ResearchPad - booster-doses https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Survival of glioblastoma treated with a moderately escalated radiation dose—Results of a retrospective analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14700 Glioblastoma (GBM) has the highest fatality rate among primary malignant brain tumors and typically tends to recur locally just adjacent to the original tumor site following surgical resection and adjuvant radiotherapy. We conducted a study to evaluate the survival outcomes between a standard dose (≤ 60 Gy) and moderate radiation dose escalation (>60 Gy), and to identify prognostic factors for GBM. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of primary GBM patients diagnosed between 2005 and 2016 in two referral hospitals in Taiwan. They were identified from the cancer registry database and followed up from the date of diagnosis to October 2018. The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between the two dose groups, and independent factors for survival were analyzed through Cox proportional hazard model. We also affirmed the results using Cox regression with least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) approach. From our cancer registry database, 142 GBM patients were identified, and 84 of them fit the inclusion criteria. Of the 84 patients, 52 (62%) were males. The radiation dose ranged from 50.0 Gy to 66.6 Gy, but their treatment volumes were similar to the others. Fifteen (18%) patients received an escalated dose boost >60.0 Gy. The escalated group had a longer median PFS (15.4 vs. 7.9 months, p = 0.01 for log-rank test), and a longer median OS was also longer in the escalation group (33.8 vs. 12.5 months, p <0.001) than the reference group. Following a multivariate analysis, the escalated dose was identified as a significant predictor for good prognosis (PFS: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.23–0.98; OS: HR = 0.40, 95%CI: 0.21–0.78). Using the LASSO approach, we found age > 70 (HR = 1.55), diagnosis after 2010 (HR = 1.42), and a larger radiation volume (≥ 250ml; HR = 0.81) were predictors of PFS. The escalated dose (HR = 0.47) and a larger radiation volume (HR = 0.76) were identified as predictors for better OS. Following detailed statistical analysis, a moderate radiation dose escalation (> 60 Gy) was found as an independent factor affecting OS in GBM patients. In conclusion, a moderate radiation dose escalation (> 60 Gy) was an independent predictor for longer OS in GBM patients. However, prospective studies including more patients with more information, such as molecular markers and completeness of resection, are needed to confirm our findings.

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<![CDATA[Six-month follow up of a randomized clinical trial-phase I study in Indonesian adults and children: Safety and immunogenicity of Salmonella typhi polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid (Vi-DT) conjugate vaccine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9b4d5eed0c48452a04e

Introduction

There is a high global incidence of typhoid fever, with an annual mortality rate of 200,000 deaths. Typhoid fever also affects younger children, particularly in resource-limited settings in endemic countries. Typhoid vaccination is an important prevention tool against typhoid fever. However, the available polysaccharide typhoid vaccines are not recommended for children under 2 years of age. A new typhoid conjugate Vi-diphtheria toxoid (Vi-DT) vaccine has been developed for infant immunization. We aimed to define the safety and immunogenicity of the Vi-DT vaccine among adults and children in Indonesia.

Methods

An observational, blinded, comparative, randomized, phase I safety study in two age de-escalating cohorts was conducted in East Jakarta, Indonesia, from April 2017 to February 2018. We enrolled 100 healthy subjects in 2 age groups: adults and children (18–40 and 2–5 years old). These groups were randomized into study groups (Vi-DT vaccine), and comparator groups (Vi-polysaccharide (Vi-PS) vaccine and another additional vaccine) which was administered in 4 weeks apart. Subjects were followed up to six months.

Result

One hundred healthy adults and children subjects completed the study. The Vi-DT and Vi-PS vaccines showed no difference in terms of intensity of any immediate local and systemic events within 30 minutes post-vaccination. Overall, pain was the most common local reaction, and muscle pain was the most common systemic reaction in the first 72 hours. No serious adverse events were deemed related to vaccine administration. The first and second doses of the Vi-DT vaccine induced seroconversion and higher geometric mean titers (GMT) in all subjects compared to that of baseline. However, in terms of GMT, the second dose of Vi-DT did not induce a booster response.

