ResearchPad - brief https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Improved reperfusion following alternative surgical approach for experimental stroke in mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13798 Background: Following ischemic stroke, recanalisation and restoration of blood flow to the affected area of the brain is critical and directly correlates with patient recovery.  In vivo models of ischemic stroke show high variability in outcomes, which may be due to variability in reperfusion.  We previously reported that a surgical refinement in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of stroke, via repair of the common carotid artery (CCA), removes the reliance on the Circle of Willis for reperfusion and reduced infarct variability.  Here we further assess this refined surgical approach on reperfusion characteristics following transient MCAO in mice.

Methods: Mice underwent 60 min of MCAO, followed by either CCA repair or ligation at reperfusion.  All mice underwent laser speckle contrast imaging at baseline, 24 h and 48 h post-MCAO.

Results: CCA ligation reduced cerebral perfusion in the ipsilateral hemisphere compared to baseline (102.3 ± 4.57%) at 24 h (85.13 ± 16.09%; P < 0.01) and 48 h (75.04 ± 12.954%; P < 0.001) post-MCAO. Repair of the CCA returned perfusion to baseline (94.152 ± 2.44%) levels and perfusion was significantly improved compared to CCA ligation at both 24 h (102.83 ± 8.41%; P < 0.05) and 48 h (102.13 ± 9.34%; P < 0.001) post-MCAO.

Conclusions: Our findings show CCA repair, an alternative surgical approach for MCAO, results in improved ischemic hemisphere perfusion during the acute phase.

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<![CDATA[Protocols, Personal Protective Equipment Use, and Psychological/Financial Stressors in Endoscopy Units During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Large Survey of Hospital-Based and Ambulatory Endoscopy Centers in the United States]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13536 <![CDATA[Yield and Implications of Pre-Procedural COVID-19 Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing on Routine Endoscopic Practice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13535 <![CDATA[China’s ‘mask diplomacy’ to change the COVID-19 narrative in Europe]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13504 <![CDATA[Rapprochement amid readjustment: how China sees issues and trends in its changing relationship with the EU]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13499 The EU-China relationship is entering a period of readjustment. On the one hand, the US-China trade war has forced China to seek closer alignment with the EU, and on the other hand, the EU has chosen a more proactive approach to tame China’s global and regional assertiveness. The European readjustment has been particularly noticeable in areas like connectivity, investment and 5G. China has noticed the European change of attitude and relates it to European uncertainties and misinterpretation of China’s development. While the new European leadership was supposed to meet their Chinese counterparts in 2020 and work out a new modus operandi, the global coronavirus pandemic has exacerbated underlying tensions in the relationship. A comprehensive deepening of the EU-China strategic partnership looks unlikely and cooperation is expected to be increasingly selective.

