ResearchPad - blood-coagulation https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A three-dimensional phase-field model for multiscale modeling of thrombus biomechanics in blood vessels]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14644 Thromboembolism is associated with detachment of small thrombus pieces from the bulk in the blood vessel. These detached pieces, also known as emboli, travel through the blood flow and may block other vessels downstream, e.g., they may plug the deep veins of the leg, groin or arm, leading to venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and it affects more than 900,000 people in the United States and result in approximately 100,000 deaths every year. Mechanical interaction between flowing blood and a thrombus is crucial in determining the deformation of the thrombus and the possibility of releasing emboli. In this study, we develop a phase-field model that is capable of describing the structural properties of a thrombus and its biomechanical properties under different blood flow conditions. Moreover, we combine this thrombus model with a particle-based model which simulates the initiation of the thrombus. This combined framework is the first computational study to simulate the development of a thrombus from platelet aggregation to its subsequent viscoelastic responses to various shear flows. Informed by clinical data, this framework can be used to predict the risk of diverse thromboembolic events under physiological and pathological conditions.

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<![CDATA[Effects of amotosalen treatment on human platelet lysate bioactivity: A proof-of-concept study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne8e94533-b9bd-43e3-83be-324d5eb7ad87

Background

Clinical application of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) usually requires an in vitro expansion step to reach clinically relevant numbers. In vitro cell expansion necessitates supplementation of basal mammalian cell culture medium with growth factors. To avoid using supplements containing animal substances, human platelet lysates (hPL) produced from expired and pathogen inactivated platelet concentrates can be used in place of fetal bovine serum. However, globally, most transfusion units are currently not pathogen inactivated. As blood banks are the sole source of platelet concentrates for hPL production, it is important to ensure product safety and standardized production methods. In this proof-of-concept study we assessed the feasibility of producing hPL from expired platelet concentrates with pathogen inactivation applied after platelet lysis by evaluating the retention of growth factors, cytokines, and the ability to support MSC proliferation and tri-lineage differentiation.

Methodology/Principal findings

Bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) were expanded and differentiated using hPL derived from pathogen inactivated platelet lysates (hPL-PIPL), with pathogen inactivation by amotosalen/ultraviolet A treatment applied after lysis of expired platelets. Results were compared to those using hPL produced from conventional expired pathogen inactivated platelet concentrates (hPL-PIPC), with pathogen inactivation applied after blood donation. hPL-PIPL treatment had lower concentrations of soluble growth factors and cytokines than hPL-PIPC treatment. When used as supplementation in cell culture, BM-MSCs proliferated at a reduced rate, but more consistently, in hPL-PIPL than in hPL-PIPC. The ability to support tri-lineage differentiation was comparable between lysates.

Conclusion/Significance

These results suggest that functional hPL can be produced from expired and untreated platelet lysates by applying pathogen inactivation after platelet lysis. When carried out post-expiration, pathogen inactivation may provide a valuable solution for further standardizing global hPL production methods, increasing the pool of starting material, and meeting future demand for animal-free supplements in human cell culturing.

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<![CDATA[Real-life experience of lusutrombopag for cirrhotic patients with low platelet counts being prepared for invasive procedures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c70675dd5eed0c4847c6f1c

Background and aims

The present study aimed to report our real-life experience of the TPO receptor agonist lusutrombopag for cirrhotic patients with low platelet counts.

Methods

We studied platelet counts in 1,760 cirrhotic patients undergoing invasive procedures at our hospital between January 2014 and December 2017. In addition, we studied 25 patients who were administered lusutrombopag before invasive procedures between June 2017 and January 2018. Effectiveness of lusutrombopag to raise platelet counts and to avoid transfusion and treatment-related adverse events were analyzed.

Results

In 1,760 cirrhotic patients without lusutrombopag prior to invasive procedures, proportion of patients whose platelet counts <50,000/μL and needed platelet transfusions were 66% (n = 27/41) for radiofrequency ablation, 43% (n = 21/49) for transarterial chemoembolization, and 55% (n = 21/38) for endoscopic injection sclerotherapy / endoscopic variceal ligation, respectively. In 25 cirrhotic patients treated by lusutrombopag prior to the invasive procedures, platelet counts significantly increased compared with baseline (82,000 ± 26,000 vs. 41,000 ± 11,000/μL) (p < 0.01). Out of 25 patients, only 4 patients (16%) needed platelet transfusion before the invasive procedures. The proportion of patients with low platelet count and who needed platelet transfusions was significantly low in patients treated with lusutrombopag compared to those not treated with lusutrombopag (16% (4/25) vs. 54% (69/128), p = 0.001). Platelet counts after lusutrombopag treatment and prior to invasive procedures were lower in patients with a baseline platelet count ≤30,000/μL (n = 8) compared with those with a baseline platelet count >30,000/μL (n = 17) (50,000 ± 20,000 vs 86,000 ± 26,000/μL, p = 0.002). Patients with a baseline platelet count ≤30,000/μL with spleen index (calculated by multiplying the transverse diameter by the vertical diameter measured by ultrasonography) ≥40 cm2 (n = 3) had a lower response rate to lusutrombopag compared to those with spleen index <40 cm2 (n = 5) (0% vs. 100%, p = 0.02). Hemorrhagic complication was not observed. Recurrence of portal thrombosis was observed and thrombolysis therapy was required in one patient who had prior history of thrombosis.

