ResearchPad - brain-morphometry https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Diffusion MRI reveals in vivo and non-invasively changes in astrocyte function induced by an aquaporin-4 inhibitor]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14694 The Glymphatic System (GS) has been proposed as a mechanism to clear brain tissue from waste. Its dysfunction might lead to several brain pathologies, including the Alzheimer’s disease. A key component of the GS and brain tissue water circulation is the astrocyte which is regulated by acquaporin-4 (AQP4), a membrane-bound water channel on the astrocytic end-feet. Here we investigated the potential of diffusion MRI to monitor astrocyte activity in a mouse brain model through the inhibition of AQP4 channels with TGN-020. Upon TGN-020 injection, we observed a significant decrease in the Sindex, a diffusion marker of tissue microstructure, and a significant increase of the water diffusion coefficient (sADC) in cerebral cortex and hippocampus compared to saline injection. These results indicate the suitability of diffusion MRI to monitor astrocytic activity in vivo and non-invasively.

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<![CDATA[Tracking the brain in myotonic dystrophies: A 5-year longitudinal follow-up study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8accf4d5eed0c4849903d9

Objectives

The aim of this study was to examine the natural history of brain involvement in adult-onset myotonic dystrophies type 1 and 2 (DM1, DM2).

Methods

We conducted a longitudinal observational study to examine functional and structural cerebral changes in myotonic dystrophies. We enrolled 16 adult-onset DM1 patients, 16 DM2 patients, and 17 controls. At baseline and after 5.5 ± 0.4 years participants underwent neurological, neuropsychological, and 3T-brain MRI examinations using identical study protocols that included voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging. Data were analyzed by (i) group comparisons between patients and controls at baseline and follow-up, and (ii) group comparisons using difference maps (baseline–follow-up in each participant) to focus on disease-related effects over time.

Results

We found minor neuropsychological deficits with mild progression in DM1 more than DM2. Daytime sleepiness was restricted to DM1, whereas fatigue was present in both disease entities and stable over time. Comparing results of cross-sectional neuroimaging analyses at baseline and follow-up revealed an unchanged pattern of pronounced white matter alterations in DM1. There was mild additional gray matter reduction in DM1 at follow-up. In DM2, white matter reduction was of lesser extent, but there were some additional alterations at follow-up. Gray matter seemed unaffected in DM2. Intriguingly, longitudinal analyses using difference maps and comparing them between patients and controls did not reveal any significant differences of cerebral changes over time between patients and controls.

Conclusion

The lack of significant disease-related progression of gray and white matter involvement over a period of five years in our cohort of DM1 and DM2 patients suggests either a rather slowly progressive process or even a stable course of cerebral changes in middle-aged adult-onset patients. Being the first longitudinal neuroimaging trial in DM1 and DM2, this study provides useful additional information regarding the natural history of brain involvement.

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<![CDATA[Motor skill learning induces brain network plasticity: A diffusion-tensor imaging study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648cf2d5eed0c484c81b6f

Motor skills and the acquisition of brain plasticity are important topics in current research. The development of non-invasive white matter imaging technology, such as diffusion-tensor imaging and the introduction of graph theory make it possible to study the effects of learning skills on the connection patterns of brain networks. However, few studies have characterized the brain network topological features of motor skill learning, especially open skill. Given the need to interact with environmental changes in real time, we hypothesized that the brain network of high-level open-skilled athletes had higher transmission efficiency and stronger interaction in attention, visual and sensorimotor networks. We selected 21 high-level basketball players and 25 ordinary individuals as control subjects, collected their DTI data, built a network of brain structures, and used graph theory to analyze and compare the network properties of the two groups at global and regional levels. In addition, we conducted a correlation analysis on the training years of high-level athletes and brain network nodal parameters on the regional level to assess the relationship between brain network topological characteristics and skills learning. We found that on the global-level, the brain network of high-level basketball players had a shorter path length, small-worldness, and higher global efficiency. On the regional level, the brain nodes of the high-level athletes had nodal parameters that were significantly higher than those of control groups, and were mainly distributed in the visual network, the default mode network, and the attention network. The changes in brain node parameters were significantly related to the number of training years.

