ResearchPad - brief-research-report https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Unlike Many Disease Resistances, Rx1-Mediated Immunity to Potato Virus X Is Not Compromised at Elevated Temperatures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13087 Specificity in the plant immune system is mediated by Resistance (R) proteins. Most R genes encode intracellular NLR-type immune receptors and these pathogen sensors require helper NLRs to activate immune signaling upon pathogen perception. Resistance conferred by many R genes is temperature sensitive and compromised above 28°C. Many Solanaceae R genes, including the potato NLR Rx1 conferring resistance to Potato Virus X (PVX), have been reported to be temperature labile. Rx1 activity, like many Solanaceae NLRs, depends on helper-NLRs called NRC’s. In this study, we investigated Rx1 resistance at elevated temperatures in potato and in Nicotiana benthamiana plants stably expressing Rx1 upon rub-inoculation with GFP-expressing PVX particles. In parallel, we used susceptible plants as a control to assess infectiousness of PVX at a range of different temperatures. Surprisingly, we found that Rx1 confers virus resistance in N. benthamiana up to 32°C, a temperature at which the PVX::GFP lost infectiousness. Furthermore, at 34°C, an Rx1-mediated hypersensitive response could still be triggered in N. benthamiana upon PVX Coat-Protein overexpression. As the Rx1-immune signaling pathway is not temperature compromised, this implies that at least one N. benthamiana helper NRC and its downstream signaling components are temperature tolerant. This finding suggests that the temperature sensitivity for Solanaceous resistances is likely attributable to the sensor NLR and not to its downstream signaling components.

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<![CDATA[Genetic Variability of 3′-Proximal Region of Genomes of Orf Viruses Isolated From Sheep and Wild Japanese Serows (<i>Capricornis crispus</i>) in Japan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13015 Orf virus is a prototype species of the genus Parapoxvirus, subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, family Poxviridae. Japanese orf viruses, infecting sheep and wild Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus), have been considered to be genetically closely related based on the sequence identities of the open reading frames (ORFs) 11, 20, and 132 in their genomes. However, since the genome size of orf viruses is about 140 kbp long, genetic variation among Japanese orf viruses remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the sequences of ORFs 117, 119, 125, and 127 located in the 3′-proximal region of the viral genome using two strains from sheep and three strains from Japanese serows isolated from 1970 to 2007, and compared them with the corresponding sequences of reference orf viruses from other countries. Sequence analysis revealed that ORFs 125 and 127, which encode the inhibitor of apoptosis and viral interleukin (IL)-10, respectively, were highly conserved among the five Japanese orf viruses. However, high genetic variability with deletions or duplications was observed in ORFs 117 and 119, which encode granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-2 inhibition factor (GIF), and inducer of cell apoptosis, respectively, in one strain from sheep and two strains from Japanese serows. Our results suggest that genetic variability exists in Japanese orf viruses even in the same host species. This is the first report of genetic variability of orf viruses in Japan.

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<![CDATA[Telemedicine Facilitation of Transfer Coordination From Emergency Departments]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13006 Interhospital transfers are costly to patients and to the health care system. The use of telemedicine may enable more efficient systems by decreasing transfers or diverting transfers from crowded referral emergency departments (EDs) to alternative appropriate facilities. Our primary objective is to describe the prevalence of telemedicine for transfer coordination among US EDs, the ways in which it is used, and characteristics of EDs that use telemedicine for transfer coordination.MethodsWe used the 2016 National Emergency Department Inventory–USA survey to identify telemedicine-using EDs. We then surveyed all EDs using telemedicine for transfer coordination and a sample of EDs using telemedicine for other clinical applications. We used a multivariable logistic regression model to identify characteristics independently associated with use of telemedicine for transfer coordination.ResultsOf the 5,375 EDs open in 2016, 4,507 responded to National Emergency Department Inventory–USA (84%). Only 146 EDs used telemedicine for transfer coordination; of these, 79 (54%) used telemedicine to assist with clinical care for local admission, 117 (80%) to assist with care before transfer, and 92 (63%) for arranging transfer to a different hospital. Among telemedicine-using EDs, lower ED annual visit volume (odds ratio 5.87, 95% CI 2.79 to 12.36) was independently associated with use of telemedicine for transfer coordination.ConclusionAlthough telemedicine has potential to improve efficiency of regional emergency care systems, it is infrequently used for coordination of transfer between EDs. When used, it is most often to assist with clinical care before transfer. ]]> <![CDATA[Risk Factors for Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Infants With Patent Arterial Duct. A Retrospective Matched Paired Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7858 Background: The development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonates with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is not well-understood. Our aim was to find risk factors for NEC in children with a significant PDA and to assess differences in mortality and duration of hospital stay between patients with PDA and those with PDA and NEC.