Conclusions

Lusutrombopag is an effective and safe drug for thrombocytopenia in cirrhotic patients, and can reduce the frequency of platelet transfusions.

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<![CDATA[Computational and experimental analysis of bioactive peptide linear motifs in the integrin adhesome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d60ed5eed0c4840314e3

Therapeutic modulation of protein interactions is challenging, but short linear motifs (SLiMs) represent potential targets. Focal adhesions play a central role in adhesion by linking cells to the extracellular matrix. Integrins are central to this process, and many other intracellular proteins are components of the integrin adhesome. We applied a peptide network targeting approach to explore the intracellular modulation of integrin function in platelets. Firstly, we computed a platelet-relevant integrin adhesome, inferred via homology of known platelet proteins to adhesome components. We then computationally selected peptides from the set of platelet integrin adhesome cytoplasmic and membrane adjacent protein-protein interfaces. Motifs of interest in the intracellular component of the platelet integrin adhesome were identified using a predictor of SLiMs based on analysis of protein primary amino acid sequences (SLiMPred), a predictor of strongly conserved motifs within disordered protein regions (SLiMPrints), and information from the literature regarding protein interactions in the complex. We then synthesized peptides incorporating these motifs combined with cell penetrating factors (tat peptide and palmitylation for cytoplasmic and membrane proteins respectively). We tested for the platelet activating effects of the peptides, as well as their abilities to inhibit activation. Bioactivity testing revealed a number of peptides that modulated platelet function, including those derived from α-actinin (ACTN1) and syndecan (SDC4), binding to vinculin and syntenin respectively. Both chimeric peptide experiments and peptide combination experiments failed to identify strong effects, perhaps characterizing the adhesome as relatively robust against within-adhesome synergistic perturbation. We investigated in more detail peptides targeting vinculin. Combined experimental and computational evidence suggested a model in which the positively charged tat-derived cell penetrating part of the peptide contributes to bioactivity via stabilizing charge interactions with a region of the ACTN1 negatively charged surface. We conclude that some interactions in the integrin adhesome appear to be capable of modulation by short peptides, and may aid in the identification and characterization of target sites within the complex that may be useful for therapeutic modulation.

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<![CDATA[A simplified flow cytometric method for detection of inherited platelet disorders—A comparison to the gold standard light transmission aggregometry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c52184bd5eed0c484797a80

Background

Flow cytometric platelet activation has emerged as an alternative diagnostic test for inherited platelet disorders. It is, however, labor intensive and few studies have directly compared the performance of flow cytometric platelet activation (PACT) to light transmission aggregometry (LTA). The aims of this study were 1/ to develop a simplified flow cytometric platelet activation assay using microtiter plates and 2/ to correlate the outcome to gold standard method LTA, and to clinical bleeding assessment tool scores (BAT score).

Methods

The PACT method was developed in microtiter plates using adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen-derived peptide (CRP-XL) and thrombin receptor activator for peptide 6 (TRAP-6) as agonists. Antibodies against GPIIb-IIIa activation epitope (PAC1), P-selectin (CD62P) and lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 3 (LAMP3; CD63) were used as platelet activation markers. Sixty-six patients referred to the coagulation unit for bleeding symptoms were included in this single-center observational study. Platelet activation was determined by PACT and LTA. The results of both methods were correlated to BAT score.

Results

A two-by-two analysis using Cohen’s kappa analysis gave moderate agreement between LTA and PACT (82%, kappa = 0.57), when PACT analysis with ADP and CRP-XL was compared to LTA. Using LTA as reference method, positive predictive value was 70% and negative predictive value was 87%. A substantial number of patients had high BAT score and normal LTA and PACT results. Patients with abnormal LTA or PACT results had higher BAT score than patients with normal results, but the difference was not significant.