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<![CDATA[Texture analysis of magnetic resonance images of the human placenta throughout gestation: A feasibility study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c45fd5eed0c4845e865c

As fetal gestational age increases, other modalities such as ultrasound have demonstrated increased levels of heterogeneity in the normal placenta. In this study, we introduce and apply ROI-based texture analysis to a retrospective fetal MRI database to characterize the second-order statistics of placenta and to evaluate the relationship between heterogeneity and gestational age. Positive correlations were observed for several Haralick texture metrics derived from fetal-brain specific T2-weighted and gravid uterus T1-weighted and T2-weighted images, confirming a quantitative increase in placental heterogeneity with gestational age. Our study shows the importance of identifying baseline MR textural changes at certain gestational ages from which placental diseased states may be compared. Specifically, when evaluating for placental invasion or insufficiency, findings should be evaluated in the context of the normal placental aging process, which occurs throughout gestation.

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<![CDATA[Effects of early adversity on the brain: Larger-volume anterior cingulate cortex in AIDS orphans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c46658cd5eed0c484519b78

Multiple studies have revealed that adolescent AIDS orphans have more psychosocial problems than healthy adolescents. However, little is known about whether and how the brain structures of adolescent AIDS orphans differ from those of healthy adolescents. Here, we used magnetic resonance imaging to compare adolescent AIDS orphans reared in institutions (N = 20) with a sex- and age-matched group of healthy adolescents reared in families (N = 20) in China using a voxel-based morphometry analysis. First, we found that both total gray- and white-matter volumes did not differ between groups. Second, after correcting for age, sex, and total gray-matter volume, the AIDS orphan group demonstrated smaller hippocampal volumes, larger anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volumes, and no differences in the amygdala. Third, a whole-brain analysis identified higher gray-matter volume of the ACC in the AIDS orphan group than in the control group. The preliminary findings of this study highlight the need for future research to confirm the sensitivity of the hippocampus and ACC to early adversity.

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<![CDATA[Relationship between normalized distributional pattern and functional outcome in patients with acute cardiogenic cerebral embolism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c54d5eed0c484bd19e0

This study aimed to elucidate spatial characteristics for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cardiogenic cerebral embolism, to determine imaging biomarkers predicting patient outcome and cerebral herniation in cardioembolic stroke. This retrospective study assessed 90 patients with cardiogenic cerebral embolism. All images from MRI were normalized using a voxel-based symptom lesion mapping technique. Patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the outcome and presence of cerebral herniation. Each subgroup was assessed individually. The distribution map of all analyzed patients revealed accumulated ischemic lesions in bilateral middle cerebral artery areas. Ischemic lesions for the poor outcome group accumulated at the corona radiata on the right side and throughout the entire left hemisphere. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis suggested that a normalized ischemic volume of 62.8 mL allowed optimal differentiation between good and poor outcomes (sensitivity, 0.923; specificity, 0.923; area under the curve (AUC), 0.91) for left-side-dominant infarction. The distribution map for the cerebral herniation group revealed large ischemic areas in the left hemisphere. The analysis of differential involvement map with random permutation analysis showed that left anterior circulation infarcts were associated with midline shift. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that a normalized infarction volume of 192.9 mL was highly predictive of cerebral herniation (sensitivity, 0.929; specificity, 0.750; AUC, 0.895). The medial frontal and occipital lobes, caudate head and basal ganglia were significantly involved in those patients who developed cerebral herniation. Ischemic volume contributed to outcomes and cerebral herniation. Ischemic lesions of the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries and basal ganglia in addition to middle cerebral artery area were identified as differences on MRI images between with and without cerebral herniation patients.

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<![CDATA[Measures of possible allostatic load in comorbid cocaine and alcohol use disorder: Brain white matter integrity, telomere length, and anti-saccade performance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5b9d5eed0c484ca7cd8

Chronic cocaine and alcohol use impart significant stress on biological and cognitive systems, resulting in changes consistent with an allostatic load model of neurocognitive impairment.