Methods: We performed a retrospective single center case control study including infants with PDA scheduled for treatment. We compared multiple patient data between patients with PDA and those with PDA and NEC from 2004 to 2018 using 1:2 and 1:1 matching.

Results: We used 1:2 matching with 26 NEC patients (cases) and 52 PDA patients without NEC (controls) and 1:1 matching with 5 NEC patients and 5 PDA patients without NEC. NEC patients had lower Apgar score (1′), more congenital malformations, more suspected sepsis, less hypotension, higher minimum platelet count and higher CRP-values during the week before NEC (P < 0.05, respectively). The mortality was higher in NEC cases [29% (9/31)] compared to the control patients [2% (1/57), P < 0.001]. Lower Apgar score (1′) was correlated with an increased risk of NEC stage III. Hypotension was inversely correlated with the odds of NEC (OR 0.3).

Conclusions: NEC increased mortality in infants with PDA. Hypotension did not increase the risk of NEC in infants with PDA. Routine clinical parameters were not able to predict NEC in infants who suffer from PDA.

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<![CDATA[Orbital Magnetic Resonance Imaging May Contribute to the Diagnosis of Optic Nerve Lymphoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7857 Background: Optic nerve lymphoma can present a diagnostic challenge because of its confusing clinical features and the difficulty of obtaining lesion tissue for biopsy. The objective of this study was to find some flags of lymphomatous infiltration of optic nerves.

Methods: We report two cases of optic nerve lymphoma and conduct a literature review to determine whether a common diagnostic characteristic can be identified.

Results: We examined 22 optic nerve lymphoma cases. Thirteen cases were systemic lymphoma infiltration of the optic nerve, five were primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), and four were primary isolated optic nerve lymphoma. Twenty patients manifested significant enlargement of the lesions in orbital/brain MRI. Seventeen contrast-enhanced MRIs showed abnormal enhancement of the optic nerve. All PCNSL and isolated optic nerve lymphoma patients in the series showed marked enhancement. Moderate and subtle enhancement was found in systemic lymphoma patients only. At the enhancement site, six isolated optic nerve lymphoma and PCNSL patients presented intrinsic enhancement, ten systemic patients showed both optic nerve and sheath enhancement, and one demonstrated sheath enhancement. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests showed elevated protein levels in six patients, and a neoplasm in one patient. We found abnormality of CSF immunity in both of our patients.

Conclusion: Combined characteristics of orbital MRI and CSF tests may facilitate expeditious suspicion establishment of optic nerve lymphoma.