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<![CDATA[Colchicine’s effects on metabolic and inflammatory molecules in adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome: results from a pilot randomized controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13318 Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that colchicine may have metabolic and cardiovascular and benefits in at-risk patients; however, the mechanisms through which colchicine may improve outcomes are still unclear. We sought to examine colchicine’s effects on circulating inflammatory and metabolic molecules in adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS).MethodsBlood samples were collected pre- and post-intervention during a double-blind randomized controlled trial in which 40 adults with obesity and MetS were randomized to colchicine 0.6 mg or placebo twice-daily for 3 months. Serum samples were analyzed for 1305 circulating factors using the SomaScan Platform. The Benjamini–Hochberg procedure was used to adjust the false discovery rate (FDR) for multiple testing.ResultsAt baseline, age (48.0 ± 13.8 vs. 44.7 ± 10.3 years) and BMI (39.8 ± 6.4 vs. 41.8 ± 8.2 kg/m2) were not different between groups. After controlling for the FDR, 34 molecules were significantly changed by colchicine. Colchicine decreased concentrations of multiple inflammatory molecules, including C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and resistin, in addition to vascular-related proteins (e.g., oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor, phosphodiesterase 5A). Conversely, relative to placebo, colchicine significantly increased concentrations of eight molecules including secreted factors associated with metabolism and anti-thrombosis.ConclusionsIn adults with obesity, colchicine significantly affected concentrations of proteins involved in the innate immune system, endothelial function and atherosclerosis, uncovering new mechanisms behind its cardiometabolic effects. Further research is warranted to investigate whether colchicine’s IL-6 suppressive effects may be beneficial in COVID-19. ]]> <![CDATA[Unlike Many Disease Resistances, Rx1-Mediated Immunity to Potato Virus X Is Not Compromised at Elevated Temperatures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13087 Specificity in the plant immune system is mediated by Resistance (R) proteins. Most R genes encode intracellular NLR-type immune receptors and these pathogen sensors require helper NLRs to activate immune signaling upon pathogen perception. Resistance conferred by many R genes is temperature sensitive and compromised above 28°C. Many Solanaceae R genes, including the potato NLR Rx1 conferring resistance to Potato Virus X (PVX), have been reported to be temperature labile. Rx1 activity, like many Solanaceae NLRs, depends on helper-NLRs called NRC’s. In this study, we investigated Rx1 resistance at elevated temperatures in potato and in Nicotiana benthamiana plants stably expressing Rx1 upon rub-inoculation with GFP-expressing PVX particles. In parallel, we used susceptible plants as a control to assess infectiousness of PVX at a range of different temperatures. Surprisingly, we found that Rx1 confers virus resistance in N. benthamiana up to 32°C, a temperature at which the PVX::GFP lost infectiousness. Furthermore, at 34°C, an Rx1-mediated hypersensitive response could still be triggered in N. benthamiana upon PVX Coat-Protein overexpression. As the Rx1-immune signaling pathway is not temperature compromised, this implies that at least one N. benthamiana helper NRC and its downstream signaling components are temperature tolerant. This finding suggests that the temperature sensitivity for Solanaceous resistances is likely attributable to the sensor NLR and not to its downstream signaling components.

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<![CDATA[Genetic Variability of 3′-Proximal Region of Genomes of Orf Viruses Isolated From Sheep and Wild Japanese Serows (<i>Capricornis crispus</i>) in Japan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13015 Orf virus is a prototype species of the genus Parapoxvirus, subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, family Poxviridae. Japanese orf viruses, infecting sheep and wild Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus), have been considered to be genetically closely related based on the sequence identities of the open reading frames (ORFs) 11, 20, and 132 in their genomes. However, since the genome size of orf viruses is about 140 kbp long, genetic variation among Japanese orf viruses remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the sequences of ORFs 117, 119, 125, and 127 located in the 3′-proximal region of the viral genome using two strains from sheep and three strains from Japanese serows isolated from 1970 to 2007, and compared them with the corresponding sequences of reference orf viruses from other countries. Sequence analysis revealed that ORFs 125 and 127, which encode the inhibitor of apoptosis and viral interleukin (IL)-10, respectively, were highly conserved among the five Japanese orf viruses. However, high genetic variability with deletions or duplications was observed in ORFs 117 and 119, which encode granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-2 inhibition factor (GIF), and inducer of cell apoptosis, respectively, in one strain from sheep and two strains from Japanese serows. Our results suggest that genetic variability exists in Japanese orf viruses even in the same host species. This is the first report of genetic variability of orf viruses in Japan.

