ResearchPad - brainstem https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Direct comparison of activation maps during galvanic vestibular stimulation: A hybrid H<sub>2</sub>[<sup>15</sup> O] PET—BOLD MRI activation study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14749 Previous unimodal PET and fMRI studies in humans revealed a reproducible vestibular brain activation pattern, but with variations in its weighting and expansiveness. Hybrid studies minimizing methodological variations at baseline conditions are rare and still lacking for task-based designs. Thus, we applied for the first time hybrid 3T PET-MRI scanning (Siemens mMR) in healthy volunteers using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in healthy volunteers in order to directly compare H215O-PET and BOLD MRI responses. List mode PET acquisition started with the injection of 750 MBq H215O simultaneously to MRI EPI sequences. Group-level statistical parametric maps were generated for GVS vs. rest contrasts of PET, MR-onset (event-related), and MR-block. All contrasts showed a similar bilateral vestibular activation pattern with remarkable proximity of activation foci. Both BOLD contrasts gave more bilateral wide-spread activation clusters than PET; no area showed contradictory signal responses. PET still confirmed the right-hemispheric lateralization of the vestibular system, whereas BOLD-onset revealed only a tendency. The reciprocal inhibitory visual-vestibular interaction concept was confirmed by PET signal decreases in primary and secondary visual cortices, and BOLD-block decreases in secondary visual areas. In conclusion, MRI activation maps contained a mixture of CBF measured using H215O-PET and additional non-CBF effects, and the activation-deactivation pattern of the BOLD-block appears to be more similar to the H215O-PET than the BOLD-onset.

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<![CDATA[Noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation alters neural response and physiological autonomic tone to noxious thermal challenge]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca21d5eed0c48452a80d

The mechanisms by which noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation (nVNS) affect central and peripheral neural circuits that subserve pain and autonomic physiology are not clear, and thus remain an area of intense investigation. Effects of nVNS vs sham stimulation on subject responses to five noxious thermal stimuli (applied to left lower extremity), were measured in 30 healthy subjects (n = 15 sham and n = 15 nVNS), with fMRI and physiological galvanic skin response (GSR). With repeated noxious thermal stimuli a group × time analysis showed a significantly (p < .001) decreased response with nVNS in bilateral primary and secondary somatosensory cortices (SI and SII), left dorsoposterior insular cortex, bilateral paracentral lobule, bilateral medial dorsal thalamus, right anterior cingulate cortex, and right orbitofrontal cortex. A group × time × GSR analysis showed a significantly decreased response in the nVNS group (p < .0005) bilaterally in SI, lower and mid medullary brainstem, and inferior occipital cortex. Finally, nVNS treatment showed decreased activity in pronociceptive brainstem nuclei (e.g. the reticular nucleus and rostral ventromedial medulla) and key autonomic integration nuclei (e.g. the rostroventrolateral medulla, nucleus ambiguous, and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve). In aggregate, noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation reduced the physiological response to noxious thermal stimuli and impacted neural circuits important for pain processing and autonomic output.

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<![CDATA[Quantifying the contrast of the human locus coeruleus in vivo at 7 Tesla MRI]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648cf0d5eed0c484c81b23

The locus coeruleus is a small brainstem nucleus which contains neuromelanin cells and is involved in a number of cognitive functions such as attention, arousal and stress, as well as several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Locus coeruleus imaging in vivo is generally performed using a T1-weighted turbo spin echo MRI sequence at 3 Tesla (T). However, imaging at high magnetic field strength can increase the signal-to-noise ratio and offers the possibility of imaging at higher spatial resolution. Therefore, in the present study we explored the possibility of visualizing the locus coeruleus at 7T. To this end, twelve healthy volunteers participated in three scanning sessions: two with 3T MRI and one with 7T MRI. The volumes of the first 3T session were used to segment the locus coeruleus, whereas the volumes of the second 3T and the 7T session were used to quantify the contrast of the locus coeruleus with several reference regions across eight different structural sequences. The results indicate that several of the 7T sequences provide detectable contrast between the locus coeruleus and surrounding tissue. Of the tested sequences, a T1-weighted sequence with spectral presaturation inversion recovery (SPIR) seems the most promising method for visualizing the locus coeruleus at ultra-high field MRI. While there is insufficient evidence to prefer the 7T SPIR sequence over the 3T TSE sequence, the isotropic voxels at 7T are an important advantage when visualizing small structures such as the locus coeruleus.