The present study measured potential markers of allostatic load in individuals with comorbid cocaine/alcohol use disorders (CUD/AUD) and control subjects. Measures of brain white matter (WM), telomere length, and impulsivity/attentional bias were obtained. WM (CUD/AUD only) was indexed by diffusion tensor imaging metrics, including radial diffusivity (RD) and fractional anisotropy (FA). Telomere length was indexed by the telomere to single copy gene (T/S) ratio. Impulsivity and attentional bias to drug cues were measured via eye-tracking, and were also modeled using the Hierarchical Diffusion Drift Model (HDDM). Average whole-brain RD and FA were associated with years of cocaine use (R2 = 0.56 and 0.51, both p < .005) but not years of alcohol use. CUD/AUD subjects showed more anti-saccade errors (p < .01), greater attentional bias scores (p < .001), and higher HDDM drift rates on cocaine-cue trials (Bayesian probability CUD/AUD > control = p > 0.99). Telomere length was shorter in CUD/AUD, but the difference was not statistically significant. Within the CUD/AUD group, exploratory regression using an elastic-net model determined that more years of cocaine use, older age, larger HDDM drift rate differences and shorter telomere length were all predictive of WM as measured by RD (model R2 = 0.79). Collectively, the results provide modest support linking CUD/AUD to putative markers of allostatic load.

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<![CDATA[Preliminary Study of MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Pancreas for the Diagnosis of Acute Pancreatitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daeeab0ee8fa60bc0265

Objectives

To evaluate the feasibility of differentiating between acute pancreatitis (AP) and healthy pancreas using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and correlate apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) /fractional anisotropy (FA) values with the severity of AP.

Material and Methods

66 patients diagnosed with AP and 20 normal controls (NC) underwent DTI sequences and routine pancreatic MR sequences on a 3.0T MRI scanner. Average ADC and FA values of the pancreatic were measured. Differences of FA and ADC values between the AP group and the NC group with AP and healthy pancreas were compared by two-sample independent t-test. The severity of AP on MRI was classified into subgroups using MR severity index (MRSI), where the mean FA and ADC values were calculated. Relationship among the FA values, ADC values and MRSI were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients.

Results

The pancreatic mean ADC value in the AP group (1.68 ± 0.45×10−3mm2/s) was significantly lower than in the NC group (2.09 ± 0.55×10−3mm2/s) (P = 0.02); the same as mean FA value (0.39 ± 0.23 vs 0.54 ± 0.12, P = 0.00). In the subgroup analysis, the pancreatic ADC and FA value of edema AP patients was significantly higher than necrosis AP patients with P = 0.000 and P = 0.001respectively. In addition, as severity of pancreatitis increased according to MRSI, lower pancreatic ADC (r = -0.635) and FA value (r = -0.654) were noted.

Conclusion

Both FA and ADC value from DTI can be used to differentiate AP patients from NC. Both ADC and FA value of pancreas have a negative correlation with the severity of AP.

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<![CDATA[Concerning the matching of magnetic susceptibility differences for the compensation of background gradients in anisotropic diffusion fibre phantoms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf4d3

Artificial, anisotropic fibre phantoms are nowadays increasingly used in the field of diffusion-weighted MRI. Such phantoms represent useful tools for, among others, the calibration of pulse sequences and validation of diffusion models since they can mimic well-known structural features of brain tissue on the one hand, but exhibit a reduced complexity, on the other. Among all materials, polyethylene fibres have been widely used due to their excellent properties regarding the restriction of water diffusion and surface relaxation properties. Yet the magnetic susceptibility of polyethylene can be distinctly lower than that of distilled water. This difference produces strong microscopic, background field gradients in the vicinity of fibre bundles which are not parallel to the static magnetic field. This, in turn, modulates the MRI signal behaviour. In the present work we investigate an approach to reduce the susceptibility-induced background gradients via reducing the heterogeneity in the internal magnetic susceptibility. An aqueous solution of magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2·6H2O) is used for this purpose. Its performance is demonstrated in dedicated anisotropic fibre phantoms with different geometrical configurations.