Conclusions

The performance in microtiter plates simplified the PACT method and enabled analysis of more patients at the same time. Our results indicate that with modification of the current PACT assay, a higher negative predictive value can be obtained. Furthermore, with comparable result to LTA the PACT could be used as a screening assay for inherited platelet disorders.

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<![CDATA[Doppler sonography enhances rtPA-induced fibrinolysis in an in vitro clot model of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c605aabd5eed0c4847cd3f5

Background

Transcranial Doppler (TCD) was shown to enhance intravascular fibrinolysis by rtPA in ischemic stroke. Studies revealed that catheter-based administration of rtPA induces lysis of intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH). However, it is unknown whether TCD would be suitable to enhance rtPA-induced fibrinolysis in patients with ICH. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of TCD to enhance rtPA-induced fibrinolysis in an in vitro clot system.

Methods

Reproducible human blood clots of 25 ml were incubated in a water bath at 37°C during treatments. They were weighed before and after 6 different treatments: (I) control (incubation only), (II) rtPA only, (III) one Doppler probe, (IV) two Doppler probes placed vis-à-vis, (V) one probe and rtPA and (VI) two probes and rtPA. To quantify lysis of the blood clots and attenuation of the Doppler through a temporal squama acoustic peak rarefaction pressure (APRP) was measured in the field of the probes. Temperature was assessed to evaluate possible side effects.

Results

Clot weight was reduced in all groups. The control group had the highest relative end weight of 70.2%±7.2% compared to all other groups (p<0,0001). Most efficient lysis was achieved using (VI) 2 probes and rtPA 36.3%±4.4% compared to (II, III, IV) (p<0.0001; p = 0.0002; p = 0.048). APRP was above lysis threshold (535.5±7.2 kPa) using 2 probes even through the temporal squama (731.6±32.5 kPa) (p = 0.0043). There was a maximal temperature elevation of 0.17±0.07°C using both probes.

Conclusions

TCD significantly enhances rtPA-induced lysis of blood clots, and the effect is amplified by using multiple probes. Our results indicate that bitemporal TCD insonation of hematomas could be a new and safe approach to enhance fibrinolysis of ICH´s treated with intralesional catheter and rtPA.

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<![CDATA[Aspirin treatment does not increase microhemorrhage size in young or aged mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390bccd5eed0c48491e622

Microhemorrhages are common in the aging brain and are thought to contribute to cognitive decline and the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Chronic aspirin therapy is widespread in older individuals and decreases the risk of coronary artery occlusions and stroke. There remains a concern that such aspirin usage may prolong bleeding after a vessel rupture in the brain, leading to larger bleeds that cause more damage to the surrounding tissue. Here, we aimed to understand the influence of aspirin usage on the size of cortical microhemorrhages and explored the impact of age. We used femtosecond laser ablation to rupture arterioles in the cortex of both young (2–5 months old) and aged (18–29 months old) mice dosed on aspirin in their drinking water and measured the extent of penetration of both red blood cells and blood plasma into the surrounding tissue. We found no difference in microhemorrhage size for both young and aged mice dosed on aspirin, as compared to controls (hematoma diameter = 104 +/- 39 (97 +/- 38) μm in controls and 109 +/- 25 (101 +/- 28) μm in aspirin-treated young (aged) mice; mean +/- SD). In contrast, young mice treated with intravenous heparin had an increased hematoma diameter of 136 +/- 44 μm. These data suggest that aspirin does not increase the size of microhemorrhages, supporting the safety of aspirin usage.

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<![CDATA[Human bone marrow contains high levels of extracellular vesicles with a tissue-specific subtype distribution]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c12cf67d5eed0c48491454c

Introduction

Extracellular vesicles (EV) are shed from a broad variety of cells and play an important role in activation of coagulation, cell to cell interaction and transport of membrane components. They are usually measured as circulating EV in peripheral blood (PB) and other body fluids. However, little is known about the distribution, presence and impact of EV and their subpopulations in bone marrow (BM). In our study, we focused on the analysis of different EV subtypes in human BM as compared to EV subsets in PB.

Methods

EV in BM and PB from 12 healthy stem cell donors were measured by flow-cytometry using Annexin V and cell-specific antibodies for hematopoietic stem cells, leucocytes, platelets, red blood cells, and endothelial cells. Additionally, concentrations of tissue factor-bearing EV were evaluated.