Conclusion

The Vi-DT vaccine is safe and immunogenic in adults and children older than two years. A single dose of the vaccine is able to produce seroconversion and high GMT in all individuals.

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<![CDATA[Completion of multiple-dose travel vaccine series and the availability of pharmacist immunizers: A retrospective analysis of administrative data in Alberta, Canada]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5217d4d5eed0c484794659

Pharmacists in a number of countries are being trained in the administration of injections with the aim of improving access and adherence to vaccinations. However, little is known about population-level adherence to multiple-dose travel vaccines, and whether the availability of pharmacist immunizers is associated with adherence. Health administrative data from Alberta, Canada, from April 2008 to May 2017 identified adults dispensed at least one vaccine for hepatitis A, hepatitis B, Japanese encephalitis, or rabies. Individuals were coded as completers or non-completers of the vaccine series based on the number of doses dispensed over a time period comprising the duration of the standard series plus 6 months to account for late doses. The association between the proportion of Alberta pharmacists with injection authorization (according to pharmacist registration data) and completion of vaccine series was assessed using linear regression. Over the study period, 24,164 patients initiated a vaccine series for hepatitis A monovalent, 195,480 for hepatitis B monovalent, 169,802 for combined hepatitis A&B, 1,726 for Japanese encephalitis, and 1,908 for rabies. There were fewer than 5 individuals receiving Japanese encephalitis vaccine per year from 2008–2010 or rabies vaccine from 2008–2009. While statistically significant positive associations were seen across all vaccines except for Japanese encephalitis, the magnitude of these associations was small. Each 1% increase in the proportion of injections-authorized pharmacists saw a corresponding increase in the proportion of individuals with completed vaccine series by 0.31% for hepatitis A monovalent, 0.19% for hepatitis B monovalent, 0.22% for combined hepatitis A&B, and 0.21% for rabies. This may suggest that challenges remain with implementing reminder systems to ensure adherence among travellers. Strategies to develop or improve patient and clinician reminder systems in pharmacies for travel vaccines should therefore be explored.

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<![CDATA[Chikungunya as a paradigm for emerging viral diseases: Evaluating disease impact and hurdles to vaccine development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61b7e0d5eed0c4849380cf

Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is an emerging infectious disease caused by an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Because mosquito control programs are not highly efficient for outbreak containment, vaccines are essential to reduce the burden of disease. Although no licensed vaccine against CHIKF is yet available, many highly promising candidates are undergoing preclinical studies, and a few of them have been tested in human trials of phase 1 or 2. Here, we review recent findings regarding the need for a CHIKF vaccine and provide an update on vaccines nearing or having entered clinical trials. We also address needs to tackle bottlenecks to vaccine development—including scientific and financial barriers—and to accelerate the development of vaccines; several actions should be taken: (i) design efficacy trials to be conducted during the course of outbreaks; (ii) evaluate the opportunity for adopting the “animal rule”for demonstration of efficacy for regulatory purposes; (iii) strengthen the collective commitment of nations, international organizations, potential donors and industry; (iv) stimulate public and/or private partnerships to invest in vaccine development and licensure; and (v) identify potential markets for an effective and safe CHIKF vaccine.

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<![CDATA[Regional variations in serotype distribution and vaccination status in children under six years of age with invasive pneumococcal disease in Germany]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa564d5eed0c484ca3c8d

Overview

The protective effect of infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) recommendation can be seen in Germany as a whole and in smaller regional groups. Comparisons between population-normalized geographic regions of Germany show different serotype distributions after program implementation, particularly in non-vaccine serotypes. The prior distinct differences in serotype distribution in children between the former East and former West German federal states have vanished. Children under six remain a vulnerable group, but the occurrence of vaccine-type (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children correctly vaccinated (using a three-dose primary series plus one booster dose) with PCV13 was low (9 out of 374 cases, 2.4%). However, only 18.4% of children in Germany with IPD were correctly vaccinated with PCV13 according to the recommended schedule. Continued surveillance and better schedule adherence are essential to definitively establish the most effective PCV administration schedule.

