assess the role of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (ppBMI) in this association.

Study design

We conducted a historical prospective study in the setting of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study (JPS), a population-based cohort that includes all 17,003 births to residents of West Jerusalem, between 1974 and 1976. Offspring’s BMI at age 17 was obtained upon army recruitment and was available for 11,001 of cohort participants. The associations were examined using logistic regressions, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and for proxies for indication for C-Section birth. Analyses were then stratified by quartiles of ppBMI.

Results

C-Section was associated with offspring overweight/obesity, with adjusted OR of 1.44 (95%CI:1.14–1.82). Significant interaction of ppBMI with mode of delivery was observed, such that the associations of C-Section with overweight/obesity were limited to the upper quartile of ppBMI (adjusted OR = 1.70, 95%CI:1.18–2.43). Restricting the analyses to singleton first births and excluding pregnancies complicated with toxemia and gestational diabetes yielded similar findings.

Conclusions

C-Section was positively associated with being overweight/obese at age 17. Importantly, ppBMI modified this association, with a significant association between C-Section and overweight/obesity evident only among offspring born to mothers in the highest ppBMI quartile. In light of the growing rates of obesity in women of reproductive age, these results should be considered in patient-doctor shared decisions related to selection of mode of delivery, in the absence of a clear medical indication.

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<![CDATA[A comparison of surgical outcomes between pre-and full-term patients with exotropia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141eadd5eed0c484d27ba2

Purpose

To compare the surgical outcomes between pre- and full-term patients with exotropia and to examine the factors associated with surgical outcomes.

Methods

This retrospective study included 48 pre- and 432 full-term patients with basic-type exotropia who underwent unilateral or bilateral lateral rectus muscle (ULR or BLR) recession. Preoperative characteristics and surgical outcomes were compared between the pre- and full-term infants. Additionally, factors affecting the surgical outcomes were evaluated in all patients.

Results

The preoperative characteristics were significantly different between the pre- and full-term groups in terms of neurodevelopmental disabilities (p = 0.020). There were no significant differences between the pre- and full-term groups in terms of the success, overcorrection, and recurrence rates after the mean follow-up period of 34.6 ± 13.9 months (p = 0.697). The major cause of surgical failure was recurrence in both groups. Pre-term birth was not a risk factor for overcorrection and recurrence. However, regardless of the pre- or full-term birth status, the presence of neurodevelopmental disabilities significantly affected final overcorrection (p = 0.004).

Conclusions

Pre-term patients with exotropia showed similar surgical outcomes to full-term controls. The presence of neurodevelopmental disabilities was a risk factor for final overcorrection.

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<![CDATA[Small for gestational age and risk of childhood mortality: A Swedish population study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c22a0b7d5eed0c4849ebdef

Background

Small for gestational age (SGA) has been associated with increased risks of stillbirth and neonatal mortality, but data on long-term childhood mortality are scarce. Maternal antenatal care, including globally reducing the risk of SGA birth, may be key to achieving the Millennium Development Goal of reducing under-5 mortality. We therefore aimed to examine the association between SGA and mortality from 28 days to <18 years using a population-based and a sibling control design.

Methods and findings

In a Swedish population study, we identified 3,795,603 non-malformed singleton live births and 2,781,464 full siblings born from January 1, 1973, to December 31, 2012. We examined the associations of severe (<3rd percentile) and moderate (3rd to <10th percentile) SGA with risks of death from 28 days to <18 years after birth. Children born SGA were first compared to non-SGA children from the population, and then to non-SGA siblings. The sibling-based analysis, by design, features a better control for unmeasured factors that are shared between siblings (e.g., socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and genetic factors). Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards and flexible parametric survival models. During follow-up (1973–2013), there were 10,838 deaths in the population-based analysis and 1,572 deaths in sibling pairs with discordant SGA and mortality status. The crude mortality rate per 10,000 person-years was 5.32 in children born with severe SGA, 2.76 in children born with moderate SGA, and 1.93 in non-SGA children. Compared with non-SGA children, children born with severe SGA had an increased risk of death in both the population-based (HR = 2.58, 95% CI = 2.38–2.80) and sibling-based (HR = 2.61, 95% CI = 2.19–3.10) analyses. Similar but weaker associations were found for moderate SGA in the population-based (HR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.28–1.47) and sibling-based (HR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.22–1.56) analyses. The excess risk was most pronounced between 28 days and <1 year of age but remained throughout childhood. The greatest risk increase associated with severe SGA was noted for deaths due to infection and neurologic disease. Although we have, to our knowledge, the largest study sample so far addressing the research question, some subgroup analyses, especially the analysis of cause-specific mortality, had limited statistical power using the sibling-based approach.