Results

High numbers of total EV were present in BM (median value [25–75 percentile]: 14.8 x109/l [8.5–19.3]). Non-significantly lower numbers of total EV were measured in PB (9.2 x109/l [3.8–14.5]). However, distribuation of EV subtypes showed substantial differences between BM and PB: In PB, distribution of EV fractions was similar as previously described. Most EV originated from platelets (93.9%), and only few EV were derived from leucocytes (4.5%), erythrocytes (1.8%), endothelial cells (1.0%), and hematopoietic stem cells (0.7%). In contrast, major fractions of BM-EV were derived from red blood cells or erythropoietic cells (43.2%), followed by megacaryocytes / platelets (27.6%), and by leucocytes as well as their progenitor cells (25,7%); only low EV proportions originated from endothelial cells and hematopoietic stem cells (2.0% and 1.5%, respectively). Similar fractions of tissue factor—bearing EV were found in BM and PB (1.3% and 0.9%).

Conculsion

Taken together, we describe EV numbers and their subtype distribution in the BM compartment for the first time. The tissue specific EV distribution reflects BM cell composition and favours the idea of a BM–PB barrier existing not only for cells, but also for EV.

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<![CDATA[A new measure to assess pain in people with haemophilia: The Multidimensional Haemophilia Pain Questionnaire (MHPQ)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c084196d5eed0c484fca22b

People with haemophilia (PWH) experience acute pain during joint bleeds and might develop chronic pain due to joint degeneration. However, there is a lack of standardized measures to comprehensively assess pain in PWH. This study aimed to develop a multidimensional questionnaire for haemophilia-related pain, the Multidimensional Haemophilia Pain Questionnaire (MHPQ), and to present initial validation data among adults.The questionnaire distinguishes between acute/chronic pain and queries about pain locations, duration, frequency, triggering factors, intensity, interference, strategies, specialists for pain management and satisfaction with treatment. An initial version was tested with 16 patients to ensure item comprehensibility and face validity. The final version was answered by 104 adults, with 82 (78.8%) reporting haemophilia-related pain in the previous year (mean age = 43.17; SD = 13.00). The non-response analysis revealed good item acceptability. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA/CFA), reliability (internal consistency, test-retest, inter-item and item-total correlations) and convergent validity were analysed for the intensity and interference dimensions of the questionnaire. A combined EFA with these two constructs supported a 2-factor structure distinguishing intensity (α = 0.88) from interference items (α = 0.91). CFA was tested for the interference dimension, demonstrating suitability for this sample. Item-total correlations were >0.30 on both dimensions and most inter-item correlations were <0.70. Test-retest reliability (n = 42) was good for intensity (r = 0.88) and interference (r = 0.73), and convergent validity was confirmed for most hypotheses (r>0.30).This questionnaire is a comprehensible tool, achieving a thorough assessment of relevant pain dimensions. The MHPQ can help guide treatment recommendations by highlighting relevant topics and contributing to more effective, integrated treatments.

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<![CDATA[Effects of thrombolysis on outcomes of patients with deep venous thrombosis: An updated meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bb3df3440307c54ff8ce8ef

Background

Small randomized controlled studies and meta-analyses have shown that thrombolysis, especially catheter-directed thrombolysis, can reduce the incidence of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). However, the recent ATTRACT trial did not demonstrate the same effects. Given this confusing situation, we performed an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effects of thrombolysis, especially catheter-directed thrombolysis, on the outcomes of deep venous thrombosis (DVT).

Methods

We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for relevant studies comparing thrombolysis in combination with anticoagulation and with anticoagulation alone. The primary endpoint was PTS during the longest follow-up period. The safety endpoint was the incidence of major bleeding events. We also evaluated the outcomes of catheter-directed thrombolysis as a subgroup analysis.

Results

Six RCTs, including 1418 patients with DVT, were included in our meta-analysis. Thrombolysis in combination with anticoagulation did not reduce PTS (RR: 0.90, [0.80–1.01], P = 0.19) and increased major bleeding (RR: 2.07, [1.12–3.81], P = 0.02). However, trial sequential analysis (TSA) showed that more patients are needed to support the conclusion that thrombolysis in combination with anticoagulation increased major bleeding. Catheter-directed thrombolysis did not reduce the incidence of PTS (RR: 0.88, [0.68–1.13], P = 0.31) and did increase the incidence of major bleeding events (RR: 1.89, [1.00–3.59], P = 0.05).

Conclusion

Thrombolysis, including catheter-directed thrombolysis, did not reduce the incidence of PTS and increased the incidence of major bleeding. However, the results were not supported by TSA and sensitivity analysis, so more relevant studies are needed.