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<![CDATA[Where Is the Action in Perception? An Exploratory Study With a Haptic Sensory Substitution Device]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7855 Enactive cognitive science (ECS) and ecological psychology (EP) agree that active movement is important for perception, but they remain ambiguous regarding the precise role of agency. EP has focused on the notion of sensorimotor invariants, according to which bodily movements play an instrumental role in perception. ECS has focused on the notion of sensorimotor contingencies, which goes beyond an instrumental role because skillfully regulated movements are claimed to play a constitutive role. We refer to these two hypotheses as instrumental agency and constitutive agency, respectively. Evidence comes from a variety of fields, including neural, behavioral, and phenomenological research, but so far with confounds that prevent an experimental distinction between these hypotheses. Here we advance the debate by proposing a novel double-participant setup that aims to isolate agency as the key variable that distinguishes bodily movement in active and passive conditions of perception. We pilot this setup with a psychological study of width discrimination using the Enactive Torch, a haptic sensory substitution device. There was no evidence favoring the stronger hypothesis of constitutive agency over instrumental agency. However, we caution that during debriefing several participants reported using cognitive strategies that did not rely on spatial perception. We conclude that this approach is a viable direction for future research, but that greater care is required to establish and confirm the desired modality of first-person experience.

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<![CDATA[Attentional Bias to Facial Expressions of Different Emotions – A Cross-Cultural Comparison of ≠Akhoe Hai||om and German Children and Adolescents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7563 The attentional bias to negative information enables humans to quickly identify and to respond appropriately to potentially threatening situations. Because of its adaptive function, the enhanced sensitivity to negative information is expected to represent a universal trait, shared by all humans regardless of their cultural background. However, existing research focuses almost exclusively on humans from Western industrialized societies, who are not representative for the human species. Therefore, we compare humans from two distinct cultural contexts: adolescents and children from Germany, a Western industrialized society, and from the ≠Akhoe Hai||om, semi-nomadic hunter-gatherers in Namibia. We predicted that both groups show an attentional bias toward negative facial expressions as compared to neutral or positive faces. We used eye-tracking to measure their fixation duration on facial expressions depicting different emotions, including negative (fear, anger), positive (happy), and neutral faces. Both Germans and the ≠Akhoe Hai||om gazed longer at fearful faces, but shorter on angry faces, challenging the notion of a general bias toward negative emotions. For happy faces, fixation durations varied between the two groups, suggesting more flexibility in the response to positive emotions. Our findings emphasize the need for placing research on emotion perception into an evolutionary, cross-cultural comparative framework that considers the adaptive significance of specific emotions, rather than differentiating between positive and negative information, and enables systematic comparisons across participants from diverse cultural backgrounds.

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<![CDATA[Functional Use of Directional Local Field Potentials in the Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7531 Directional deep brain stimulation (DBS) technology aims to address the limitations, such as stimulation-induced side effects, by delivering selective, focal modulation via segmented contacts. However, DBS programming becomes more complex and time-consuming for clinical feasibility. Local field potentials (LFPs) might serve a functional role in guiding clinical programming.ObjectiveIn this pilot study, we investigated the spectral dynamics of directional LFPs in subthalamic nucleus (STN) and their relationship to motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD).MethodsWe recorded intraoperative STN-LFPs from 8-contact leads (Infinity-6172, Abbott Laboratories, Illinois, United States) in 8 PD patients at rest. Directional LFPs were referenced to their common average and time-frequency analysis was computed using a modified Welch periodogram method. The beta band (13–35 Hz) features were extracted and their correlation to preoperative UPDRS-III scores were assessed.ResultsNormalized beta power (13–20 Hz) and normalized peak power (13–35 Hz) were found to be higher in anterior direction despite lack of statistical significance (p > 0.05). Results of the Spearman correlation analysis demonstrated positive trends with bradykinesia/rigidity in dorsoanterior direction (r = 0.659, p = 0.087) and with axial scores in the dorsomedial direction (r = 0.812, p = 0.072).ConclusionGiven that testing all possible combinations of contact pairs and stimulation parameters is not feasible in a single clinic visit, spatio-spectral LFP dynamics obtained from intraoperative recordings might be used as an initial marker to select optimal contact(s). ]]> <![CDATA[Utilization of RNA <i>in situ</i> Hybridization to Understand the Cellular Localization of Powassan Virus RNA at the Tick-Virus-Host Interface]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7525 Skin is the interface between an attached, feeding tick and a host; consequently, it is the first line of defense against invading pathogenic microorganisms that are delivered to a vertebrate host together with tick saliva. Central to the successful transmission of a tick-borne pathogen are complex interactions between the host immune response and early tick-mediated immunomodulation, all of which initially occur at the skin interface. The focus of this work was to demonstrate the use of RNA in situ hybridization (RNA ISH) as a tool for understanding the cellular localization of viral RNA at the feeding site of Powassan virus (POWV)-infected Ixodes scapularis ticks. Intense positive staining for POWV RNA was frequently detected in dermal foci and occasionally detected in hypodermal foci after 24 h of POWV-infected tick feeding. Additionally, duplex chromogenic RNA ISH staining demonstrated co-localization of POWV RNA with Mus musculus F4/80 RNA, CD11c RNA, vimentin RNA, Krt14 RNA, and CD3ε RNA at the feeding site of POWV-infected ticks. In future studies, RNA ISH can be used to validate transcriptomic analyses conducted at the tick-virus-host cutaneous interface and will provide cellular resolution for specific gene signatures temporally expressed during infected tick feeding. Such a systems biology approach will help create a more refined understanding of the cellular and molecular interactions influencing virus transmission at the cutaneous interface.

