ResearchPad - body-height https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Effect of aging and body characteristics on facial sexual dimorphism in the Caucasian Population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14542 The aim of this study was to quantify gender-specific facial characteristics in younger and older adults and to determine how aging and body characteristics, such as height and body-mass index (BMI), influence facial sexual dimorphism.MethodsThe cohort study included 90 younger adults of Caucasian origin (average age of 45 females 23.2 ± 1.9 and 45 males 23.7 ± 2.4 years) and 90 older adults (average age of 49 females 78.1 ± 8.1 and 41 males 74.5 ± 7.7 years). Three-dimensional facial scans were performed with an Artec MHT 3D scanner. The data were analyzed using the software package Rapidform®. The parameters to evaluate facial symmetry, height, width, profile, facial shape, nose, eyes and mouth characteristics were determined based on 39 facial landmarks. Student’s t-test was used to calculate the statistical differences between the genders in the younger and older adults and a multiple-linear-regression analysis was used to evaluate the impact of gender, age, body-mass index and body height.ResultsWe found that the female faces were more symmetrical than the male faces, and this was statistically significant in the older adults. The female facial shape was more rounded and their faces were smaller, after normalizing for body size. The males had wider mouths, longer upper lips, larger noses and more prominent lower foreheads. Surprisingly, we found that all the gender-dependent characteristics were even more pronounced in the older adults. Increased facial asymmetry, decreased facial convexity, increased forehead angle, narrower vermilions and longer inter-eye distances occurred in both genders during aging. An increased BMI was associated with wider faces, more concave facial profiles and wider noses, while greater body height correlated with increased facial heights and wider mouths.ConclusionFacial sexual dimorphism was confirmed by multiple parameters in our study, while the differences between the genders were more pronounced in the older adults. ]]> <![CDATA[Scrutinizing assortative mating in birds]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c784fead5eed0c4840078f1

It is often claimed that pair bonds preferentially form between individuals that resemble one another. Such assortative mating appears to be widespread throughout the animal kingdom. Yet it is unclear whether the apparent ubiquity of assortative mating arises primarily from mate choice (“like attracts like”), which can be constrained by same-sex competition for mates; from spatial or temporal separation; or from observer, reporting, publication, or search bias. Here, based on a conventional literature search, we find compelling meta-analytical evidence for size-assortative mating in birds (r = 0.178, 95% CI 0.142–0.215, 83 species, 35,591 pairs). However, our analyses reveal that this effect vanishes gradually with increased control of confounding factors. Specifically, the effect size decreased by 42% when we used previously unpublished data from nine long-term field studies, i.e., data free of reporting and publication bias (r = 0.103, 95% CI 0.074–0.132, eight species, 16,611 pairs). Moreover, in those data, assortative mating effectively disappeared when both partners were measured by independent observers or separately in space and time (mean r = 0.018, 95% CI −0.016–0.057). Likewise, we also found no evidence for assortative mating in a direct experimental test for mutual mate choice in captive populations of Zebra finches (r = −0.020, 95% CI −0.148–0.107, 1,414 pairs). These results highlight the importance of unpublished data in generating unbiased meta-analytical conclusions and suggest that the apparent ubiquity of assortative mating reported in the literature is overestimated and may not be driven by mate choice or mating competition for preferred mates.

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<![CDATA[Day length may make geographical difference in body size and proportions: An ecological analysis of Japanese children and adolescents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c443d5eed0c4845e83df

There is a north-south gradient in the body heights of Japanese children. A hypothesis had previously been proposed that differences in thyroid hormone activity induced by geographical differences in effective day length (duration of photoperiod exceeding a predetermined light intensity) might cause the differences in height. If thyroid hormone is involved, the effect should extend to body weight. This study examined whether geographical differences in body height and weight can be explained in terms of thyroid hormone activity induced by geographical differences in the photoperiodic environment using prefecture-level anatomical data and Japanese Mesh Climatic Data. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the combination of effective day length and weight was statistically significant as a predictor of height. Controlling for body weight revealed that effective day length was inversely correlated with height. Multiple regression analysis revealed that a combination of effective day length and height was statistically significant as a predictor of weight. Controlling for height demonstrated that effective day length was positively correlated with weight. Assuming an inverse correlation between effective day length and thyroid hormone activity, these results appear to show that short day-length will increase the activity of thyroid hormone and contribute to increasing height, but will inhibit weight gain; in contrast, long day-length will decrease the activity of thyroid hormone and contribute to increasing weight but will inhibit height gain. Geographical differences in height, and weight, and part of the prevalence of obesity in Japanese children and early adolescents may be explained by geographical differences in effective day length.