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<![CDATA[A local and global sensitivity analysis of a mathematical model of coagulation and platelet deposition under flow]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b6945b6463d7e3867f4aca2

The hemostatic response involves blood coagulation and platelet aggregation to stop blood loss from an injured blood vessel. The complexity of these processes make it difficult to intuit the overall hemostatic response without quantitative methods. Mathematical models aim to address this challenge but are often accompanied by numerous parameters choices and thus need to be analyzed for sensitivity to such choices. Here we use local and global sensitivity analyses to study a model of coagulation and platelet deposition under flow. To relate with clinical assays, we measured the sensitivity of three specific thrombin metrics: lag time, maximum relative rate of generation, and final concentration after 20 minutes. In addition, we varied parameters of three different classes: plasma protein levels, kinetic rate constants, and platelet characteristics. In terms of an overall ranking of the model’s sensitivities, we found that the local and global methods provided similar information. Our local analysis, in agreement with previous findings, shows that varying parameters within 50-150% of baseline values, in a one-at-a-time (OAT) fashion, always leads to significant thrombin generation in 20 minutes. Our global analysis gave a different and novel result highlighting groups of parameters, still varying within the normal 50-150%, that produced little or no thrombin in 20 minutes. Variations in either plasma levels or platelet characteristics, using either OAT or simultaneous variations, always led to strong thrombin production and overall, relatively low output variance. Simultaneous variation in kinetics rate constants or in a subset of all three parameter classes led to the highest overall output variance, incorporating instances with little to no thrombin production. The global analysis revealed multiple parameter interactions in the lag time and final concentration leading to relatively high variance; high variance was also observed in the thrombin generation rate, but parameters attributed to that variance acted independently and additively.

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<![CDATA[Plasma levels of high-mobility group box 1 and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products in primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be00ce

Introduction

Many studies have demonstrated elevated circulating levels of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and decreased circulating levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) in patients with autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we investigated plasma levels of both HMGB1 and sRAGE in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (pAPS) patients.

Methods

We prospectively recruited 11 pAPS patients, 17 antiphospholipid antibody (APA)-positive SLE patients without APS manifestations (APA+SLE) and 12 SLE patients with secondary APS (APS+SLE). We also recruited 10 healthy controls (HCs). Plasma levels of HMGB1 and sRAGE were determined using sandwich ELISA kits. In addition, plasma levels of HMGB1 were also determined using Western blot in 6 pAPS patients and 6 HCs.

Results

There was no significant difference in plasma levels of HMGB1 measured by ELISA among subgroups of the enrolled subjects. In addition, there was no significant difference in plasma levels of HMGB1 measured by Western blot between pAPS patients and HCs. On the other hand, we observed a trend toward lower plasma levels of sRAGE in APA+SLE or APS+SLE patients when compared with HCs. However, there was no significant difference in plasma levels of sRAGE between pAPS patients and HCs, or between APA+SLE patients and APS+SLE patients.

Conclusion

There was no significant difference in plasma levels of sRAGE or HMGB1 between pAPS patients and HCs. Plasma levels of sRAGE/HMGB1 could not be utilized to differentiate between APA+SLE and APS+SLE patients.

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<![CDATA[Modification of Pulsed Electric Field Conditions Results in Distinct Activation Profiles of Platelet-Rich Plasma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db10ab0ee8fa60bcbe08

Background

Activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) used in therapeutic wound healing applications is poorly characterized and standardized. Using pulsed electric fields (PEF) to activate platelets may reduce variability and eliminate complications associated with the use of bovine thrombin. We previously reported that exposing PRP to sub-microsecond duration, high electric field (SMHEF) pulses generates a greater number of platelet-derived microparticles, increased expression of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, and differential release of growth factors compared to thrombin. Moreover, the platelet releasate produced by SMHEF pulses induced greater cell proliferation than plasma.

Aims

To determine whether sub-microsecond duration, low electric field (SMLEF) bipolar pulses results in differential activation of PRP compared to SMHEF, with respect to profiles of activation markers, growth factor release, and cell proliferation capacity.

Methods

PRP activation by SMLEF bipolar pulses was compared to SMHEF pulses and bovine thrombin. PRP was prepared using the Harvest SmartPreP2 System from acid citrate dextrose anticoagulated healthy donor blood. PEF activation by either SMHEF or SMLEF pulses was performed using a standard electroporation cuvette preloaded with CaCl2 and a prototype instrument designed to take into account the electrical properties of PRP. Flow cytometry was used to assess platelet surface P-selectin expression, and annexin V binding. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial growth factor (EGF) and platelet factor 4 (PF4), and were measured by ELISA. The ability of supernatants to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture was also evaluated. Controls included vehicle-treated, unactivated PRP and PRP with 10 mM CaCl2 activated with 1 U/mL bovine thrombin.