Vaccination effects

For all PCV products used in Germany (PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13), vaccination status was the most common statistically significant predictor of infection with a particular serotype: Unvaccinated children old enough to have received at least one dose of vaccine in the PCV7 group had significantly higher odds (OR: 6.84, 95%CI: 2.66–22.06, adjusted for per capita income and residence in the northeastern federal states) of contracting VT IPD. In the PCV10 group, VT IPD had an OR of 4.52 (95% CI: 1.60–15.62, adjusted for year of infection, median household size, and residence in the southern federal states) in unvaccinated children, and in the PCV13 group, unvaccinated children continued to have higher odds (OR: 6.21, 95%CI: 3.45–11.36, adjusted for year of infection, age of child, per capita income, residence in the southern federal states, and percentage of children using public daycare) of getting vaccine-type IPD. Being unvaccinated was the most frequent significant indicator for infection with vaccine-type serotypes for each analysis group, while geographic groupings showed more limited potential to predict serotype of infection in early childhood IPD in Germany.

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<![CDATA[Effectiveness of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease in children aged 7-59 months. A matched case-control study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5aafbfcc463d7e7cbd91358a

Background

The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was licensed based on the results of immunogenicity studies and correlates of protection derived from randomized clinical trials of the 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine. We assessed the vaccination effectiveness (VE) of the PCV13 in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children aged 7–59 months in a population with suboptimal vaccination coverage of 55%.

Methods

The study was carried out in children with IPD admitted to three hospitals in Barcelona (Spain) and controls matched by hospital, age, sex, date of hospitalization and underlying disease. Information on the vaccination status was obtained from written medical records. Conditional logistic regression was made to estimate the adjusted VE and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results

169 cases and 645 controls were included. The overall VE of ≥1 doses of PCV13 in preventing IPD due to vaccine serotypes was 75.8% (95% CI, 54.1–87.2) and 90% (95% CI, 63.9–97.2) when ≥2 doses before 12 months, two doses on or after 12 months or one dose on or after 24 months, were administered. The VE of ≥1 doses was 89% (95% CI, 42.7–97.9) against serotype 1 and 86.0% (95% CI, 51.2–99.7) against serotype 19A. Serotype 3 showed a non-statistically significant effectiveness (25.9%; 95% CI, -65.3 to 66.8).

Conclusions

The effectiveness of ≥1 doses of PCV13 in preventing IPD caused by all PCV13 serotypes in children aged 7–59 months was good and, except for serotype 3, the effectiveness of ≥1 doses against the most frequent PCV13 serotypes causing IPD was high when considered individually.

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<![CDATA[Definition of Human Epitopes Recognized in Tetanus Toxoid and Development of an Assay Strategy to Detect Ex Vivo Tetanus CD4+ T Cell Responses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db27ab0ee8fa60bd07a8

Despite widespread uses of tetanus toxoid (TT) as a vaccine, model antigen and protein carrier, TT epitopes have been poorly characterized. Herein we defined the human CD4+ T cell epitope repertoire by reevaluation of previously described epitopes and evaluation of those derived from prediction of HLA Class II binding. Forty-seven epitopes were identified following in vitro TT stimulation, with 28 epitopes accounting for 90% of the total response. Despite this diverse range of epitopes, individual responses were associated with only a few immunodominant epitopes, with each donor responding on average to 3 epitopes. For the top 14 epitopes, HLA restriction could be inferred based on HLA typing of the responding donors. HLA binding predictions re-identified the vast majority of known epitopes, and identified 24 additional novel epitopes. With these epitopes, we created a TT epitope pool, which allowed us to characterize TT responses directly ex vivo using a cytokine-independent Activation Induced Marker (AIM) assay. These TT responses were highly Th1 or Th2 polarized, which was dependent upon the original priming vaccine, either the cellular DTwP or acellular DTaP formulation. This polarization remained despite the original priming having occurred decades past and a recent booster immunization with a reduced acellular vaccine formulation. While TT responses following booster vaccination were not durably increased in magnitude, they were associated with a relative expansion of CD4+ effector memory T cells.