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<![CDATA[CD40L Reverse Signaling Influences Dendrite Spine Morphology and Expression of PSD-95 and Rho Small GTPases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7509 CD40-activated CD40L reverse signaling is a major physiological regulator of neural process growth from many kinds of developing neurons. Here we have investigated whether CD40L-reverse signaling also influences dendrite spine number and morphology in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Golgi preparations revealed no differences in the spine density, but because the dendrite arbors of MSNs were larger and branched in Cd40–/– mice, the total number of spines was greater in Cd40–/– mice. We also detected more mature spines compared with wild-type littermates. Western blot revealed that MSN cultures from Cd40–/– mice had significantly less PSD-95 and there were changes in RhoA/B/C and Cdc42. Immunocytochemistry revealed that PSD-95 was clustered in spines in Cd40–/– neurons compared with more diffuse labeling in Cd40+/+ neurons. Activation of CD40L-reverse signaling with CD40-Fc prevented the changes observed in Cd40–/– cultures. Our findings suggest that CD40L-reverse signaling influences dendrite spine morphology and related protein expression and distribution.

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<![CDATA[The Requirement for US28 During Cytomegalovirus Latency Is Independent of US27 and US29 Gene Expression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7445 The ability to establish a latent infection with periodic reactivation events ensures herpesviruses, like human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), lifelong infection, and serial passage. The host-pathogen relationship throughout HCMV latency is complex, though both cellular and viral factors influence the equilibrium between latent and lytic infection. We and others have shown one of the viral-encoded G protein-coupled receptors, US28, is required for HCMV latency. US28 potentiates signals both constitutively and in response to ligand binding, and we previously showed deletion of the ligand binding domain or mutation of the G protein-coupling domain results in the failure to maintain latency similar to deletion of the entire US28 open reading frame (ORF). Interestingly, a recent publication detailed an altered phenotype from that previously reported, showing US28 is required for viral reactivation rather than latency, suggesting the US28 ORF deletion impacts transcription of the surrounding genes. Here, we show an independently generated US28-stop mutant, like the US28 ORF deletion mutant, fails to maintain latency in hematopoietic cells. Further, we found US27 and US29 transcription in each of these mutants was comparable to their expression during wild type infection, suggesting neither US28 mutant alters mRNA levels of the surrounding genes. Finally, infection with a US28 ORF deletion virus expressed US27 protein comparable to its expression following wild type infection. In sum, our new data strongly support previous findings from our lab and others, detailing a requirement for US28 during HCMV latent infection.