Results

PRP activated with SMLEF bipolar pulses or thrombin had similar light scatter profiles, consistent with the presence of platelet-derived microparticles, platelets, and platelet aggregates whereas SMHEF pulses primarily resulted in platelet-derived microparticles. Microparticles and platelets in PRP activated with SMLEF bipolar pulses had significantly lower annexin V-positivity than those following SMHEF activation. In contrast, the % P-selectin positivity and surface P-selectin expression (MFI) for platelets and microparticles in SMLEF bipolar pulse activated PRP was significantly higher than that in SMHEF-activated PRP, but not significantly different from that produced by thrombin activation. Higher levels of EGF were observed following either SMLEF bipolar pulses or SMHEF pulses of PRP than after bovine thrombin activation while VEGF, PDGF, and PF4 levels were similar with all three activating conditions. Cell proliferation was significantly increased by releasates of both SMLEF bipolar pulse and SMHEF pulse activated PRP compared to plasma alone.

Conclusions

PEF activation of PRP at bipolar low vs. monopolar high field strength results in differential platelet-derived microparticle production and activation of platelet surface procoagulant markers while inducing similar release of growth factors and similar capacity to induce cell proliferation. Stimulation of PRP with SMLEF bipolar pulses is gentler than SMHEF pulses, resulting in less platelet microparticle generation but with overall activation levels similar to that obtained with thrombin. These results suggest that PEF provides the means to alter, in a controlled fashion, PRP properties thereby enabling evaluation of their effects on wound healing and clinical outcomes.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Increased Von Willebrand Factor Levels on Primary Hemostasis in Thrombocytopenic Patients with Liver Cirrhosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da06ab0ee8fa60b75e2f

In patients with liver cirrhosis procoagulant and anticoagulant changes occur simultaneously. During primary hemostasis, platelets adhere to subendothelial structures, via von Willebrand factor (vWF). We aimed to investigate the influence of vWF on primary hemostasis in patients with liver cirrhosis. Therefore we assessed in-vitro bleeding time as marker of primary hemostasis in cirrhotic patients, measuring the Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA-100) closure times with collagen and epinephrine (Col-Epi, upper limit of normal ≤165 s) or collagen and ADP (Col-ADP, upper limit of normal ≤118 s). If Col-Epi and Col-ADP were prolonged, the PFA-100 was considered to be pathological. Effects of vWF on primary hemostasis in thrombocytopenic patients were analyzed and plasma vWF levels were modified by adding recombinant vWF or anti-vWF antibody. Of the 72 included cirrhotic patients, 32 (44.4%) showed a pathological result for the PFA-100. They had mean closure times (± SD) of 180±62 s with Col-Epi and 160±70 s with Col-ADP. Multivariate analysis revealed that hematocrit (P = 0.027) and vWF-antigen levels (P = 0.010) are the predictors of a pathological PFA-100 test in cirrhotic patients. In 21.4% of cirrhotic patients with platelet count ≥150/nL and hematocrit ≥27.0%, pathological PFA-100 results were found. In thrombocytopenic (<150/nL) patients with cirrhosis, normal PFA-100 results were associated with higher vWF-antigen levels (462.3±235.9% vs. 338.7±151.6%, P = 0.021). These results were confirmed by multivariate analysis in these patients as well as by adding recombinant vWF or polyclonal anti-vWF antibody that significantly shortened or prolonged closure times, respectively. In conclusion, primary hemostasis is impaired in cirrhotic patients. The effect of reduced platelet count in cirrhotic patients can at least be partly compensated by increased vWF levels. Recombinant vWF could be an alternative to platelet transfusions in the future.

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<![CDATA[Postpartum Hemorrhage in Women with Von Willebrand Disease – A Retrospective Observational Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9fcab0ee8fa60b727a7

Introduction

von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a hereditary bleeding disorder, caused by a deficiency in the levels and/or function of von Willebrand factor (VWF). Women with VWD appear to be at increased risk of experiencing postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), though the levels of VWF increase during pregnancy. There is limited knowledge of how PPH is associated with the subtype of VWD, plasma levels of other coagulations factors than VWF and given hemostatic treatment.

Aims

The aims were to investigate the incidence of PPH in women with VWD and to analyse the correlation between PPH and: (1) type of VWD, (2) laboratory monitoring of VWF and FVIII and (3) hemostatic drug treatment.

Methods

This was a retrospective observational study. The study participants (n = 34) were recruited from the Coagulation Unit, Karolinska University hospital. Fifty-nine deliveries, which occurred in 14 different obstetrics units (years 1995–2012) were included in the study.