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<![CDATA[Fighting Ebola: A Window for Vaccine Re-evaluation?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdd146 ]]> <![CDATA[The Future of the RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine: An Alternative Development Plan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daccab0ee8fa60bb496d

Roly Gosling and Lorenz von Seidlein consider a potential future development plan for the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine.

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<![CDATA[Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated whole cell tuberculosis vaccine booster in adults primed with BCG: A randomized, controlled trial of DAR-901]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf7a1

Background

Development of a tuberculosis vaccine to boost BCG is a major international health priority. SRL172, an inactivated whole cell booster derived from a non-tuberculous mycobacterium, is the only new vaccine against tuberculosis to have demonstrated efficacy in a Phase 3 trial. In the present study we sought to determine if a three-dose series of DAR-901 manufactured from the SRL172 master cell bank by a new, scalable method was safe and immunogenic.

Methods

We performed a single site, randomized, double-blind, controlled, Phase 1 dose escalation trial of DAR-901 at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center in the United States. Healthy adult subjects age 18–65 with prior BCG immunization and a negative interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) were enrolled in cohorts of 16 subjects and randomized to three injections of DAR-901 (n = 10 per cohort), or saline placebo (n = 3 per cohort), or two injections of saline followed by an injection of BCG (n = 3 per cohort; 1–8 x 106 CFU). Three successive cohorts were enrolled representing DAR-901 at 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg per dose. Randomization was performed centrally and treatments were masked from staff and volunteers. Subsequent open label cohorts of HIV-negative/IGRA-positive subjects (n = 5) and HIV-positive subjects (n = 6) received three doses of 1 mg DAR-901. All subjects received three immunizations at 0, 2 and 4 months administered as 0.1 mL injections over the deltoid muscle alternating between right and left arms. The primary outcomes were safety and immunogenicity. Subjects were followed for 6 months after dose 3 for safety and had phlebotomy performed for safety studies and immune assays before and after each injection. Immune assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells included cell-mediated IFN-γ responses to DAR-901 lysate and to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) lysate; serum antibody to M. tuberculosis lipoarabinomannan was assayed by ELISA.

Results

DAR-901 had an acceptable safety profile and was well-tolerated at all dose levels in all treated subjects. No serious adverse events were reported. Median (range) 7-day erythema and induration at the injection site for 1 mg DAR-901 were 10 (4–20) mm and 10 (4–16) mm, respectively, and for BCG, 30 (10–107) mm and 38 (15–55) mm, respectively. Three mild AEs, all headaches, were considered possibly related to DAR-901. No laboratory or vital signs abnormalities were related to immunization. Compared to pre-vaccination responses, three 1 mg doses of DAR-901 induced statistically significant increases in IFN-γ response to DAR-901 lysate and MTB lysate, and in antibody responses to M. tuberculosis lipoarabinomannan. Ten subjects who received 1 mg DAR-901 remained IFN-γ release assay (IGRA) negative after three doses of vaccine.

Conclusions

A three-injection series of DAR-901 was well-tolerated, had an acceptable safety profile, and induced cellular and humoral immune responses to mycobacterial antigens. DAR-901 is advancing to efficacy trials.

Trial registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02063555

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<![CDATA[Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of the DAR-901 Booster Vaccine in a Murine Model of Tuberculosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daffab0ee8fa60bc6197

Background

The development of a novel tuberculosis vaccine is a leading global health priority. SRL172, an inactivated, whole-cell mycobacterial vaccine, was safe, immunogenic and reduced the incidence of culture-confirmed tuberculosis in a phase III trial in HIV-infected and BCG immunized adults in Tanzania. Here we describe the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of DAR-901, a booster vaccine against tuberculosis manufactured from the same seed strain using a new scalable method.