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<![CDATA[Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Ear for Patient-Specific Reconstructive Surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7dab0ee8fa60b99220

Introduction

Like a fingerprint, ear shape is a unique personal feature that should be reconstructed with a high fidelity during reconstructive surgery. Ear cartilage tissue engineering (TE) advantageously offers the possibility to use novel 3D manufacturing techniques to reconstruct the ear, thus allowing for a detailed auricular shape. However it also requires detailed patient-specific images of the 3D cartilage structures of the patient’s intact contralateral ear (if available). Therefore the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an imaging strategy for acquiring patient-specific ear cartilage shape, with sufficient precision and accuracy for use in a clinical setting.

Methods and Materials

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 14 volunteer and six cadaveric auricles and manually segmented. Reproducibility of cartilage volume (Cg.V), surface (Cg.S) and thickness (Cg.Th) was assessed, to determine whether raters could repeatedly define the same volume of interest. Additionally, six cadaveric auricles were harvested, scanned and segmented using the same procedure, then dissected and scanned using high resolution micro-CT. Correlation between MR and micro-CT measurements was assessed to determine accuracy.

Results

Good inter- and intra-rater reproducibility was observed (precision errors <4% for Cg.S and <9% for Cg.V and Cg.Th). Intraclass correlations were good for Cg.V and Cg.S (>0.82), but low for Cg.Th (<0.23) due to similar average Cg.Th between patients. However Pearson’s coefficients showed that the ability to detect local cartilage shape variations is unaffected. Good correlation between clinical MRI and micro-CT (r>0.95) demonstrated high accuracy.

Discussion and Conclusion

This study demonstrated that precision and accuracy of the proposed method was high enough to detect patient-specific variation in ear cartilage geometry. The present study provides a clinical strategy to access the necessary information required for the production of 3D ear scaffolds for TE purposes, including detailed patient-specific shape. Furthermore, the protocol is applicable in daily clinical practice with existing infrastructure.

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<![CDATA[Progressive Injury in Chronic Multiple Sclerosis Lesions Is Gender-Specific: A DTI Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db44ab0ee8fa60bd7f81

Objective

To evaluate the longitudinal integrity of white matter tracts in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) as determined by changes in diffusivity indices of lesional and non-lesional white matter in the optic radiation over 12 months.

Methods

The optic radiation (OR) was identified in sixty RRMS patients using probabilistic tractography. MS lesions were segmented on FLAIR T2 images and a lesion mask was intersected with the co-registered OR. Lesions within the OR were identified in 39 patients. Voxel-based analysis of axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) within OR lesions and non-lesional normal appearing white matter (NAWM) was performed at baseline and 12 months in 34 patients (five patients excluded due to new OR lesions).

Results

Both RD and AD demonstrated much higher values within the lesions compared with non-lesional NAWM. There was a significant (p<0.001) increase of lesional AD and RD during the follow-up period. This increase, however, was driven almost entirely by the male cohort, in which a significantly greater change in both AD (M-2.7%, F-0.9%) and RD (M-4.6%, F-0.7%) was observed during the follow-up period. Non-lesional NAWM also demonstrated an increase in both AD and RD, albeit on a much lesser scale (1.0% and 0.6% respectively). In contradistinction to lesions, the diffusivity change in non-lesional NAWM was similar between sexes.

Conclusions

The evolution of AD and RD in chronic MS lesions over 12 months suggests ongoing inflammatory demyelinating activity accompanied by axonal loss. In addition, our findings are consistent with the recently observed trend of more rapid clinical progression in males and establish a potential in vivo biomarker of gender dichotomy by demonstrating a significantly faster rate of microstructural change in the chronic lesions of male patients with MS.

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<![CDATA[Increased Grey Matter Associated with Long-Term Sahaja Yoga Meditation: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db41ab0ee8fa60bd6c5a

Objectives

To investigate regional differences in grey matter volume associated with the practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation.