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<![CDATA[Non-syndromic Oculocutaneous Albinism: Novel Genetic Variants and Clinical Follow Up of a Brazilian Pediatric Cohort]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7426 Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetic disorder characterized by skin, hair, and eye hypopigmentation due to a reduction or absence of melanin. Clinical manifestations include vision problems and a high susceptibility to skin cancer. In its non-syndromic form, OCA is associated with six genes and one chromosomal region. Because OCA subtypes are not always clinically distinguishable, molecular analysis has become an important tool for classifying types of OCA, which facilitates genetic counseling and can guide the development of new therapies. We studied eight Brazilian individuals aged 1.5–18 years old with clinical diagnosis of OCA. Assessment of ophthalmologic characteristics showed results consistent with albinism, including reduced visual acuity, nystagmus, and loss of stereoscopic vision. We also observed the appearance of the strabismus and changes in static refraction over a 2-year period. Dermatologic evaluation showed that no participants had preneoplastic skin lesions, despite half of the participants reporting insufficient knowledge about skin care in albinism. Whole-exome and Sanger sequencing revealed eight different mutations: six in the TYR gene and two in the SLC45A2 gene, of which one was novel and two were described in a population study but were not previously associated with the OCA phenotype. We performed two ophthalmological evaluations, 2 years apart; and one dermatological evaluation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to perform clinical follow-up and genetic analysis of a Brazilian cohort with albinism. Here, we report three new OCA causing mutations.

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<![CDATA[Acute Dilation of Venous Sinuses in Animal Models of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Detected Using 9.4T MRI]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7394 Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a debilitating but extremely common form of brain injury that affects a substantial number of people each year. mTBI is especially common in children and adolescents. Our understanding of mTBI pathophysiology is limited, and there is currently no accepted marker for disease severity. A potential marker for disease severity may be cerebrovascular dysfunction. Recent findings have implicated cerebrovascular alteration as an important component of mTBI and suggest it contributes to the development of persistent, long-term symptoms. In this paper, we conducted two studies to investigate whether mTBI affects venous drainage patterns in the central nervous system using alterations in the size of venous sinuses as a marker of changes in drainage. Using a closed head vertical weight-drop model and a lateral impact injury model of mTBI, we imaged and quantified the size of three major draining vessels in the adolescent rat brain using 9.4T MRI. Areas and volumes were quantified in the superior sagittal sinus and left and right transverse sinuses using images acquired from T2w MRI in one study and post-gadolinium T1w MRI in another. Our results indicated that the three venous sinuses were significantly larger in mTBI rats as compared to sham rats 1-day post injury but recovered to normal size 2 weeks after. Acutely enlarged sinuses post-mTBI may indicate abnormal venous drainage, and this could be suggestive of a cerebrovascular response to trauma.

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<![CDATA[Changes in Interictal Pretreatment and Posttreatment EEG in Childhood Absence Epilepsy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc5bb9956-22c5-43f0-9a1c-ed863abfbe2a

Spike and wave discharges (SWDs) are a characteristic manifestation of childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). It has long been believed that they unpredictably emerge from otherwise almost normal interictal EEG. Herein, we demonstrate that pretreatment closed-eyes theta and beta EEG wavelet powers of CAE patients (20 girls and 10 boys, mean age 7.4 ± 1.9 years) are much higher than those of age-matched healthy controls at multiple sites of the 10–20 system. For example, at the C4 site, we observed a 100 and 63% increase in power of theta and beta rhythms, respectively. We were able to compare the baseline and posttreatment wavelet power in 16 patients. Pharmacotherapy brought about a statistically significant decrease in delta and theta wavelet power in all the channels, e.g., for C4 the reduction was equal to 45% (delta) and 63% (theta). The less pronounced attenuation of posttreatment beta waves was observed in 13 channels (36% at C4 site). The beta and theta wavelet power were positively correlated with the percentage of time in seizure (defined as the ratio of the duration of all absences which patients experienced to the duration of recording) for majority of channels. We hypothesize that the increased theta and beta powers result from cortical hyperexcitability and propensity for epileptic spike generation, respectively. We argue that the distinct features of CAE wavelet power spectrum may be used to define an EEG biomarker which could be used for diagnosis and monitoring of patients.