Methods

We evaluated IFN-γ responses by ELISpot and antibody responses by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice after three doses of DAR-901. In an aerosol challenge model, we evaluated the protective efficacy of the DAR-901 booster in C57BL/6 mice primed with BCG and boosted with two doses of DAR-901 at 4 dosage levels in comparison with homologous BCG boost.

Results

DAR-901 vaccination elicited IFN-γ responses to mycobacterial antigen preparations derived from both DAR-901 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. DAR-901 immunization enhanced antibody responses to DAR-901 but not Mycobacterium tuberculosis lysate or purified protein derivative. Among animals primed with BCG, boosting with DAR-901 at 1 mg provided greater protection against aerosol challenge than a homologous BCG boost (lungs P = 0.036, spleen P = 0.028).

Conclusions

DAR-901 induces cellular and humoral immunity and boosts protection from M. tuberculosis compared to a homologous BCG boost.

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<![CDATA[In a Safety Net Population HPV4 Vaccine Adherence Worsens as BMI Increases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db17ab0ee8fa60bcd616

Objectives

Obesity adversely inhibits antibody response to vaccination. Three doses of HPV4 may or may not provide adequate long term protection against HPV 16/18 in obese females. The aim of this study was to determine whether adherence to HPV4 vaccination in a safety net population was reduced with increasing body mass index (BMI).

Methods

We designed a historical prospective study evaluating the number and dates of HPV4 dosing that occurred from July 1, 2006 through October 1, 2009 by the demographic characteristics of the 10–26 year old recipient females. The defined dosing intervals were adapted from the literature and obesity categories were defined by the WHO.

Results

1240 females with BMI measurements received at least one dose of HPV4; 38% were obese (class I, II and III) and 25% were overweight. Females with normal BMI received on-time triplet dosing significantly more often than did the obese class II and III females (30% vs. 18%, p<0.001). Obese class II/III females have a significant 45% less chance of completing the on-time triplet HPV4 series than normal women (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.83). Pregnancy history has a significant influence on BMI and HPV4 dosing compliance in this safety net population where 71% had been gravid. Hispanic females were less likely to complete HPV4 dosing regardless of BMI (aOR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.95).

Conclusions

Obesity, as well as gravidity and Hispanic race, are risk factors for lack of HPV4 vaccine adherence among young females in a safety net population.

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<![CDATA[Projected Impact of Dengue Vaccination in Yucatán, Mexico]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da78ab0ee8fa60b97835

Dengue vaccines will soon provide a new tool for reducing dengue disease, but the effectiveness of widespread vaccination campaigns has not yet been determined. We developed an agent-based dengue model representing movement of and transmission dynamics among people and mosquitoes in Yucatán, Mexico, and simulated various vaccine scenarios to evaluate effectiveness under those conditions. This model includes detailed spatial representation of the Yucatán population, including the location and movement of 1.8 million people between 375,000 households and 100,000 workplaces and schools. Where possible, we designed the model to use data sources with international coverage, to simplify re-parameterization for other regions. The simulation and analysis integrate 35 years of mild and severe case data (including dengue serotype when available), results of a seroprevalence survey, satellite imagery, and climatological, census, and economic data. To fit model parameters that are not directly informed by available data, such as disease reporting rates and dengue transmission parameters, we developed a parameter estimation toolkit called AbcSmc, which we have made publicly available. After fitting the simulation model to dengue case data, we forecasted transmission and assessed the relative effectiveness of several vaccination strategies over a 20 year period. Vaccine efficacy is based on phase III trial results for the Sanofi-Pasteur vaccine, Dengvaxia. We consider routine vaccination of 2, 9, or 16 year-olds, with and without a one-time catch-up campaign to age 30. Because the durability of Dengvaxia is not yet established, we consider hypothetical vaccines that confer either durable or waning immunity, and we evaluate the use of booster doses to counter waning. We find that plausible vaccination scenarios with a durable vaccine reduce annual dengue incidence by as much as 80% within five years. However, if vaccine efficacy wanes after administration, we find that there can be years with larger epidemics than would occur without any vaccination, and that vaccine booster doses are necessary to prevent this outcome.

