ResearchPad - brief-communication https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Protocols, Personal Protective Equipment Use, and Psychological/Financial Stressors in Endoscopy Units During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Large Survey of Hospital-Based and Ambulatory Endoscopy Centers in the United States]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13536 <![CDATA[Yield and Implications of Pre-Procedural COVID-19 Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing on Routine Endoscopic Practice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13535 <![CDATA[Colchicine’s effects on metabolic and inflammatory molecules in adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome: results from a pilot randomized controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13318 Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that colchicine may have metabolic and cardiovascular and benefits in at-risk patients; however, the mechanisms through which colchicine may improve outcomes are still unclear. We sought to examine colchicine’s effects on circulating inflammatory and metabolic molecules in adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS).MethodsBlood samples were collected pre- and post-intervention during a double-blind randomized controlled trial in which 40 adults with obesity and MetS were randomized to colchicine 0.6 mg or placebo twice-daily for 3 months. Serum samples were analyzed for 1305 circulating factors using the SomaScan Platform. The Benjamini–Hochberg procedure was used to adjust the false discovery rate (FDR) for multiple testing.ResultsAt baseline, age (48.0 ± 13.8 vs. 44.7 ± 10.3 years) and BMI (39.8 ± 6.4 vs. 41.8 ± 8.2 kg/m2) were not different between groups. After controlling for the FDR, 34 molecules were significantly changed by colchicine. Colchicine decreased concentrations of multiple inflammatory molecules, including C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and resistin, in addition to vascular-related proteins (e.g., oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor, phosphodiesterase 5A). Conversely, relative to placebo, colchicine significantly increased concentrations of eight molecules including secreted factors associated with metabolism and anti-thrombosis.ConclusionsIn adults with obesity, colchicine significantly affected concentrations of proteins involved in the innate immune system, endothelial function and atherosclerosis, uncovering new mechanisms behind its cardiometabolic effects. Further research is warranted to investigate whether colchicine’s IL-6 suppressive effects may be beneficial in COVID-19. ]]> <![CDATA[SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 expression in the human heart: cause of a post-pandemic wave of heart failure?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12410 <![CDATA[Sestrin2 Mediates IL-4-induced IgE Class Switching by Enhancing Germline ε Transcription in B Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11111 Sestrin2 (Sesn2), a metabolic regulator, accumulates in response to a diverse array of cellular stresses. Sesn2 regulates cellular metabolism by inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 through the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Recently, researchers reported that Sesn2 regulates the differentiation and function of innate immune cells and T cells; however, the role of Sesn2 in B cells is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of Sesn2 in Ig class switching and Ig production in mouse B cells. We observed that mouse B cells express Sesn2 mRNA. Interestingly, the expression of germline ε transcripts (GLTε) was selectively decreased in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Sesn2−/− splenocytes. Overexpression of Sesn2 increased GLTε promoter activity in B cells. In addition, AICAR (an activator of AMPK) selectively increased IL-4-induced GLTε expression and surface IgE (sIgE) expression in splenocytes. Furthermore, AICAR selectively enhanced IL-4-induced GLTε expression, sIgE expression, and IgE production by anti-CD40-stimulated B cells. We observed that ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgE concentration was reduced in OVA-challenged Sesn2−/− mice. Taken together, these results indicate that Sesn2-AMPK signaling selectively enhances IL-4-induced IgE class switching and IgE production by B cells, suggesting that this could be a therapeutic strategy targeting Sesn2 in IgE-mediated allergic diseases.

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<![CDATA[Ivermectin, antiviral properties and COVID-19: a possible new mechanism of action]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11102 Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug that has shown also an effective pharmacological activity towards various infective agents, including viruses. This paper proposes an alternative mechanism of action for this drug that makes it capable of having an antiviral action, also against the novel coronavirus, in addition to the processes already reported in literature.