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<![CDATA[Estimation of auditory steady-state responses based on the averaging of independent EEG epochs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5369bcd5eed0c484a465a1

The amplitude of auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) generated in the brainstem of rats exponentially decreases over the sequential averaging of EEG epochs. This behavior is partially due to the adaptation of the ASSR induced by the continuous and monotonous stimulation. In this study, we analyzed the potential clinical relevance of the ASSR adaptation. ASSR were elicited in eight anesthetized adult rats by 8-kHz tones, modulated in amplitude at 115 Hz. We called independent epochs to those EEG epochs acquired with sufficiently long inter-stimulus interval, so the ASSR contained in any given epoch is not affected by the previous stimulation. We tested whether the detection of ASSRs is improved when the response is computed by averaging independent EEG epochs, containing only unadapted auditory responses. The improvements in the ASSR detection obtained with standard, weighted and sorted averaging were compared. In the absence of artifacts, when the ASSR was elicited by continuous acoustic stimulation, the computation of the ASSR amplitude relied upon the averaging method. While the adaptive behavior of the ASSR was still evident after the weighting of epochs, the sorted averaging resulted in under-estimations of the ASSR amplitude. In the absence of artifacts, the ASSR amplitudes computed by averaging independent epochs did not depend on the averaging procedure. Averaging independent epochs resulted in higher ASSR amplitudes and halved the number of EEG epochs needed to be acquired to achieve the maximum detection rate of the ASSR. Acquisition protocols based on averaging independent EEG epochs, in combination with appropriate averaging methods for artifact reduction might contribute to develop more accurate hearing assessments based on ASSRs.

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<![CDATA[Adaptation and spectral enhancement at auditory temporal perceptual boundaries - Measurements via temporal precision of auditory brainstem responses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2544c6d5eed0c48442b871

In human and animal auditory perception the perceived quality of sound streams changes depending on the duration of inter-sound intervals (ISIs). Here, we studied whether adaptation and the precision of temporal coding in the auditory periphery reproduce general perceptual boundaries in the time domain near 20, 100, and 400 ms ISIs, the physiological origin of which are unknown. In four experiments, we recorded auditory brainstem responses with five wave peaks (P1 –P5) in response to acoustic models of communication calls of house mice, who perceived these calls with the mentioned boundaries. The newly introduced measure of average standard deviations of wave latencies of individual animals indicate the waves’ temporal precision (latency jitter) mostly in the range of 30–100 μs, very similar to latency jitter of single neurons. Adaptation effects of response latencies and latency jitter were measured for ISIs of 10–1000 ms. Adaptation decreased with increasing ISI duration following exponential or linear (on a logarithmic scale) functions in the range of up to about 200 ms ISIs. Adaptation effects were specific for each processing level in the auditory system. The perceptual boundaries near 20–30 and 100 ms ISIs were reflected in significant adaptation of latencies together with increases of latency jitter at P2-P5 for ISIs < ~30 ms and at P5 for ISIs < ~100 ms, respectively. Adaptation effects occurred when frequencies in a sound stream were within the same critical band. Ongoing low-frequency components/formants in a sound enhanced (decrease of latencies) coding of high-frequency components/formants when the frequencies concerned different critical bands. The results are discussed in the context of coding multi-harmonic sounds and stop-consonants-vowel pairs in the auditory brainstem. Furthermore, latency data at P1 (cochlea level) offer a reasonable value for the base-to-apex cochlear travel time in the mouse (0.342 ms) that has not been determined experimentally.