Design

Twenty three experienced practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation and twenty three non-meditators matched on age, gender and education level, were scanned using structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and their grey matter volume were compared using Voxel-Based Morphometry.

Results

Grey matter volume was larger in meditators relative to non-meditators across the whole brain. In addition, grey matter volume was larger in several predominantly right hemispheric regions: in insula, ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal and parietal cortices as well as in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and left insula. No areas with larger grey matter volume were found in non-meditators relative to meditators.

Conclusions

The study shows that long-term practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation is associated with larger grey matter volume overall, and with regional enlargement in several right hemispheric cortical and subcortical brain regions that are associated with sustained attention, self-control, compassion and interoceptive perception. The increased grey matter volume in these attention and self-control mediating regions suggests use-dependent enlargement with regular practice of this meditation.

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<![CDATA[Clinical and Paraclinical Indicators of Motor System Impairment in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia: A Pilot Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da25ab0ee8fa60b80848

Background

Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) are a composite and genetically heterogeneous group of conditions mainly expressed by the impairment of the central motor system (“pure” forms). The involvement of other components of the central nervous system or of other systems is described in the “complicate” forms. The definition of an investigation protocol capable, by assembling clinical and paraclinical indicators to fully represent the extent of the motor system impairment, would help both the clinical handling of these conditions and contribute to our understanding of their pathogenesis.

Methods

We applied a clinical and paraclinical protocol which included tools exploring motor and non motor functioning, neurophysiology and MRI to a composite cohort of 70 molecularly defined HSP patients aged 3 to 65, to define for each indicator its significance in detailing the presence and the severity of the pathology.

Results

Clinically increased deep tendon reflexes and lower limb (LL) weakness are constant findings in all patients. The “complicated” forms are characterized by peripheral motor impairment, cognitive and cerebellar involvement. The Spastic Paraplegia Rating Scale efficiently reflects the severity of functional problems and correlates with disease duration. Neurophysiology consistently documents the impairment of the central motor pathway to the LLs. Nevertheless, the upper extremities and sensory system involvement is a frequent finding. MRI diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) highlighted a significant alteration of FA and MD. Combining the sampling of the various portion of the cortico-spinal tract (CST) DTI consistently discriminated patients from controls.

Conclusion

We propose a graded clinical and paraclinical protocol for HSP phenotype definition, indicating for each tool the discriminative and descriptive capacity. Our protocol applied to 9 different forms of HSP showed that the functional impairment often extends beyond the CST. The novel DTI approach may add significant elements in disease recognition, staging and mapping.

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<![CDATA[Characterization and Correction of Geometric Distortions in 814 Diffusion Weighted Images]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db09ab0ee8fa60bc9506

Introduction

Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI), which is based on Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) protocols, is becoming increasingly important for neurosurgical applications. However, its use in this context is limited in part by significant spatial distortion inherent to EPI.

Method

We evaluated an efficient algorithm for EPI distortion correction (EPIC) across 814 DWI scans from 250 brain tumor patients and quantified the magnitude of geometric distortion for whole brain and multiple brain regions.

Results

Evaluation of the algorithm’s performance revealed significantly higher mutual information between T1-weighted pre-contrast images and corrected b = 0 images than the uncorrected b = 0 images (p < 0.001). The distortion magnitude across all voxels revealed a median EPI distortion effect of 2.1 mm, ranging from 1.2 mm to 5.9 mm, the 5th and 95th percentile, respectively. Regions adjacent to bone-air interfaces, such as the orbitofrontal cortex, temporal poles, and brain stem, were the regions most severely affected by DWI distortion.

Conclusion

Using EPIC to estimate the degree of distortion in 814 DWI brain tumor images enabled the creation of a topographic atlas of DWI distortion across the brain. The degree of displacement of tumors boundaries in uncorrected images is severe but can be corrected for using EPIC. Our results support the use of distortion correction to ensure accurate and careful application of DWI to neurosurgical practice.