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<![CDATA[Determination of car seat contact area for personalised thermal sensation modelling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1966c4d5eed0c484b52d2e

A lot of daily activities are conducted in a sedentary posture. This includes a thermal interaction between the human and the seat that has implications on thermal perception and comfort. These interactions are investigated by simulating heat and mass transfer, thus, reducing a need for costly and time demanding subject studies. However, it is not clear, from the available literature, what portion of the body surface area is actually affected by the seat with respect to human anthropometry. The aim of this study was to develop a predicting function of the seat contact area based on anthropometric parameters. The results showed strong linear correlation between the contact area obtained by printing a body silhouette on paper placed at the seat and body weight, height, body surface area, and body mass index. The body surface area and the body weight were identified as the best predictors for the contact area.

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<![CDATA[Queen Nefertari, the Royal Spouse of Pharaoh Ramses II: A Multidisciplinary Investigation of the Mummified Remains Found in Her Tomb (QV66)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da2cab0ee8fa60b82d5c

Queen Nefertari, the favourite Royal Consort of Pharaoh Ramses II (Ancient Egypt, New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty c. 1250 BC) is famous for her beautifully decorated tomb in the Valley of the Queens. Her burial was plundered in ancient times yet still many objects were found broken in the debris when the tomb was excavated. Amongst the found objects was a pair of mummified legs. They came to the Egyptian Museum in Turin and are henceforth regarded as the remains of this famous Queen, although they were never scientifically investigated. The following multidisciplinary investigation is the first ever performed on those remains. The results (radiocarbon dating, anthropology, paleopathology, genetics, chemistry and Egyptology) all strongly speak in favour of an identification of the remains as Nefertari’s, although different explanations—albeit less likely—are considered and discussed. The legs probably belong to a lady, a fully adult individual, of about 40 years of age. The materials used for embalming are consistent with Ramesside mummification traditions and indeed all objects within the tomb robustly support the burial as of Queen Nefertari.

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<![CDATA[Variability of spatial temporal gait parameters and center of pressure displacements during gait in elderly fallers and nonfallers: A 6-month prospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbc38

Considering that most of the falls in elderly population arise during walking, tests derived from walking performance would be desirable for comprehensive fall risk assessment. The analysis of spatial temporal parameters and the center of pressure displacement, which represents the interaction between the human body and the ground, would be beneficial. The aim of this study was to compare spatial temporal gait parameters and their variability and the variability of the center of pressure displacement between elderly fallers and nonfallers during gait at self-selected, defined and fast speeds. A prospective study design was used. At the baseline, measurements of ground reaction force during gait at self-selected, defined and fast walking speeds by two force plates were performed. In addition, the Tinetti balance assessment tool, the Falls Efficacy Scale-International and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale were used. Mean and coefficient of variation of spatial temporal gait parameters and standard deviations of center of pressure displacement during loading response, midstance, terminal stance and preswing phases were calculated. Comparison of the fallers and nonfallers exhibited no significant difference in clinical tool, scales or spatial temporal parameters. Compared to nonfallers’ increased variability of walking speed at self-selected and defined speed, step width at fast walking speed and center of pressure displacement during preswing phase in medial-lateral directions at defined walking speed was found in fallers. However, application of the Holm-Bonferroni procedure for multiple comparisons exhibited no significant effect of group in any of the gait parameters. In general, our study did not observe an effect of group (fallers vs. nonfallers) on variability of spatial temporal parameters and center of pressure movement during gait. However, walking speed, step width as well as standard deviation of COP displacement in the medial-lateral direction during preswing exhibited a certain potential for distinguishing between elderly fallers and nonfallers.