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<![CDATA[Brainstem response patterns in deeply-sedated critically-ill patients predict 28-day mortality]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db59ab0ee8fa60bdf0ab

Background and purpose

Deep sedation is associated with acute brain dysfunction and increased mortality. We had previously shown that early-assessed brainstem reflexes may predict outcome in deeply sedated patients. The primary objective was to determine whether patterns of brainstem reflexes might predict mortality in deeply sedated patients. The secondary objective was to generate a score predicting mortality in these patients.

Methods

Observational prospective multicenter cohort study of 148 non-brain injured deeply sedated patients, defined by a Richmond Assessment sedation Scale (RASS) <-3. Brainstem reflexes and Glasgow Coma Scale were assessed within 24 hours of sedation and categorized using latent class analysis. The Full Outline Of Unresponsiveness score (FOUR) was also assessed. Primary outcome measure was 28-day mortality. A “Brainstem Responses Assessment Sedation Score” (BRASS) was generated.

Results

Two distinct sub-phenotypes referred as homogeneous and heterogeneous brainstem reactivity were identified (accounting for respectively 54.6% and 45.4% of patients). Homogeneous brainstem reactivity was characterized by preserved reactivity to nociceptive stimuli and a partial and topographically homogenous depression of brainstem reflexes. Heterogeneous brainstem reactivity was characterized by a loss of reactivity to nociceptive stimuli associated with heterogeneous brainstem reflexes depression. Heterogeneous sub-phenotype was a predictor of increased risk of 28-day mortality after adjustment to Simplified Acute Physiology Score-II (SAPS-II) and RASS (Odds Ratio [95% confidence interval] = 6.44 [2.63–15.8]; p<0.0001) or Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and RASS (OR [95%CI] = 5.02 [2.01–12.5]; p = 0.0005). The BRASS (and marginally the FOUR) predicted 28-day mortality (c-index [95%CI] = 0.69 [0.54–0.84] and 0.65 [0.49–0.80] respectively).

Conclusion

In this prospective cohort study, around half of all deeply sedated critically ill patients displayed an early particular neurological sub-phenotype predicting 28-day mortality, which may reflect a dysfunction of the brainstem.

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<![CDATA[Dynasore blocks evoked release while augmenting spontaneous synaptic transmission from primary visceral afferents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc680

The recycling of vesicle membrane fused during exocytosis is essential to maintaining neurotransmission. The GTPase dynamin is involved in pinching off membrane to complete endocytosis and can be inhibited by dynasore resulting in activity-dependent depletion of release-competent synaptic vesicles. In rat brainstem slices, we examined the effects of dynasore on three different modes of glutamate release–spontaneous, evoked, and asynchronous release–at solitary tract (ST) inputs to neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Intermittent bursts of stimuli to the ST interspersed with pauses in stimulation allowed examination of these three modes in each neuron continuously. Application of 100 μM dynasore rapidly increased the spontaneous EPSC (sEPSC) frequency which was followed by inhibition of both ST-evoked EPSCs (ST-EPSC) as well as asynchronous EPSCs. The onset of ST-EPSC failures was not accompanied by amplitude reduction–a pattern more consistent with conduction block than reduced probability of vesicle release. Neither result suggested that dynasore interrupted endocytosis. The dynasore response profile resembled intense presynaptic TRPV1 activation. The TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine failed to prevent dynasore increases in sEPSC frequency but did prevent the block of the ST-EPSC. In contrast, the TRPV1 antagonist JNJ 17203212 prevented both actions of dynasore in neurons with TRPV1-expressing ST inputs. In a neuron lacking TRPV1-expressing ST inputs, however, dynasore promptly increased sEPSC rate followed by block of ST-evoked EPSCs. Together our results suggest that dynasore actions on ST-NTS transmission are TRPV1-independent and changes in glutamatergic transmission are not consistent with changes in vesicle recycling and endocytosis.