Conclusions

We found that SGA, especially severe SGA, was associated with an increased risk of childhood death beyond the neonatal period, with the highest risk estimates for death from infection and neurologic disease. The similar results obtained between the population- and sibling-based analyses argue against strong confounding by factors shared within families.

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<![CDATA[Vitamin A to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low birth weight infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2400e1d5eed0c484099929

Background

Vitamin A (VA) supplementation reduces the risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). However, a previous meta-analysis showed that VA had minimal efficacy for preventing BPD in very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs).

Aims

To elucidate the effects of VA supplementation for BPD prevention in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs).

Study design

This systematic review and meta-analysis followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We registered the protocol on PROSPERO, the international prospective registry of systematic reviews (registration number: CRD42016050887). We searched the following five databases: CINAHL, CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PubMed; screened the reference lists of retrieved articles to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs); and assessed the Cochrane Risk of Bias for each study. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines.

Results

Four studies (total, 1,011 infants) were included. VA was administered intramuscularly in 3 studies and orally in 1 study. VA supplementation for ELBWIs had benefited oxygen dependency at the postmenstrual age of 36 weeks in survivors (pooled risk ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.77–0.99; 4 trials, 841 infants, moderate certainty of evidence), which is similar to the meta-analysis in VLBWIs. Length of hospital stay was reduced in the VA group (mean difference, −49.9; 95% CI, −88.78 to −11.02; 1 trial, 20 infants, low certainty of evidence). The meta-analysis showed no reduction in the risk of neonatal death, oxygen use at 28 days in survivors, duration of mechanical ventilation, intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy in prematurity, and necrotizing enterocolitis.

Conclusions

VA supplementation for ELBWIs is potentially effective in decreasing oxygen dependency at the postmenstrual age of 36 weeks.

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<![CDATA[The effect of an extra piece of fruit or vegetables at school on weight status in two generations - 14 years follow-up of the Fruit and Vegetables Makes the Marks study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bce3d0840307c69b197f4fd

Background

The obesity epidemic presents a major public health challenge, and a poor diet quality has been identified as one of the most important contributing factors. Whereas a sufficient fruit and vegetable consumption has been associated with several positive health outcomes, the long-term effect on overweight and obesity is unclear. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate if one year with free school fruit had any effect on weight status 14 years later, and if it affected the birth weight of the participants’ children.

Methods

In 2001, 10 -12-year old Norwegian children, received one year of free school fruit in the intervention study “Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks” (FVMM) and in 2016, a total of 1081 participants of 2049 eligible responded to a follow-up survey. Multilevel logistic regression was used to investigate if one year of free school fruit was associated with weight status and with birthweight status of the offspring. The analyses were adjusted for gender, educational level, and the offspring analysis also for parents’ weight status, and the nested design (child/parent).

Results

The odds ratios of being overweight (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.70, 1.24) or having a child with high or low birth weight (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.21, 1.30) in the intervention group compared to the control group were not statistically significant, 14 years after the intervention period.

Conclusions

One year of free school fruit did not have an effect on weight status on the participants or birth weight of their offspring, 14 years after the intervention period. Although, results from the present study contribute to fill the knowledge gaps concerning long-term effects of public health efforts on weight status, more follow-up studies with larger samples are warranted.

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