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<![CDATA[Ethnic Variability in Body Size, Proportions and Composition in Children Aged 5 to 11 Years: Is Ethnic-Specific Calibration of Bioelectrical Impedance Required?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d7ab0ee8fa60b661ee

Background

Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) has the potential to be used widely as a method of assessing body fatness and composition, both in clinical and community settings. BIA provides bioelectrical properties, such as whole-body impedance which ideally needs to be calibrated against a gold-standard method in order to provide accurate estimates of fat-free mass. UK studies in older children and adolescents have shown that, when used in multi-ethnic populations, calibration equations need to include ethnic-specific terms, but whether this holds true for younger children remains to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to examine ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition in children aged 5 to 11 years, and to establish the extent to which such differences could influence BIA calibration.

Methods

In a multi-ethnic population of 2171 London primary school-children (47% boys; 34% White, 29% Black African/Caribbean, 25% South Asian, 12% Other) detailed anthropometric measurements were performed and ethnic differences in body size and proportion were assessed. Ethnic differences in fat-free mass, derived by deuterium dilution, were further evaluated in a subsample of the population (n = 698). Multiple linear regression models were used to calibrate BIA against deuterium dilution.

Results

In children <11 years of age, Black African/Caribbean children were significantly taller, heavier and had larger body size than children of other ethnicities. They also had larger waist and limb girths and relatively longer legs. Despite these differences, ethnic-specific terms did not contribute significantly to the BIA calibration equation (Fat-free mass = 1.12+0.71*(height2/impedance)+0.18*weight).

Conclusion

Although clear ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition were evident in this population of young children aged 5 to 11 years, an ethnic-specific BIA calibration equation was not required.

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<![CDATA[Strong or Weak Handgrip? Normative Reference Values for the German Population across the Life Course Stratified by Sex, Age, and Body Height]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db22ab0ee8fa60bcf913

Handgrip strength is an important biomarker of healthy ageing and a powerful predictor of future morbidity and mortality both in younger and older populations. Therefore, the measurement of handgrip strength is increasingly used as a simple but efficient screening tool for health vulnerability. This study presents normative reference values for handgrip strength in Germany for use in research and clinical practice. It is the first study to provide normative data across the life course that is stratified by sex, age, and body height. The study used a nationally representative sample of test participants ages 17–90. It was based on pooled data from five waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2006–2014) and involved a total of 11,790 persons living in Germany (providing 25,285 observations). Handgrip strength was measured with a Smedley dynamometer. Results showed that peak mean values of handgrip strength are reached in men’s and women’s 30s and 40s after which handgrip strength declines in linear fashion with age. Following published recommendations, the study used a cut-off at 2 SD below the sex-specific peak mean value across the life course to define a ‘weak grip’. Less than 10% of women and men aged 65–69 were classified as weak according to this definition, shares increasing to about half of the population aged 80–90. Based on survival analysis that linked handgrip strength to a relevant outcome, however, a ‘critically weak grip’ that warrants further examination was estimated to commence already at 1 SD below the group-specific mean value.

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<![CDATA[Structural parameters associated with location of peaks of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in young healthy eyes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be0027

The location of the peaks of the circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness is affected by several ocular parameters. In this study, we have generated equations that can determine the peaks of the cpRNFL. This study was a prospective, observational, cross sectional study of 118 healthy right eyes. The axial length, optic disc tilt, superiortemporal (ST)- and inferiortemporal (IT)-peaks of the cpRNFL thickness, and angles of the ST and IT retinal arteries (RA) and veins (RV) were determined. The correlations between the location of the ST- and IT-peaks and ocular structural parameters and the sex, body height and weight were calculated. The best fit equations to generate the location of the ST/IT-peaks were determined using corrected-Akaike Information Criteria. The location of the ST-peak was 0.72+(0.40 x ST-RA)+(0.27 x ST-RV)+(0.14 x height)–(0.47 x papillo-macular-position)–(0.11 x disc tilt) with a coefficient of correlation of 0.61 (P<0.0001). The location of the IT-peak was 21.88+(0.53 x IT-RA)+(0.15 x IT-RV)+(0.041 x corneal thickness)-(1.00 x axial length) with a coefficient of correlation of 0.59 (P<0.0001). The location of ST/IT peaks is determined by different parameters of the ocular structure. These equations allow clinicians to obtain an accurate location of the peaks for a more accurate diagnosis of glaucoma.

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<![CDATA[Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac9ab0ee8fa60bb3933

The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.