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<![CDATA[A Novel Sulfonyl-Based Small Molecule Exhibiting Anti-cancer Properties]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N73353a35-47f6-4e86-993d-833ca77a1ad7

Phenotypic screening is an ideal strategy for the discovery of novel bioactive molecules. Using a customized high-throughput screening (HTS) assay employing primary T lymphocytes, we screened a small library of 4,398 compounds with unknown biological function/target to identify compounds eliciting immunomodulatory properties and discovered a sulfonyl-containing hit, we named InhiTinib. This compound inhibited interferon (IFN)-gamma production and proliferation of primary CD3+ T cells without inducing cell death. In contrast, InhiTinib triggered apoptosis in several murine and human cancer cell lines. Besides, the compound was well tolerated by immunocompetent mice, triggered tumor regression in animals with pre-established EL4 T-cell lymphomas, and prolonged the overall survival of mice harboring advanced tumors. Altogether, our data demonstrate the anti-cancer properties of InhiTinib, which can henceforth bridge to wider-scale biochemical and clinical tests following further in-depth pharmacodynamic studies.

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<![CDATA[MRI-Induced Heating of Coils for Microscopic Magnetic Stimulation at 1.5 Tesla: An Initial Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncd2aba18-037e-4472-b04c-909e68405ab8

Purpose

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has proved to be effective in the treatment of movement disorders. However, the direct contact between the metal contacts of the DBS electrode and the brain can cause RF heating in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning, due to an increase of local specific absorption rate (SAR). Recently, micro coils (μMS) have demonstrated excitation of neuronal tissue through the electromagnetic induction both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In contrast to electrical stimulation, in μMS, there is no direct contact between the metal and the biological tissue.

Methods

We compared the heating of a μMS coil with a control case of a metal wire. The heating was induced by RF fields in a 1.5 T MRI head birdcage coil (often used for imaging patients with implants) at 64 MHz, and normalized results to 3.2 W/kg whole head average SAR.

Results

The μMS coil or wire implants were placed inside an anatomically accurate head saline-gel filled phantom inserted in the RF coil, and we observed approximately 1°C initial temperature rise at the μMS coil, while the wire exhibited a 10°C temperature rise in the proximity of the exposed end. The numerical simulations showed a 32-times increase of local SAR induced at the tips of the metal wire compared to the μMS.

Conclusion

In this work, we show with measurements and electromagnetic numerical simulations that the RF-induced increase in local SAR and induced heating during MRI scanning can be greatly reduced by using magnetic stimulation with the proposed μMS technology.

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<![CDATA[The Degree of t-System Remodeling Predicts Negative Force-Frequency Relationship and Prolonged Relaxation Time in Failing Human Myocardium]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N000dc4d5-8e42-4ef9-9483-b22a1dc76cab

The normally positive cardiac force-frequency relationship (FFR) becomes flat or negative in chronic heart failure (HF). Here we explored if remodeling of the cardiomyocyte transverse tubular system (t-system) is associated with alterations in FFR and contractile kinetics in failing human myocardium. Left-ventricular myocardial slices from 13 failing human hearts were mounted into a biomimetic culture setup. Maximum twitch force (F), 90% contraction duration (CD90), time to peak force (TTP) and time to relaxation (TTR) were determined at 37°C and 0.2–2 Hz pacing frequency. F1Hz/F0.5Hz and F2Hz/F0.5Hz served as measures of FFR, intracellular cardiomyocyte t-tubule distance (ΔTT) as measure of t-system remodeling. Protein levels of SERCA2, NCX1, and PLB were quantified by immunoblotting. F1Hz/F0.5Hz (R2 = 0.82) and F2Hz/F0.5Hz (R2 = 0.5) correlated negatively with ΔTT, i.e., samples with severe t-system loss exhibited a negative FFR and reduced myocardial wall tension at high pacing rates. PLB levels also predicted F1Hz/F0.5Hz, but to a lesser degree (R2 = 0.49), whereas NCX1 was not correlated (R2 = 0.02). CD90 correlated positively with ΔTT (R2 = 0.39) and negatively with SERCA2/PLB (R2 = 0.42), indicating that both the t-system and SERCA activity are important for contraction kinetics. Surprisingly, ΔTT was not associated with TTP (R2 = 0) but rather with TTR (R2 = 0.5). This became even more pronounced when interaction with NCX1 expression was added to the model (R2 = 0.79), suggesting that t-system loss impairs myocardial relaxation especially when NCX1 expression is low. The degree of t-system remodeling predicts FFR inversion and contraction slowing in failing human myocardium. Moreover, together with NCX, the t-system may be important for myocardial relaxation.