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<![CDATA[Grey and White Matter Correlates of Recent and Remote Autobiographical Memory Retrieval – Insights from the Dementias]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db20ab0ee8fa60bcf0ee

The capacity to remember self-referential past events relies on the integrity of a distributed neural network. Controversy exists, however, regarding the involvement of specific brain structures for the retrieval of recently experienced versus more distant events. Here, we explored how characteristic patterns of atrophy in neurodegenerative disorders differentially disrupt remote versus recent autobiographical memory. Eleven behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia, 10 semantic dementia, 15 Alzheimer's disease patients and 14 healthy older Controls completed the Autobiographical Interview. All patient groups displayed significant remote memory impairments relative to Controls. Similarly, recent period retrieval was significantly compromised in behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease, yet semantic dementia patients scored in line with Controls. Voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analyses, for all participants combined, were conducted to investigate grey and white matter correlates of remote and recent autobiographical memory retrieval. Neural correlates common to both recent and remote time periods were identified, including the hippocampus, medial prefrontal, and frontopolar cortices, and the forceps minor and left hippocampal portion of the cingulum bundle. Regions exclusively implicated in each time period were also identified. The integrity of the anterior temporal cortices was related to the retrieval of remote memories, whereas the posterior cingulate cortex emerged as a structure significantly associated with recent autobiographical memory retrieval. This study represents the first investigation of the grey and white matter correlates of remote and recent autobiographical memory retrieval in neurodegenerative disorders. Our findings demonstrate the importance of core brain structures, including the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, irrespective of time period, and point towards the contribution of discrete regions in mediating successful retrieval of distant versus recently experienced events.

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<![CDATA[Application of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Parameters to Detect Change in Longitudinal Studies in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6bab0ee8fa60b92ed1

Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is the major cause of vascular cognitive impairment, resulting in significant disability and reduced quality of life. Cognitive tests have been shown to be insensitive to change in longitudinal studies and, therefore, sensitive surrogate markers are needed to monitor disease progression and assess treatment effects in clinical trials. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is thought to offer great potential in this regard. Sensitivity of the various parameters that can be derived from DTI is however unknown. We aimed to evaluate the differential sensitivity of DTI markers to detect SVD progression, and to estimate sample sizes required to assess therapeutic interventions aimed at halting decline based on DTI data. We investigated 99 patients with symptomatic SVD, defined as clinical lacunar syndrome with MRI confirmation of a corresponding infarct as well as confluent white matter hyperintensities over a 3 year follow-up period. We evaluated change in DTI histogram parameters using linear mixed effect models and calculated sample size estimates. Over a three-year follow-up period we observed a decline in fractional anisotropy and increase in diffusivity in white matter tissue and most parameters changed significantly. Mean diffusivity peak height was the most sensitive marker for SVD progression as it had the smallest sample size estimate. This suggests disease progression can be monitored sensitively using DTI histogram analysis and confirms DTI’s potential as surrogate marker for SVD.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of 18F-FDG PET/CT and DWI for detection of mediastinal nodal metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer: A meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc7b3

Background

Accurate clinical staging of mediastinal lymph nodes of patients with lung cancer is important in determining therapeutic options and prognoses. We aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in detecting mediastinal nodal metastasis of lung cancer.

Methods

Relevant studies were systematically searched in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PUBMED, and Cochrane Library databases. Based on extracted data, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR) with individual 95% confidence intervals were calculated. In addition, the publication bias was assessed by Deek’s funnel plot of the asymmetry test. The potential heterogeneity was explored by threshold effect analysis and subgroup analyses.

Results

Forty-three studies were finally included. For PET/CT, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.65 (0.63–0.67) and 0.93 (0.93–0.94), respectively. The corresponding values of DWI were 0.72 (0.68–0.76) and 0.97 (0.96–0.98), respectively. The overall PLR and NLR of DWI were 13.15 (5.98–28.89) and 0.32 (0.27–0.39), respectively. For PET/CT, the corresponding values were 8.46 (6.54–10.96) and 0.38 (0.33–0.45), respectively. The Deek’s test revealed no significant publication bias. Study design and patient enrollment were potential causes for the heterogeneity of DWI studies and the threshold was a potential source for PET/CT studies.