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<![CDATA[Recurrent Inhibition to the Medial Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body in the Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones Unguiculatus)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e4ab0ee8fa60b6abdc

Principal neurons in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) receive strong and temporally precise excitatory input from globular bushy cells in the cochlear nucleus through the calyx of Held. The extremely large synaptic currents produced by the calyx have sometimes led to the view of the MNTB as a simple relay synapse which converts incoming excitation to outgoing inhibition. However, electrophysiological and anatomical studies have shown the additional presence of inhibitory glycinergic currents that are large enough to suppress action potentials in MNTB neurons at least in some cases. The source(s) of glycinergic inhibition to MNTB are not fully understood. One major extrinsic source of glycinergic inhibitory input to MNTB is the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body. However, it has been suggested that MNTB neurons receive additional inhibitory inputs via intrinsic connections (collaterals of glycinergic projections of MNTB neurons). While several authors have postulated their presence, these collaterals have never been examined in detail. Here we test the hypothesis that collaterals of MNTB principal cells provide glycinergic inhibition to the MNTB. We injected dye into single principal neurons in the MNTB, traced their projections, and immunohistochemically identified their synapses. We found that collaterals terminate within the MNTB and provide an additional source of inhibition to other principal cells, creating an inhibitory microcircuit within the MNTB. Only about a quarter to a third of MNTB neurons receive such collateral inputs. This microcircuit could produce side band inhibition and enhance frequency tuning of MNTB neurons, consistent with physiological observations.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of Five Tests for Sensitivity to Functional Deficits following Cervical or Thoracic Dorsal Column Transection in the Rat]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da00ab0ee8fa60b73dcb

The dorsal column lesion model of spinal cord injury targets sensory fibres which originate from the dorsal root ganglia and ascend in the dorsal funiculus. It has the advantages that fibres can be specifically traced from the sciatic nerve, verifiably complete lesions can be performed of the labelled fibres, and it can be used to study sprouting in the central nervous system from the conditioning lesion effect. However, functional deficits from this type of lesion are mild, making assessment of experimental treatment-induced functional recovery difficult. Here, five functional tests were compared for their sensitivity to functional deficits, and hence their suitability to reliably measure recovery of function after dorsal column injury. We assessed the tape removal test, the rope crossing test, CatWalk gait analysis, and the horizontal ladder, and introduce a new test, the inclined rolling ladder. Animals with dorsal column injuries at C4 or T7 level were compared to sham-operated animals for a duration of eight weeks. As well as comparing groups at individual timepoints we also compared the longitudinal data over the whole time course with linear mixed models (LMMs), and for tests where steps are scored as success/error, using generalized LMMs for binomial data. Although, generally, function recovered to sham levels within 2–6 weeks, in most tests we were able to detect significant deficits with whole time-course comparisons. On the horizontal ladder deficits were detected until 5–6 weeks. With the new inclined rolling ladder functional deficits were somewhat more consistent over the testing period and appeared to last for 6–7 weeks. Of the CatWalk parameters base of support was sensitive to cervical and thoracic lesions while hind-paw print-width was affected by cervical lesion only. The inclined rolling ladder test in combination with the horizontal ladder and the CatWalk may prove useful to monitor functional recovery after experimental treatment in this lesion model.

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<![CDATA[Characterization and Correction of Geometric Distortions in 814 Diffusion Weighted Images]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db09ab0ee8fa60bc9506

Introduction

Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI), which is based on Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) protocols, is becoming increasingly important for neurosurgical applications. However, its use in this context is limited in part by significant spatial distortion inherent to EPI.

Method

We evaluated an efficient algorithm for EPI distortion correction (EPIC) across 814 DWI scans from 250 brain tumor patients and quantified the magnitude of geometric distortion for whole brain and multiple brain regions.

Results

Evaluation of the algorithm’s performance revealed significantly higher mutual information between T1-weighted pre-contrast images and corrected b = 0 images than the uncorrected b = 0 images (p < 0.001). The distortion magnitude across all voxels revealed a median EPI distortion effect of 2.1 mm, ranging from 1.2 mm to 5.9 mm, the 5th and 95th percentile, respectively. Regions adjacent to bone-air interfaces, such as the orbitofrontal cortex, temporal poles, and brain stem, were the regions most severely affected by DWI distortion.