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<![CDATA[Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Pertussis Toxin among Different Age Groups in Thailand after 37 Years of Universal Whole-Cell Pertussis Vaccination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0fab0ee8fa60b7924d

Despite the high coverage of prophylactic vaccine against Bordetella pertussis infection in many countries for more than three decades, pertussis remains a common vaccine-preventable disease. Infections have been detected more commonly in countries using acellular pertussis vaccine in their Expanded Program of Immunization. Thailand implemented a routine infant immunization program with whole-cell pertussis vaccine in 1977, and since 1992, the national vaccine policy has offered a five-dose whole-cell pertussis vaccine for children given at the ages of 2, 4, 6, 18, and 48 months. This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of antibodies to pertussis toxin among healthy people across all ages to determine the level of whole-cell vaccine-induced immunity in the population, and to identify which age group should be targeted for a booster dose. The lowest seronegative rate and highest geometric mean concentrations were found in the 0–10 years age group, corresponding to their recent pertussis vaccination. The proportion of people with undetectable IgG level was prominent, starting after 11 years of age onwards. Now that a reduced-dose pertussis vaccine with fewer adverse effects is available, a booster dose during adolescence should be considered in order to reduce the incidence of pertussis disease. Further studies exploring how long the reduced-dose pertussis vaccine can provide protective immunity against pertussis disease when administered to adults and adolescents should also be performed.

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<![CDATA[Robust plan optimization using edge-enhanced intensity for intrafraction organ deformation in prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbd9f

This study evaluated a method for prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) based on edge-enhanced (EE) intensity in the presence of intrafraction organ deformation using the data of 37 patients treated with step-and-shoot IMRT. On the assumption that the patient setup error was already accounted for by image guidance, only organ deformation over the treatment course was considered. Once the clinical target volume (CTV), rectum, and bladder were delineated and assigned dose constraints for dose optimization, each voxel in the CTV derived from the DICOM RT-dose grid could have a stochastic dose from the different voxel location according to the probability density function as an organ deformation. The stochastic dose for the CTV was calculated as the mean dose at the location through changing the voxel location randomly 1000 times. In the EE approach, the underdose region in the CTV was delineated and optimized with higher dose constraints that resulted in an edge-enhanced intensity beam to the CTV. This was compared to a planning target volume (PTV) margin (PM) approach in which a CTV to PTV margin equivalent to the magnitude of organ deformation was added to obtain an optimized dose distribution. The total monitor units, number of segments, and conformity index were compared between the two approaches, and the dose based on the organ deformation of the CTV, rectum, and bladder was evaluated. The total monitor units, number of segments, and conformity index were significantly lower with the EE approach than with the PM approach, while maintaining the dose coverage to the CTV with organ deformation. The dose to the rectum and bladder were significantly reduced in the EE approach compared with the PM approach. We conclude that the EE approach is superior to the PM with regard to intrafraction organ deformation.

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<![CDATA[Safety and Immunogenicity of Pfs25-EPA/Alhydrogel®, a Transmission Blocking Vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum: An Open Label Study in Malaria Naïve Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da95ab0ee8fa60ba1a9e

Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) that target sexual stage parasite development could be an integral part of measures for malaria elimination. Pfs25 is a leading TBV candidate, and previous studies conducted in animals demonstrated an improvement of its functional immunogenicity after conjugation to EPA, a recombinant, detoxified ExoProtein A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this report, we describe results of an open-label, dose-escalating Phase 1 trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of Pfs25-EPA conjugates formulated with Alhydrogel®. Thirty malaria-naïve healthy adults received up to four doses of the conjugate vaccine, with 8, 16, or 47 μg of conjugated Pfs25 mass, at 0, 2, 4, and 10 months. Vaccinations were generally well tolerated. The majority of solicited adverse events were mild in severity with pain at the injection site the most common complaint. Anemia was the most common laboratory abnormality, but was considered possibly related to the study in only a minority of cases. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. The peak geometric mean anti-Pfs25 antibody level in the highest dose group was 88 (95% CI 53, 147) μg/mL two weeks after the 4th vaccination, and declined to near baseline one year later. Antibody avidity increased over successive vaccinations. Transmission blocking activity demonstrated in a standard membrane feeding assay (SMFA) also increased from the second to the third dose, and correlated with antibody titer and, after the final dose, with antibody avidity. These results support the further evaluation of Pfs25-EPA/Alhydrogel® in a malaria-endemic population.