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<![CDATA[Osmolality of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da09ab0ee8fa60b76edd

Introduction

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder of increased intracranial fluid pressure (ICP) of unknown etiology. This study aims to investigate osmolality of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with IIH.

Methods

We prospectively collected CSF from individuals referred on suspicion of IIH from 2011–2013. Subjects included as patients fulfilled Friedman and Jacobson’s diagnostic criteria for IIH. Individuals in whom intracranial hypertension was refuted were included as controls. Lumbar puncture with ICP measurement was performed at inclusion and repeated for patients after three months of treatment. Osmolality was measured with a Vapor Pressure Osmometer.

Results

We collected 90 CSF samples from 38 newly diagnosed patients and 28 controls. At baseline 27 IIH-samples and at 3 months follow-up 35 IIH-samples were collected from patients. We found no significant differences in osmolality between 1) patients at baseline and controls (p = 0. 86), 2) patients at baseline and after 3 months treatment (p = 0.97), and 3) patients with normalized pressure after 3 months and their baseline values (p = 0.79). Osmolality in individuals with normal ICP from 6–25 cmH2O (n = 41) did not differ significantly from patients with moderately elevated ICP from 26–45 cmH2O (n = 21) (p = 0.86) and patients with high ICP from 46–70 cmH2O (n = 4) (p = 0.32), respectively. There was no correlation between osmolality and ICP, BMI, age and body height, respectively. Mean CSF osmolality was 270 mmol/kg (± 1 SE, 95% confidence interval 267–272) for both patients and controls.

Conclusions

CSF osmolality was normal in patients with IIH, and there was no relation to treatment, ICP, BMI, age and body height. Mean CSF osmolality was 270 mmol/kg and constitutes a reference for future studies. Changes in CSF osmolality are not responsible for development of IIH. Other underlying pathophysiological mechanisms must be searched.

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<![CDATA[Usefulness of a novel method for the screening of deep vein thrombosis by using a combined D-dimer- and age-based index before total hip arthroplasty]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbb74

Plasma D-dimer level is clinically useful for diagnosing patients with suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT). However, the cut-off value for the D-dimer level remains controversial and undetermined with regard to total hip arthroplasty (THA). The objective of this study was to estimate the efficacy of an age- and D-dimer-based index for diagnosing DVTs in asymptomatic cases before THA. We enrolled 224 patients with no symptoms associated with DVT before THA. All the patients underwent ultrasonography, and the plasma D-dimer level was recorded about 1 month preoperatively. The optimal cut-off value was calculated using multiple logistic regression and receiver operating curve analyses. DVTs were detected in 13 patients (5.8%) using ultrasonography. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.13; p = 0.007) and D-dimer value (OR: 1.74; p = 0.003) were related to the existence of preoperative DVT. A DVT index (0.12 × age + 0.45 × the D-dimer value) of 8.15 was the most reasonable cut-off value according to the receiver operating curve analysis. This value caused 100% sensitivity and 70.1% specificity, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.905 (range, 0.836–0.975). For age and D-dimer value, the AUCs were 0.828 (0.749–0.907) and 0.716 (0.522–0.910), respectively. This study demonstrated that age and D-dimer index can be useful in screening patients for DVTs before THA. This DVT index is also easy to calculate and may be clinically significant.

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<![CDATA[Outdoor activity and myopia progression in 4-year follow-up of Chinese primary school children: The Beijing Children Eye Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db59ab0ee8fa60bdf1d7

Purpose

To investigate factors associated with ocular axial elongation and myopia progression during a 4-year follow-up in primary school children in Beijing.

Methods

This school-based study included 382 grade-1 children at baseline in 2011 (age:6.3±0.4 years) with 305 (79.8%) returning for the follow-up examination in 2015. At baseline and in yearly follow-up examinations, the children underwent a comprehensive eye examination including auto-refractometry, ocular biometry with measurement of axial length, and fundus photography. The parents underwent a standardized interview.

Results

During the study period, the mean axial length elongated by 1.15±0.56mm in boys and 1.10±0.63mm in girls. At baseline and at the end of follow-up, axial length was significantly (P<0.001) longer in boys, with no difference (P = 0.50) between genders in axial elongation. In multivariate analysis, greater axial elongation was associated (regression coefficient r2:0.15) with less time spent outdoors (P = 0.004; standardized coefficient beta: -0.22), more time spent indoors with studying (P = 0.02; beta: 0.18) and paternal myopia (P = 0.03; beta: 0.16). Larger increases in the axial length/anterior corneal curvature (AL/CC) ratio were associated (r2:0.09) with less time spent outdoors (PP = 0.003; beta: -0.22) and maternal myopia (PP = 0.02; beta: 0.18).