Results

The incidence of primary PPH was 44%, severe primary PPH 20% and secondary PPH 12%. VWD type 3 was associated with a higher risk of experiencing severe primary PPH compared to other subtypes. FVIII:C in pregnancy was inversely correlated to blood loss during delivery. There was a significantly higher incidence of secondary PPH when the VWD diagnosis was unknown at time of delivery.

Conclusions

The women with VWD are at higher risk of PPH, especially those with type 3 VWD or when diagnosis is unknown prior to delivery. Identification of pregnant women with undiagnosed VWD may be of importance in order to prevent PPH.

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<![CDATA[Erythrocyte-Derived Microparticles Supporting Activated Protein C-Mediated Regulation of Blood Coagulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da23ab0ee8fa60b7fcf1

Elevated levels of erythrocyte-derived microparticles are present in the circulation in medical conditions affecting the red blood cells. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles expose phosphatidylserine thus providing a suitable surface for procoagulant reactions leading to thrombin formation via the tenase and prothrombinase complexes. Patients with elevated levels of circulating erythrocyte-derived microparticles have increased thrombin generation in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether erythrocyte-derived microparticles are able to support the anticoagulant reactions of the protein C system. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles were isolated using ultracentrifugation after incubation of freshly prepared erythrocytes with the ionophore A23187 or from outdated erythrocyte concentrates, the different microparticles preparations yielding similar results. According to flow cytometry analysis, the microparticles exposed phoshatidylserine and bound lactadherin, annexin V, and protein S, which is a cofactor to activated protein C. The microparticles were able to assemble the tenase and prothrombinase complexes and to stimulate the formation of thrombin in plasma-based thrombin generation assay both in presence and absence of added tissue factor. The addition of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay inhibited thrombin generation in a dose-dependent fashion. The anticoagulant effect of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody that prevents binding of protein S to microparticles and also attenuated by anti-TFPI antibodies. In the presence of erythrocyte-derived microparticles, activated protein C inhibited tenase and prothrombinase by degrading the cofactors FVIIIa and FVa, respectively. Protein S stimulated the Arg306-cleavage in FVa, whereas efficient inhibition of FVIIIa depended on the synergistic cofactor activity of protein S and FV. In summary, the erythrocyte-derived microparticle surface is suitable for the anticoagulant reactions of the protein C system, which may be important to balance the initiation and propagation of coagulation in vivo.

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<![CDATA[Role of Purinergic Receptor Expression and Function for Reduced Responsiveness to Adenosine Diphosphate in Washed Human Platelets]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da00ab0ee8fa60b73b74

Background

Washing of platelets is an important procedure commonly used for experimental studies, e.g. in cardiovascular research. As a known phenomenon, responsiveness to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is reduced in washed platelets, although underlying molecular mechanisms—potentially interfering with experimental results—have not been thoroughly studied.

Objectives

Since ADP mediates its effects via three purinergic receptors P2Y1, P2X1 and P2Y12, their surface expression and function were investigated in washed platelets and, for comparison, in platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) at different time points for up to 2 hours after preparation.

Results

In contrast to PRP, flow cytometric analysis of surface expression in washed platelets revealed an increase of all receptors during the first 60 minutes after preparation followed by a significant reduction, which points to an initial preactivation of platelets and consecutive degeneration. The activity of the P2X1 receptor (measured by selectively induced calcium flux) was substantially maintained in both PRP and washed platelets. P2Y12 function (determined by flow cytometry as platelet reactivity index) was partially reduced after platelet washing compared to PRP, but remained stable in course of ongoing storage. However, the function of the P2Y1 receptor (measured by selectively induced calcium flux) continuously declined after preparation of washed platelets.

Conclusion

In conclusion, decreasing ADP responsiveness in washed platelets is particularly caused by impaired activity of the P2Y1 receptor associated with disturbed calcium regulation, which has to be considered in the design of experimental studies addressing ADP mediated platelet function.

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<![CDATA[Sex-specific effect of CPB2 Ala147Thr but not Thr325Ile variants on the risk of venous thrombosis: A comprehensive meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be008f

Background

Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), encoded by the Carboxypeptidase B2 gene (CPB2), is an inhibitor of fibrinolysis and plays a role in the pathogenesis of venous thrombosis. Experimental findings support a functional role of genetic variants in CPB2, while epidemiological studies have been unable to confirm associations with risk of venous thrombosis. Sex-specific effects could underlie the observed inconsistent associations between CPB2 genetic variants and venous thrombosis.