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<![CDATA[Persistence of Rabies Virus-Neutralizing Antibodies after Vaccination of Rural Population following Vampire Bat Rabies Outbreak in Brazil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac9ab0ee8fa60bb36b0

Background

Animal control measures in Latin America have decreased the incidence of urban human rabies transmitted by dogs and cats; currently most cases of human rabies are transmitted by bats. In 2004–2005, rabies outbreaks in populations living in rural Brazil prompted widespread vaccination of exposed and at-risk populations. More than 3,500 inhabitants of Augusto Correa (Pará State) received either post-exposure (PEP) or pre-exposure (PrEP) prophylaxis. This study evaluated the persistence of rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) annually for 4 years post-vaccination. The aim was to evaluate the impact of rabies PrEP and PEP in a population at risk living in a rural setting to help improve management of vampire bat exposure and provide additional data on the need for booster vaccination against rabies.

Methodology/Principal Findings

This prospective study was conducted in 2007 through 2009 in a population previously vaccinated in 2005; study participants were followed-up annually. An RVNA titer >0.5 International Units (IU)/mL was chosen as the threshold of seroconversion. Participants with titers ≤0.5 IU/mL or Equivalent Units (EU)/mL at enrollment or at subsequent annual visits received booster doses of purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV). Adherence of the participants from this Amazonian community to the study protocol was excellent, with 428 of the 509 (84%) who attended the first interview in 2007 returning for the final visit in 2009. The long-term RVNA persistence was good, with 85–88.0% of the non-boosted participants evaluated at each yearly follow-up visit remaining seroconverted. Similar RVNA persistence profiles were observed in participants originally given PEP or PrEP in 2005, and the GMT of the study population remained >1 IU/mL 4 years after vaccination. At the end of the study, 51 subjects (11.9% of the interviewed population) had received at least one dose of booster since their vaccination in 2005.

Conclusions/Significance

This study and the events preceding it underscore the need for the health authorities in rabies enzootic countries to decide on the best strategies and timing for the introduction of routine rabies PrEP vaccination in affected areas.

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<![CDATA[The Potential Impact of a Hepatitis C Vaccine for People Who Inject Drugs: Is a Vaccine Needed in the Age of Direct-Acting Antivirals?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9fbab0ee8fa60b720e7

Background and Aims

The advent of highly effective hepatitis C (HCV) treatments has questioned the need for a vaccine to control HCV amongst people who inject drugs (PWID). However, high treatment costs and ongoing reinfection risk suggest it could still play a role. We compared the impact of HCV vaccination amongst PWID against providing HCV treatment.

Methods

Dynamic HCV vaccination and treatment models among PWID were used to determine the vaccination and treatment rates required to reduce chronic HCV prevalence or incidence in the UK over 20 or 40 years. Projections considered a low (50% protection for 5 years), moderate (70% protection for 10 years) or high (90% protection for 20 years) efficacy vaccine. Sensitivities to various parameters were examined.