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<![CDATA[Behavioral economics in the time of coronavirus: rebellion or “willful ignorance” in the face of “grand challenges”]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10758 This article considers the curious case of human behavior in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. We have observed that individuals, societies, and nations are exhibiting various irrationalities that are worth studying more closely. Applying the insights and research of reputed behavioral economists to these unprecedented circumstances, we explore possible explanations for individual and collective actions that appear, in many cases, to be highly counterintuitive. In the face of large-scale global issues, that Lazaric (2020) refers to as “grand challenges,” fraught with uncertainties and informational asymmetries, we delve deeper into the complexities of the factors that influence decision-making at various levels as we try to make sense of behavior. We wonder if reasons include the outright rejection of facts or perhaps the unwillingness to even receive information that has the potential adversely affect one’s welfare or self-interests—a tendency that Grossman and Van Der Weele (2017) term “willful ignorance.” We conclude with a few lessons and recommendations that can help understand and motivate behavior.

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<![CDATA[A Structured Approach for Safely Reintroducing Bariatric Surgery in a COVID-19 Environment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10721 Due to the profound effect of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on healthcare systems, surgical programs across the country have paused surgical operations and have been utilizing virtual visits to help maintain public safety. For those who treat obesity, the importance of bariatric surgery has never been more clear. Emerging studies continue to identify obesity and several other obesity-related comorbid conditions as major risk factors for a more severe COVID-19 disease course. However, this also suggests that patients seeking bariatric surgery are inherently at risk of suffering severe complications if they were to contract COVID-19 in the perioperative period. The aim of this protocol is to utilize careful analysis of existing risk stratification for bariatric patients, novel COVID-19-related data, and consensus opinion from multiple academic bariatric centers within our organization to help guide the reanimation of our programs when appropriate and to use this template to prospectively study this risk-stratified population in real time. The core principles of this protocol can be applied to any surgical specialty.

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<![CDATA[Molecular tumour boards and molecular diagnostics for patients with cancer in the Netherlands: experiences, challenges, and aspirations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8471 Advances in molecular tumour diagnostics and the number of targeted therapies increase rapidly. Molecular tumour boards (MTBs) are designated to interpret these data and provide clinical recommendations. Not all patients with cancer have access to advice of an MTB. We aimed to determine the current status, opportunities, and challenges of the organisation of MTBs in the Netherlands. We interviewed several stakeholders about their experiences with an MTB, using template analysis. Most clinicians and patient representatives underscore the significance of an MTB, because it can stimulate rational treatment options, enrolment in clinical trials, and interdisciplinary knowledge transfer. Health insurance companies and financial managers are concerned about increasing costs. Registries to assess the clinical benefit of MTBs, guidelines on quality control, financial agreements, and logistical resources are lacking. The national organisation of MTBs and a registry of molecular and clinical data are important issues to address.