Conclusion

Using EPIC to estimate the degree of distortion in 814 DWI brain tumor images enabled the creation of a topographic atlas of DWI distortion across the brain. The degree of displacement of tumors boundaries in uncorrected images is severe but can be corrected for using EPIC. Our results support the use of distortion correction to ensure accurate and careful application of DWI to neurosurgical practice.

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<![CDATA[Neuropathogenicity of Two Saffold Virus Type 3 Isolates in Mouse Models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadeab0ee8fa60bbaf05

Objective

Saffold virus (SAFV), a picornavirus, is occasionally detected in children with acute flaccid paralysis, meningitis, and cerebellitis; however, the neuropathogenicity of SAFV remains undetermined.

Methods

The virulence of two clinical isolates of SAFV type 3 (SAFV-3) obtained from a patient with aseptic meningitis (AM strain) and acute upper respiratory inflammation (UR strain) was analyzed in neonatal and young mice utilizing virological, pathological, and immunological methods.

Results

The polyproteins of the strains differed in eight amino acids. Both clinical isolates were infective, exhibited neurotropism, and were mildly neurovirulent in neonatal ddY mice. Both strains pathologically infected neural progenitor cells and glial cells, but not large neurons, with the UR strain also infecting epithelial cells. UR infection resulted in longer inflammation in the brain and spinal cord because of demyelination, while the AM strain showed more infectivity in the cerebellum in neonatal ddY mice. Additionally, young BALB/c mice seroconverted following mucosal inoculation with the UR, but not the AM, strain.

Conclusions

Both SAFV-3 isolates had neurotropism and mild neurovirulence but showed different cell tropisms in both neonatal and young mouse models. This animal model has the potential to recapitulate the potential neuropathogenicity of SAFV-3.

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<![CDATA[Cerebral Apolipoprotein-D Is Hypoglycosylated Compared to Peripheral Tissues and Is Variably Expressed in Mouse and Human Brain Regions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db43ab0ee8fa60bd794f

Recent studies have shown that cerebral apoD levels increase with age and in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In addition, loss of cerebral apoD in the mouse increases sensitivity to lipid peroxidation and accelerates AD pathology. Very little data are available, however, regarding the expression of apoD protein levels in different brain regions. This is important as both brain lipid peroxidation and neurodegeneration occur in a region-specific manner. Here we addressed this using western blotting of seven different regions (olfactory bulb, hippocampus, frontal cortex, striatum, cerebellum, thalamus and brain stem) of the mouse brain. Our data indicate that compared to most brain regions, the hippocampus is deficient in apoD. In comparison to other major organs and tissues (liver, spleen, kidney, adrenal gland, heart and skeletal muscle), brain apoD was approximately 10-fold higher (corrected for total protein levels). Our analysis also revealed that brain apoD was present at a lower apparent molecular weight than tissue and plasma apoD. Utilising peptide N-glycosidase-F and neuraminidase to remove N-glycans and sialic acids, respectively, we found that N-glycan composition (but not sialylation alone) were responsible for this reduction in molecular weight. We extended the studies to an analysis of human brain regions (hippocampus, frontal cortex, temporal cortex and cerebellum) where we found that the hippocampus had the lowest levels of apoD. We also confirmed that human brain apoD was present at a lower molecular weight than in plasma. In conclusion, we demonstrate apoD protein levels are variable across different brain regions, that apoD levels are much higher in the brain compared to other tissues and organs, and that cerebral apoD has a lower molecular weight than peripheral apoD; a phenomenon that is due to the N-glycan content of the protein.

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<![CDATA[640-Slice CT Measurement of Superior Orbital Fissure as Gateway for Light into the Brain: Statistical Evaluation of Area and Distance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4bab0ee8fa60bda3ed

Objective

Our aim was to provide normative data concerning superior orbital fissure area (SOFA), ocular skin and the substantia nigra (D-SS) and orbital fissure and the substantia nigra (D-SOF-S) distances by CT scan in adult Caucasian population

Methods

The area of the superior orbital fissure (SOF), the distance between the ocular skin and the substantia nigra and the distance between the superior orbital fissure and the substantia nigra using CT and 3D-CT images.