Conclusions

Myopic axial elongation during a 4-year follow-up was associated with shorter time spent outdoors and longer time spent indoors studying and with parental myopia. Other factors such as level of paternal education, family income, gender and region of habitation were significantly associated with axial elongation and with myopia progression only in univariate analysis.

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<![CDATA[A Comparison of the Cheater Detection and the Unrelated Question Models: A Randomized Response Survey on Physical and Cognitive Doping in Recreational Triathletes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da06ab0ee8fa60b75fe8

Purpose

This study assessed the prevalence of physical and cognitive doping in recreational triathletes with two different randomized response models, that is, the Cheater Detection Model (CDM) and the Unrelated Question Model (UQM). Since both models have been employed in assessing doping, the major objective of this study was to investigate whether the estimates of these two models converge.

Material and Methods

An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 2,967 athletes at two triathlon events (Frankfurt and Wiesbaden, Germany). Doping behavior was assessed either with the CDM (Frankfurt sample, one Wiesbaden subsample) or the UQM (one Wiesbaden subsample). A generalized likelihood-ratio test was employed to check whether the prevalence estimates differed significantly between models. In addition, we compared the prevalence rates of the present survey with those of a previous study on a comparable sample.

Results

After exclusion of incomplete questionnaires and outliers, the data of 2,017 athletes entered the final data analysis. Twelve-month prevalence for physical doping ranged from 4% (Wiesbaden, CDM and UQM) to 12% (Frankfurt CDM), and for cognitive doping from 1% (Wiesbaden, CDM) to 9% (Frankfurt CDM). The generalized likelihood-ratio test indicated no differences in prevalence rates between the two methods. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in prevalences between the present (undertaken in 2014) and the previous survey (undertaken in 2011), although the estimates tended to be smaller in the present survey.

Discussion

The results suggest that the two models can provide converging prevalence estimates. The high rate of cheaters estimated by the CDM, however, suggests that the present results must be seen as a lower bound and that the true prevalence of doping might be considerably higher.

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<![CDATA[Human Growth and Body Weight Dynamics: An Integrative Systems Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db40ab0ee8fa60bd678b

Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%–24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of Cervical Spine Anatomy in Calves, Pigs and Humans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf8ab0ee8fa60bc381f

Background Context

Animals are commonly used to model the human spine for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Many studies have investigated similarities and differences between animals and humans in the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. However, a quantitative anatomic comparison of calf, pig, and human cervical spines has not been reported.

Purpose

To compare fundamental structural similarities and differences in vertebral bodies from the cervical spines of commonly used experimental animal models and humans.

Study Design

Anatomical morphometric analysis was performed on cervical vertebra specimens harvested from humans and two common large animals (i.e., calves and pigs).

Methods

Multiple morphometric parameters were directly measured from cervical spine specimens of twelve pigs, twelve calves and twelve human adult cadavers. The following anatomical parameters were measured: vertebral body width (VBW), vertebral body depth (VBD), vertebral body height (VBH), spinal canal width (SCW), spinal canal depth (SCD), pedicle width (PW), pedicle depth (PD), pedicle inclination (PI), dens width (DW), dens depth (DD), total vertebral width (TVW), and total vertebral depth (TVD).

Results

The atlantoaxial (C1–2) joint in pigs is similar to that in humans and could serve as a human substitute. The pig cervical spine is highly similar to the human cervical spine, except for two large transverse processes in the anterior regions ofC4–C6. The width and depth of the calf odontoid process were larger than those in humans. VBW and VBD of calf cervical vertebrae were larger than those in humans, but the spinal canal was smaller. Calf C7 was relatively similar to human C7, thus, it may be a good substitute.

Conclusion

Pig cervical vertebrae were more suitable human substitutions than calf cervical vertebrae, especially with respect to C1, C2, and C7. The biomechanical properties of nerve vascular anatomy and various segment functions in pig and calf cervical vertebrae must be considered when selecting an animal model for research on the spine.

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