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<![CDATA[Effect of the Coronavirus 2019 Pandemic on Outcomes for Patients Admitted With Gastrointestinal Bleeding in New York City]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8102 <![CDATA[Assessment of Low‐Frequency Magnetic Fields Emitted by DC Fast Charging Columns]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7138 The expected imminent widespread use of electromobility in transport systems draws attention to the possible effects of human exposure to magnetic fields generated inside electric vehicles and during their recharge. The current trend is to increase the capacity of the battery inside the vehicles to extend the available driving range and to increase the power of recharging columns to reduce the time required for a full recharge. This leads to higher currents and potentially stronger magnetic fields. The Interoperability Center of the Joint Research Center started an experimental activity focused on the assessment of low‐frequency magnetic fields emitted by five fast‐charging devices available on the market in recharge and standby conditions. The aim of this study was to contribute to the development of a standard measurement procedure for the assessment of magnetic fields emitted by direct current charging columns. The spectrum and amplitudes of the magnetic field, as well as exposure indices according to guidelines for the general public and occupational exposure, were recorded by means of a magnetic field probe analyzer. The worst‐case scenario for instantaneous physical direct and indirect effects was identified. Measurements within the frequency range of 25 Hz–2 kHz revealed localized magnetic flux density peaks above 100 μT at the 50 Hz frequency in three out of five chargers, registered in close proximity during the recharge. Beyond this distance, exposure indices were recorded showing values below 50% of reference levels. Bioelectromagnetics. 2020;41:308–317 © 2020 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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<![CDATA[Focal and generalized seizure activity after local hippocampal or cortical ablation of Na<sub>V</sub>1.1 channels in mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6713 Early onset seizures are a hallmark of Dravet syndrome. Previous studies in rodent models have shown that the epileptic phenotype is caused by loss‐of‐function of voltage‐gated NaV1.1 sodium channels, which are chiefly expressed in γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons. Recently, a possibly critical role has been attributed to the hippocampus in the seizure phenotype, as local hippocampal ablation of NaV1.1 channels decreased the threshold for hyperthermia‐induced seizures. However, the effect of ablation of NaV1.1 channels restricted to cortical sites has not been tested. Here we studied local field potential (LFP) and behavior in mice following local hippocampal and cortical ablation of Scn1a, a gene encoding the α1 subunit of NaV1.1 channels, and we compared seizure characteristics with those of heterozygous global knockout Scn1‐/+ mice. We found a high incidence of spontaneous seizures following either local hippocampal or cortical ablation, notably during a transient time window, similar to Scn1a‐/+ mice. Nonconvulsive seizure activity in the injected area was common and preceded generalized seizures. Moreover, mice were susceptible to hyperthermia‐induced seizures. In conclusion, local ablation of NaV1.1 channels in the hippocampus and cortex results in focal seizure activity that can generalize. These data indicate that spontaneous epileptic activity may initiate in multiple brain regions in Dravet syndrome.

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<![CDATA[Association between <i>ALDH2</i> Polymorphism and Gastric Cancer Risk in a Korean Population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3f22849a-687c-445c-828d-295dd5d9915e

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<![CDATA[Human Intestinal Defensin 5 Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Invasion by Cloaking ACE2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne4d309b4-2e46-4a0e-94e8-d0447ca9d303 <![CDATA[Cardiothoracic robotic assisted surgery in times of COVID-19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9cc39096-ce36-4890-ac91-7a10990706fb The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses an immense threat to healthcare systems worldwide. At a time when elective surgeries are being suspended and questions are being raised about how the remaining procedures on COVID-19 positive patients can be performed safely, it is important to consider the potential role of robotic assisted surgery within the current pandemic. Recently, several robotic assisted surgery societies have issued their recommendations. To date, however, no specific recommendations are available for cardiothoracic robotic assisted surgery in COVID-19 positive patients. Here, we discuss the potential risks, benefits, and preventive measures that need to be taken into account when considering robotic assisted surgery for cardiothoracic indications in patients with confirmed COVID-19. It is suggested that robotic assisted surgery might have various advantages such as early recovery after surgery, shorter hospital stay, and reduced loss of blood and fluids as well as smaller incisions. However, electrosurgical and ultrasonic devices, as well as CO2 insufflation should be managed with caution to prevent the risk of aerosolization of viral particles.

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<![CDATA[Symptom Profiles and Risk Factors for Hospitalization in Patients With SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: A Large Cohort From South America]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6f412b43-172a-4732-8794-3a27e8f3b28a <![CDATA[Taste Changes (Dysgeusia) in COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N43118eae-2b1d-4b1c-ae5c-24ee9461f108 <![CDATA[Declining Cirrhosis Hospitalizations in the Wake of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A National Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N71ae29f4-dd2e-45d0-92e9-028fe7f71389 <![CDATA[Recommendations for a safety dental care management during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3fe2fe54-6be6-4ced-bab6-a8933a469a87 As the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmitted mainly through droplets, sneezes and aerosols, there is a high risk of transmission during dental procedures. This report describes measures that can be adopted by oral healthcare personnel to minimize the risk of cross-contamination in clinical practice during the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

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<![CDATA[SARS-CoV-2 Testing, Prevalence, and Predictors of COVID-19 in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Northern California]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7379652c-32ab-4584-adb2-7180c5e9e9da