Methods

A comprehensive literature search was conducted for associations between Ala147Thr and Thr325Ile variants with venous thrombosis. Authors were contacted to provide sex-specific genotype counts from their studies. Combined and sex-specific random effects meta-analyses were used to estimate a pooled effect estimate for primary and secondary genetic models.

Results

A total of 17 studies met the inclusion criteria. A sex-specific meta-analysis applying a dominant model supported a protective effect of Ala147Thr on venous thrombosis in females (OR = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.68,0.97; p = 0.018), but not in males (OR = 1.06, 95%CI:0.96–1.16; p = 0.263). The Thr325Ile did not show a sex-specific effect but showed variation in allele frequencies by geographic region. A subgroup analysis of studies in European countries showed decreased risk, with a recessive model (OR = 0.83, 95%CI:0.71–0.97, p = 0.021) for venous thrombosis.

Conclusions

A comprehensive literature review, including unpublished data, provided greater statistical power for the analyses and decreased the likelihood of publication bias influencing the results. Sex-specific analyses explained apparent discrepancies across genetic studies of Ala147Thr and venous thrombosis. While, careful selection of genetic models based on population genetics, evolutionary and biological knowledge can increase power by decreasing the need to adjust for testing multiple models.

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<![CDATA[Another “String to the Bow” of PJ34, a Potent Poly(ADP-Ribose)Polymerase Inhibitor: An Antiplatelet Effect through P2Y12 Antagonism?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadaab0ee8fa60bb97f2

Background

Neuro- and vasoprotective effects of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) inhibition have been largely documented in models of cerebral ischemia, particularly with the potent PARP inhibitor PJ34. Furthermore, after ischemic stroke, physicians are faced with incomplete tissue reperfusion and reocclusion, in which platelet activation/aggregation plays a key role. Data suggest that certain PARP inhibitors could act as antiplatelet agents. In that context, the present in vitro study investigated on human blood the potential antiplatelet effect of PJ34 and two structurally different PARP inhibitors, DPQ and INO-1001.

Methods and results

ADP concentrations were chosen to induce a biphasic aggregation curve resulting from the successive activation of both its receptors P2Y1 and P2Y12. In these experimental conditions, PJ34 inhibited the second phase of aggregation; this effect was reduced by incremental ADP concentrations. In addition, in line with a P2Y12 pathway inhibitory effect, PJ34 inhibited the dephosphorylation of the vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) in a concentration-dependent manner. Besides, PJ34 had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by collagen or PAR1 activating peptide, used at concentrations inducing a strong activation independent on secreted ADP. By contrast, DPQ and INO-1001 were devoid of any effect whatever the platelet agonist used.

Conclusions

We showed that, in addition to its already demonstrated beneficial effects in in vivo models of cerebral ischemia, the potent PARP inhibitor PJ34 exerts in vitro an antiplatelet effect. Moreover, this is the first study to report that PJ34 could act via a competitive P2Y12 antagonism. Thus, this antiplatelet effect could improve post-stroke reperfusion and/or prevent reocclusion, which reinforces the interest of this drug for stroke treatment.

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<![CDATA[Variable Resistance to Plasminogen Activator Initiated Fibrinolysis for Intermediate-Risk Pulmonary Embolism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dacdab0ee8fa60bb4fb4

Background

We examine the clinical significance and biomarkers of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-catalyzed clot lysis time (CLT) in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism (PE).

Methods

Platelet-poor, citrated plasma was obtained from patients with PE. Healthy age- and sex-matched patients served as disease-negative controls. Fibrinogen, α2-antiplasmin, plasminogen, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), plasminogen activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), thrombin time and D-dimer were quantified. Clotting was induced using CaCl2, tissue factor, and phospholipid. Lysis was induced using 60 ng/mL tPA. Time to 50% clot lysis (CLT) was assessed by both thromboelastography (TEG) and turbidimetry (A405).

Results

Compared with disease-negative controls, patients with PE exhibited significantly longer mean CLT on TEG (+2,580 seconds, 95% CI 1,380 to 3,720 sec). Patients with PE and a short CLT who were treated with tenecteplase had increased risk of bleeding, whereas those with long CLT had significantly worse exercise tolerance and psychometric testing for quality of life at 3 months. A multivariate stepwise removal regression model selected PAI-1 and TAFI as predictive biomarkers of CLT.

Conclusion

The CLT from TEG predicted increased risk of bleeding and clinical failure with tenecteplase treatment for intermediate-risk PE. Plasmatic PAI-1 and TAFI were independent predictors of CLT.

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