Results

Normative data stratified for age and gender were obtained. The data here reported show that some degree of variability in SOFA, D-SS and D-SOF-S measurements can be observed healthy Caucasian subjects. Gender stratified prediction intervals (mean +/- 2 Standard Deviations) for SOFA and D-SOF-S were 69.2 (+/-15.8) and 38.4 (+/-7.6) for male and 56.8 (+/-11.9) and 36.5 (+/-6.1) for female, respectively. Age and gender significantly impacted on D-SS values and normative data were constructed generating data stratified for these two variables. D-SS was 89.4 (+/-10.3) and 86.4 (+/-9.7) for male and female, respectively.

Conclusions

Here we provide adjunctive anatomical information on specific anatomical cerebral zones. Our data may have implications for surgeons actively committed to treat pathological conditions involving these cerebral areas. Additionally, the anatomical variability found with respect to SOF and the potential different exposure of the substanzia nigra to the bright light could play a role in Parkinson’s disease as already speculated in literature.

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<![CDATA[Identification of a Divergent Lineage Porcine Pestivirus in Nursing Piglets with Congenital Tremors and Reproduction of Disease following Experimental Inoculation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db14ab0ee8fa60bccc82

Congenital tremors is a sporadic disease of neonatal pigs characterized by action-related repetitive myoclonus. A majority of outbreaks of congenital tremors have been attributed to an unidentified virus. The objectives of this project were to 1) detect potential pathogen(s) in samples from piglets with congenital tremors and 2) develop an infection model to reproduce disease. Using next-generation sequencing, a divergent lineage pestivirus was detected in piglets with congenital tremors. The virus was originally most closely related to a bat pestivirus but is now more closely related to a recently published novel porcine pestivirus provisionally named atypical porcine pestivirus. A quantitative real-time PCR detected the virus in samples from neonatal piglets with congenital tremors from two separate farms, but not in samples from unaffected piglets from the same farm. To fulfill the second objective, pregnant sows were inoculated with either serum containing the pestivirus or PBS (control) by intravenous and intranasal routes simultaneously with direct inoculation of fetal amniotic vesicles by ultrasound-guided surgical technique. Inoculations were performed at either 45 or 62 days of gestation. All sows inoculated with the novel pestivirus farrowed piglets affected with congenital tremors while PBS-inoculated control piglets were unaffected. Tremor severity for each piglet was scored from videos taken 0, 1 and 2 days post-farrowing. Tremor severity remained relatively constant from 0 to 2 days post-farrowing for a majority of piglets. The prevalence of congenital tremors in pestivirus-inoculated litters ranged from 57% (4 out of 7 affected piglets) to 100% (10 out of 10 affected piglets). The virus was consistently detected by PCR in tissues from piglets with congenital tremors but was not detected in control piglets. Samples positive by PCR in greater than 90% of piglets sampled included brainstem (37 out of 41), mesenteric lymph node (37 out of 41), tracheobronchial lymph node (37 out of 41), and whole blood (19 out of 20). Although the first description of congenital tremors was in 1922, this is the first reported reproduction of congenital tremors following experimental inoculation with a divergent lineage porcine pestivirus. Studies investigating disease mechanism, epidemiology, and diagnostic assay development are needed to better understand the pathophysiology of congenital tremors due to this pestivirus.

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<![CDATA[Intra-Arterially Delivered Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are Not Detected in the Brain Parenchyma in an Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da41ab0ee8fa60b8a265

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a promising role as a therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Prior studies suggested that intra-arterially administered MSCs are engrafted into the brain in stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) animal models. However, a controversial standpoint exists in terms of the integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB) in transgenic AD mice. The primary goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of delivering human umbilical cord-blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) into the brains of non-transgenic WT (C3H/C57) and transgenic AD (APP/PS1) mice through the intra-arterial (IA) route. Through two experiments, mice were infused with hUCB-MSCs via the right internal carotid artery and were sacrificed at two different time points: 6 hours (experiment 1) or 5 minutes (experiment 2) after infusion. In both experiments, no cells were detected in the brain parenchyma while MSCs were detected in the cerebrovasculature in experiment 2. The results from this study highlight that intra-arterial delivery of MSCs is not the most favorable route to be implemented as a potential therapeutic approach for AD.