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<![CDATA[Telemedicine Facilitation of Transfer Coordination From Emergency Departments]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13006 Interhospital transfers are costly to patients and to the health care system. The use of telemedicine may enable more efficient systems by decreasing transfers or diverting transfers from crowded referral emergency departments (EDs) to alternative appropriate facilities. Our primary objective is to describe the prevalence of telemedicine for transfer coordination among US EDs, the ways in which it is used, and characteristics of EDs that use telemedicine for transfer coordination.MethodsWe used the 2016 National Emergency Department Inventory–USA survey to identify telemedicine-using EDs. We then surveyed all EDs using telemedicine for transfer coordination and a sample of EDs using telemedicine for other clinical applications. We used a multivariable logistic regression model to identify characteristics independently associated with use of telemedicine for transfer coordination.ResultsOf the 5,375 EDs open in 2016, 4,507 responded to National Emergency Department Inventory–USA (84%). Only 146 EDs used telemedicine for transfer coordination; of these, 79 (54%) used telemedicine to assist with clinical care for local admission, 117 (80%) to assist with care before transfer, and 92 (63%) for arranging transfer to a different hospital. Among telemedicine-using EDs, lower ED annual visit volume (odds ratio 5.87, 95% CI 2.79 to 12.36) was independently associated with use of telemedicine for transfer coordination.ConclusionAlthough telemedicine has potential to improve efficiency of regional emergency care systems, it is infrequently used for coordination of transfer between EDs. When used, it is most often to assist with clinical care before transfer. ]]> <![CDATA[Vancomycin-Nonsusceptible Enterococci Mediated by <i>vanC</i> at a Large Children’s Hospital: Prevalence, Susceptibility, and Impact on Care of Enterococcal Bacteremia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12653 Enterococcus gallinarum and casseliflavus have inherent vancomycin resistance and, though known as pathogens, have not been well characterized in pediatric patients. We identified a significant prevalence of these enterococcal species among immunocompromised patients at a large pediatric institution and describe the impact on patient care, antibiotic stewardship, and infection control.

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<![CDATA[Clinical features and outcomes of HIV patients with coronavirus disease 2019]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12488 Little is known about the clinical outcomes of HIV patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. We describe 47 patients referred to our hospital between 21 February and 16 April 2020 with proven/probable COVID-19, 45 (96%) of whom fully recovered and two died.

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<![CDATA[COVID-19: The New Caledonia experience]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12445 New Caledonia is a French associated territory in the South Pacific Ocean. While COVID-19 is expanding over the world, we seem to be well preserved with a total of 18 documented cases. We report the measures implemented on our island that probably helped containing an epidemic spread.

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<![CDATA[Hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients: what still needs to be known about the kinetics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12432 Different dosage regimens of hydroxychloroquine are used to manage COVID-19 patients, without information on the pharmacokinetics in this population.Blood samples (n=101) were collected from 57 COVID-19 patients for 7 days and concentrations were compared with simulated kinetic profiles.Hydroxychloroquine exposure is low and cannot be predicted by other populations.

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<![CDATA[An Inflammatory Profile Correlates With Decreased Frequency of Cytotoxic Cells in Coronavirus Disease 2019]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12427 Increased production of inflammatory cytokines and myeloid-derived suppressor cells occurs in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. These inversely correlated with perforin-expressing natural killer (NK) and CD3+ T cells. We observed a lower number of perforin-expressing NK cells in intensive care unit (ICU) patients compared with non-ICU patients, suggesting an impairment of the immune cytotoxic arm as a pathogenic mechanism.

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<![CDATA[SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 expression in the human heart: cause of a post-pandemic wave of heart failure?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12410 <![CDATA[T cell subset counts in peripheral blood can be used as discriminatory biomarkers for diagnosis and severity prediction of COVID-19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12358 This study evaluated the significance of lymphocyte subsets detection in peripheral blood in the diagnosis and prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Our results revealed that CD3+T, CD4+T, CD8+T cells and NK cells were significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients had a relatively slight decrease in CD4+T cells but a severe decrease of CD8+T cells. The significantly elevated CD4/CD8 ratio was observed in COVID-19 patients. T cell subset counts were related to the severity and prognosis of COVID-19. The counts of CD8+T and CD4+T cells can be used as diagnostic markers of COVID-19 and predictors of disease severity.