Conclusion

Both modalities are beneficial in detecting lymph nodes metastases in lung cancer without significant differences between them. DWI might be an alternative modality for evaluating nodal status of NSCLC.

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<![CDATA[Brain Parenchymal Fraction in Healthy Adults—A Systematic Review of the Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d2ab0ee8fa60b64a78

Brain atrophy is an important feature of many neurodegenerative disorders. It can be described in terms of change in the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF). In order to interpret the BPF in disease, knowledge on the BPF in healthy individuals is required. The aim of this study was to establish a normal range of values for the BPF of healthy individuals via a systematic review of the literature. The databases PubMed and Scopus were searched and 95 articles, including a total of 9269 individuals, were identified including the required data. We present values of BPF from healthy individuals stratified by age and post-processing method. The mean BPF correlated with mean age and there were significant differences in age-adjusted mean BPF between methods. This study contributes to increased knowledge about BPF in healthy individuals, which may assist in the interpretation of BPF in the setting of disease. We highlight the differences between post-processing methods and the need for a consensus gold standard.

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<![CDATA[Cortical Thickness, Surface Area and Subcortical Volume Differentially Contribute to Cognitive Heterogeneity in Parkinson’s Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3eab0ee8fa60bd5ebf

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is often associated with cognitive deficits, although their severity varies considerably between patients. Recently, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to show that individual differences in gray matter (GM) volume relate to cognitive heterogeneity in PD. VBM does, however, not differentiate between cortical thickness (CTh) and surface area (SA), which might be independently affected in PD. We therefore re-analyzed our cohort using the surface-based method FreeSurfer, and investigated (i) CTh, SA, and (sub)cortical GM volume differences between 93 PD patients and 45 matched controls, and (ii) the relation between these structural measures and cognitive performance on six neuropsychological tasks within the PD group. We found cortical thinning in PD patients in the left pericalcarine gyrus, extending to cuneus, precuneus and lingual areas and left inferior parietal cortex, bilateral rostral middle frontal cortex, and right cuneus, and increased cortical surface area in the left pars triangularis. Within the PD group, we found negative correlations between (i) CTh of occipital areas and performance on a verbal memory task, (ii) SA and volume of the frontal cortex and visuospatial memory performance, and, (iii) volume of the right thalamus and scores on two verbal fluency tasks. Our primary findings illustrate that i) CTh and SA are differentially affected in PD, and ii) VBM and FreeSurfer yield non-overlapping results in an identical dataset. We argue that this discrepancy is due to technical differences and the subtlety of the PD-related structural changes.

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<![CDATA[From Cortical and Subcortical Grey Matter Abnormalities to Neurobehavioral Phenotype of Angelman Syndrome: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da07ab0ee8fa60b7615f

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare neurogenetic disorder due to loss of expression of maternal ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene. It is characterized by severe developmental delay, speech impairment, movement or balance disorder and typical behavioral uniqueness. Affected individuals show normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, although mild dysmyelination may be observed. In this study, we adopted a quantitative MRI analysis with voxel-based morphometry (FSL-VBM) method to investigate disease-related changes in the cortical/subcortical grey matter (GM) structures. Since 2006 to 2013 twenty-six AS patients were assessed by our multidisciplinary team. From those, sixteen AS children with confirmed maternal 15q11-q13 deletions (mean age 7.7 ± 3.6 years) and twenty-one age-matched controls were recruited. The developmental delay and motor dysfunction were assessed using Bayley III and Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the clinical and neuropsychological datasets. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired and FSL-VBM approach was applied to investigate differences in the local GM volume and to correlate clinical and neuropsychological changes in the regional distribution of GM. We found bilateral GM volume loss in AS compared to control children in the striatum, limbic structures, insular and orbitofrontal cortices. Voxel-wise correlation analysis with the principal components of the PCA output revealed a strong relationship with GM volume in the superior parietal lobule and precuneus on the left hemisphere. The anatomical distribution of cortical/subcortical GM changes plausibly related to several clinical features of the disease and may provide an important morphological underpinning for clinical and neurobehavioral symptoms in children with AS.

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