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<![CDATA[Functional Plasticity after Unilateral Vestibular Midbrain Infarction in Human Positron Emission Tomography]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e8ab0ee8fa60b6bea1

The aim of the study was to uncover mechanisms of central compensation of vestibular function at brainstem, cerebellar, and cortical levels in patients with acute unilateral midbrain infarctions presenting with an acute vestibular tone imbalance. Eight out of 17 patients with unilateral midbrain infarctions were selected on the basis of signs of a vestibular tone imbalance, e.g., graviceptive (tilts of perceived verticality) and oculomotor dysfunction (skew deviation, ocular torsion) in F18-fluordeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET at two time points: A) in the acute stage, and B) after recovery 6 months later. Lesion-behavior mapping analyses with MRI verified the exact structural lesion sites. Group subtraction analyses and comparisons with healthy controls were performed with Statistic Parametric Mapping for the PET data. A comparison of PET A of acute-stage patients with that of healthy controls showed increases in glucose metabolism in the cerebellum, motion-sensitive visual cortex areas, and inferior temporal lobe, but none in vestibular cortex areas. At the supratentorial level bilateral signal decreases dominated in the thalamus, frontal eye fields, and anterior cingulum. These decreases persisted after clinical recovery in contrast to the increases. The transient activations can be attributed to ocular motor and postural recovery (cerebellum) and sensory substitution of vestibular function for motion perception (visual cortex). The persisting deactivation in the thalamic nuclei and frontal eye fields allows alternative functional interpretations of the thalamic nuclei: either a disconnection of ascending sensory input occurs or there is a functional mismatch between expected and actual vestibular activity. Our data support the view that both thalami operate separately for each hemisphere but receive vestibular input from ipsilateral and contralateral midbrain integration centers. Normally they have gatekeeper functions for multisensory input to the cortex and automatic motor output to subserve balance and locomotion, as well as sensorimotor integration.

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<![CDATA[CO2-Induced ATP-Dependent Release of Acetylcholine on the Ventral Surface of the Medulla Oblongata]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae5ab0ee8fa60bbd0b4

Complex mechanisms that detect changes in brainstem parenchymal PCO2/[H+] and trigger adaptive changes in lung ventilation are responsible for central respiratory CO2 chemosensitivity. Previous studies of chemosensory signalling pathways suggest that at the level of the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata (VMS), CO2-induced changes in ventilation are (at least in part) mediated by the release and actions of ATP and/or acetylcholine (ACh). Here we performed simultaneous real-time biosensor recordings of CO2-induced ATP and ACh release from the VMS in vivo and in vitro, to test the hypothesis that central respiratory CO2 chemosensory transduction involves simultaneous recruitment of purinergic and cholinergic signalling pathways. In anaesthetised and artificially ventilated rats, an increase in inspired CO2 triggered ACh release on the VMS with a peak amplitude of ~5 μM. Release of ACh was only detected after the onset of CO2-induced activation of the respiratory activity and was markedly reduced (by ~70%) by ATP receptor blockade. In horizontal slices of the VMS, CO2-induced release of ATP was reliably detected, whereas CO2 or bath application of ATP (100 μM) failed to trigger release of ACh. These results suggest that during hypercapnia locally produced ATP induces or potentiates the release of ACh (likely from the medullary projections of distal groups of cholinergic neurones), which may also contribute to the development and/or maintenance of the ventilatory response to CO2.