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<![CDATA[Clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in Japan: a single-center case series]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12319 We report a case series of 6 patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Wakayama prefecture, Japan. All 6 of the patients tested positive in pharyngeal swab PCR tests, and 2 of the 6 were still positive at 3 weeks after onset. All of the patients exhibited bilateral ground glass opacities (GGO) on computed tomography (CT). This paper also reports narrative information on the spectrum of symptoms collected directly from the patients. It would be difficult to triage patients with COVID-19 based on the typical symptoms of fever and/or cough, although PCR and CT are definitive in diagnosis.

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<![CDATA[TREC-COVID: rationale and structure of an information retrieval shared task for COVID-19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12285 TREC-COVID is an information retrieval (IR) shared task initiated to support clinicians and clinical research during the COVID-19 pandemic. IR for pandemics breaks many normal assumptions, which can be seen by examining 9 important basic IR research questions related to pandemic situations. TREC-COVID differs from traditional IR shared task evaluations with special considerations for the expected users, IR modality considerations, topic development, participant requirements, assessment process, relevance criteria, evaluation metrics, iteration process, projected timeline, and the implications of data use as a post-task test collection. This article describes how all these were addressed for the particular requirements of developing IR systems under a pandemic situation. Finally, initial participation numbers are also provided, which demonstrate the tremendous interest the IR community has in this effort.

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<![CDATA[Kinetic Cytokine Secretion Profile of LPS-Induced Inflammation in the Human Skin Organ Culture]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12002 Several in vitro models that mimic different aspects of local skin inflammation exist. The use of ex vivo human skin organ culture (HSOC) has been reported previously. However, comprehensive evaluation of the cytokine secretory capacity of the system and its kinetics has not been performed. Objective: the aim of the current study was to investigate the levels and secretion pattern of key cytokine from human skin tissue upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. HSOC maintained in an air–liquid interface was used. Epidermal and tissue viability was monitored by MTT and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) activity assay, respectively. Cytokine levels were examined by ELISA and multiplex array. HSOCs were treated without or with three different LPS subtypes and the impact on IL-6 and IL-8 secretion was evaluated. The compounds enhanced the secreted levels of both cytokines. However, differences were observed in their efficacy and potency. Next, a kinetic multiplex analysis was performed on LPS-stimulated explants taken from three different donors to evaluate the cytokine secretion pattern during 0–72 h post-induction. The results revealed that the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNFα and IL-1β were up-regulated by LPS stimuli. IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was also induced by LPS, but exhibited a different secretion pattern, peak time and maximal stimulation values. IL-1α and IL-15 showed donor-specific changes. Lastly, dexamethasone attenuated cytokine secretion in five independent repetitions, supporting the ability of the system to be used for drug screening. The collective results demonstrate that several cytokines can be used as valid inflammatory markers, regardless of changes in the secretion levels due to donor’s specific alterations.

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<![CDATA[Human Spotted Fever Group <i>Rickettsia</i> Infecting Yaks (<i>Bos grunniens</i>) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Area]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12000 The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Area (QTPA) is a plateau with the highest average altitude, located in Northwestern China. There is a risk for interspecies disease transmission, such as spotted fever rickettsioses. However, information on the molecular characteristics of the spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. in the area is limited. This study performed screenings, and detected the DNA of human pathogen, SFG Rickettsia spp., with 11.3% (25/222) infection rates in yaks (Bos grunniens). BLASTn analysis revealed that the Rickettsia sequences obtained shared 94.3–100% identity with isolates of Rickettsia spp. from ticks in China. One Rickettsia sequence (MN536161) had 100% nucleotide identity to two R. raoultii isolates from Chinese Homo sapiens, and one isolate from Qinghai Dermacentor silvarum. Meanwhile, another Rickettsia sequence (MN536157) shared 99.1–99.5% identity to one isolate from Dermacentor spp. in China. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis of SFG Rickettsia spp. ompA gene revealed that these two sequences obtained from yaks in the present study grouped with the R. slovaca and R. raoultii clades with isolates identified from Dermacentor spp. and Homo sapiens. Our findings showed the first evidence of human pathogen DNA, SFG Rickettsia spp., from animals, in the QTPA.

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