Results

To halve chronic HCV prevalence over 40 years, the low, moderate and high efficacy vaccines required annual vaccination rates (coverage after 20 years) of 162 (72%), 77 (56%) and 44 (38%) per 1000 PWID, respectively. These vaccination rates were 16, 7.6 and 4.4 times greater than corresponding treatment rates. To halve prevalence over 20 years nearly doubled these vaccination rates (moderate and high efficacy vaccines only) and the vaccination-to-treatment ratio increased by 20%. For all scenarios considered, required annual vaccination rates and vaccination-to-treatment ratios were at least a third lower to reduce incidence than prevalence. Baseline HCV prevalence had little effect on the vaccine’s impact on prevalence or incidence, but substantially affected the vaccination-to-treatment ratios. Behavioural risk heterogeneity only had an effect if we assumed no transitions between high and low risk states and vaccinations were targeted or if PWID were high risk for their first year.

Conclusions

Achievable coverage levels of a low efficacy prophylactic HCV vaccine could greatly reduce HCV transmission amongst PWID. Current high treatment costs ensure vaccination could still be an important intervention option.

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<![CDATA[Long-Term Protection against Diphtheria in the Netherlands after 50 Years of Vaccination: Results from a Seroepidemiological Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafbab0ee8fa60bc4c8c

Background and Aims

To evaluate the National Immunisation Programme (NIP) a population-based cross-sectional seroepidemiological study was performed in the Netherlands. We assessed diphtheria antitoxin levels in the general Dutch population and in low vaccination coverage (LVC) areas where a relatively high proportion of orthodox Protestants live who decline vaccination based on religious grounds. Results were compared with a nationwide seroepidemiological study performed 11 years earlier.

Methods

In 2006/2007 a national serum bank was established. Blood samples were tested for diphtheria antitoxin IgG concentrations using a multiplex immunoassay for 6383 participants from the national sample (NS) and 1518 participants from LVC municipalities. A cut-off above 0.01 international units per ml (IU/ml) was used as minimum protective level.

Results

In the NS 91% of the population had antibody levels above 0.01 IU/ml compared to 88% in the 1995/1996 serosurvey (p<0.05). On average, 82% (vs. 78% in the 1995/1996 serosurvey, p<0.05) of individuals from the NS born before introduction of diphtheria vaccination in the NIP and 46% (vs. 37% in the 1995/1996 serosurvey, p = 0.11) of orthodox Protestants living in LVC areas had antibody levels above 0.01 IU/ml. Linear regression analysis among fully immunized individuals (six vaccinations) without evidence of revaccination indicated a continuous decline in antibodies in both serosurveys, but geometric mean antibodies remained well above 0.01 IU/ml in all age groups.

Conclusions

The NIP provides long-term protection against diphtheria, although antibody levels decline after vaccination. As a result of natural waning immunity, a substantial proportion of individuals born before introduction of diphtheria vaccination in the NIP lack adequate levels of diphtheria antibodies. Susceptibility due to lack of vaccination is highest among strictly orthodox Protestants. The potential risk of spread of diphtheria within the geographically clustered orthodox Protestant community after introduction in the Netherlands has not disappeared, despite national long-term high vaccination coverage.

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<![CDATA[Antibody Persistence and Booster Responses to Split-Virion H5N1 Avian Influenza Vaccine in Young and Elderly Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da44ab0ee8fa60b8b49a

Avian influenza continues to circulate and remains a global health threat not least because of the associated high mortality. In this study antibody persistence, booster vaccine response and cross-clade immune response between two influenza A(H5N1) vaccines were compared. Participants aged over 18-years who had previously been immunized with a clade 1, A/Vietnam vaccine were re-immunized at 6-months with 7.5 μg of the homologous strain or at 22-months with a clade 2, alum-adjuvanted, A/Indonesia vaccine. Blood sampled at 6, 15 and 22-months after the primary course was used to assess antibody persistence. Antibody concentrations 6-months after primary immunisation with either A/Vietnam vaccine 30 μg alum-adjuvanted vaccine or 7.5 μg dose vaccine were lower than 21-days after the primary course and waned further with time. Re-immunization with the clade 2, 30 μg alum-adjuvanted vaccine confirmed cross-clade reactogenicity. Antibody cross-reactivity between A(H5N1) clades suggests that in principle a prime-boost vaccination strategy may provide both early protection at the start of a pandemic and improved antibody responses to specific vaccination once available.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00415129

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