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<![CDATA[Heritability of brain volume on MRI in middle to advanced age: A twin study of Japanese adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc55d

Brain atrophy is part of the aging process and accelerated by neurodegenerative diseases, so an understanding of the background heritability of brain volume is essential. The purpose of this study was to determine the heritability of brain volume in middle to advanced age East Asian adults, an age group less studied and an ethnicity not previously studied. 3T magnetic resonance images were obtained and volumetric analyses conducted for a total of 74 individuals, 20 monozygotic twin pairs (mean age 61y min 41y max 75y) and 17 dizygotic twin pairs (mean age 64y min 41y max 85y). Total brain volume and a further seven regions were assessed, including lobar volumes, lateral divisions, and separated grey and white matter. Additive genetics and unique environment (AE) models for global brain volumes including total brain (90%), grey matter (91%) and white matter (84%) and many lobar volumes demonstrated high heritability in our study population. Our results present the heritability of brain volume in middle to advanced age as possibly higher in East Asian adults.

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<![CDATA[Von Willebrand Factor Gene Variants Associate with Herpes simplex Encephalitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daecab0ee8fa60bbf88a

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare complication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 infection. It results in severe parenchymal damage in the brain. Although viral latency in neurons is very common in the population, it remains unclear why certain individuals develop HSE. Here we explore potential host genetic variants predisposing to HSE. In order to investigate this we used a rat HSE model comparing the HSE susceptible SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) with the asymptomatic infection of BN (Brown Norway). Notably, both strains have HSV-1 spread to the CNS at four days after infection. A genome wide linkage analysis of 29 infected HXB/BXH RILs (recombinant inbred lines—generated from the prior two strains), displayed variable susceptibility to HSE enabling the definition of a significant QTL (quantitative trait locus) named Hse6 towards the end of chromosome 4 (160.89–174Mb) containing the Vwf (von Willebrand factor) gene. This was the only gene in the QTL with both cis-regulation in the brain and included several non-synonymous SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism). Intriguingly, in human chromosome 12 several SNPs within the intronic region between exon 43 and 44 of the VWF gene were associated with human HSE pathogenesis. In particular, rs917859 is nominally associated with an odds ratio of 1.5 (95% CI 1.11–2.02; p-value = 0.008) after genotyping in 115 HSE cases and 428 controls. Although there are possibly several genetic and environmental factors involved in development of HSE, our study identifies variants of the VWF gene as candidates for susceptibility in experimental and human HSE.

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<![CDATA[A Novel Extracellular Hsp90 Mediated Co-Receptor Function for LRP1 Regulates EphA2 Dependent Glioblastoma Cell Invasion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db33ab0ee8fa60bd256a

Background

Extracellular Hsp90 protein (eHsp90) potentiates cancer cell motility and invasion through a poorly understood mechanism involving ligand mediated function with its cognate receptor LRP1. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) represents one of the most aggressive and lethal brain cancers. The receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 is overexpressed in the majority of GBM specimens and is a critical mediator of GBM invasiveness through its AKT dependent activation of EphA2 at S897 (P-EphA2S897). We explored whether eHsp90 may confer invasive properties to GBM via regulation of EphA2 mediated signaling.

Principal Findings

We find that eHsp90 signaling is essential for sustaining AKT activation, P-EphA2S897, lamellipodia formation, and concomitant GBM cell motility and invasion. Furthermore, eHsp90 promotes the recruitment of LRP1 to EphA2 in an AKT dependent manner. A finding supported by biochemical methodology and the dual expression of LRP1 and P-EphA2S897 in primary and recurrent GBM tumor specimens. Moreover, hypoxia mediated facilitation of GBM motility and invasion is dependent upon eHsp90-LRP1 signaling. Hypoxia dramatically elevated surface expression of both eHsp90 and LRP1, concomitant with eHsp90 dependent activation of src, AKT, and EphA2.

Significance

We herein demonstrate a novel crosstalk mechanism involving eHsp90-LRP1 dependent regulation of EphA2 function. We highlight a dual role for eHsp90 in transducing signaling via LRP1, and in facilitating LRP1 co-receptor function for EphA2. Taken together, our results demonstrate activation of the eHsp90-LRP1 signaling axis as an obligate step in the initiation and maintenance of AKT signaling and EphA2 activation, thereby implicating this pathway as an integral component contributing to the aggressive nature of GBM.

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