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<![CDATA[Antidepressant Use in Medicaid-Insured Youth: Trends, Covariates, and Future Research Needs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N86d9757f-ea4e-4e2f-9473-2b65fad2f802

Background

Detailed research on long-term antidepressant (AD) trends within a single large US Medicaid population of youth has not heretofore been reported.

Methods

Administrative claims data for eight annual timepoints across 28 years (1987–2014) were organized for youth (<20 years old) who were continuously enrolled during each study year in a mid-Atlantic state Medicaid program. Total annual AD prevalence and age-, gender-, race-, eligibility group-, and diagnosis-specific prevalence were formed from bivariate analyses; logistic regression assessed the change in use (2007–2014) adjusted for covariates. AD-polypharmacy data were assessed in 2014.

Results

The major findings are: 1) AD use in state Medicaid enrollees grew 14-fold between 1987 and 2014. Data from 2014 revealed significantly increased odds of youth with SSRI/SNRI dispensings compared to 2007 (AOR=1.15 95% CI 1.11–1.19), representing 78% of total AD users. 2) Recent AD increases were greatest for 15–19-year olds. 3) AD use in girls passed up AD use in boys for the first time in 2014. 4) In 2014, ADs for foster care (12.7%) were 6 times greater than for their income-eligible Medicaid-counterparts. 5) In 2014, a quarter of AD-medicated youth were diagnosed with a behavior disorder. 6) More than 40 percent of AD medicated youth had >=1 other concomitant psychotropic classes for 60 or more days.

Conclusions

Second-generation antidepressant use in Medicaid-insured youth has increased despite growing questions that pediatric AD benefits may not outweigh harms. These patterns support the call for publicly funded, independent investigator-conducted post-marketing outcomes research.

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<![CDATA[Children Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technology Prone to Low Birth Weight, Preterm Birth, and Birth Defects: A Cohort Review of More Than 50,000 Live Births During 2011–2017 in Taiwan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3c70e1e1-310d-4627-83d7-ccee4bba861a

Objectives: The use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) has increased rapidly in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to discuss the risks of low birth weight, preterm birth, and birth defect for children conceived by assisted reproductive technology in Taiwan.

Methods: Both National ART report database and National birth reports were obtained from the Health Promotion Administration in the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan. The cohort included live births (n = 1,405,625) and children conceived by ART (n = 50,988/172,818 cycles) from 2011 to 2017. The prevalence of low birth weight, preterm birth, and birth defect were compared between the ART and natural pregnancy groups.

Results: Children conceived by ART displayed a higher rate of low birth weight as compared to those in the natural pregnancy group (p < 0.001), even when analyses were restricted to singleton births (p < 0.001). A higher rate of preterm birth (p < 0.001) was also observed in children conceived by ART even when analyses were restricted to singleton births (p < 0.05). A significant increased rate of birth defects was noted from children conceived by ART (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: With the increasing need for and use of ART-conceptions, the likelihood of risks induced or related to Assistant Reproductive Technology (ART) has drawn considerable attention in recent years. Taiwan, as one of the leading countries with outstanding ART performances and modern medical care, the result of the current study suggests that further consideration and tighter regulations and policy are needed with regard to the use of ART.

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<![CDATA[Profiles of Women With Fibromyalgia and Social Comparison Processes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne97b333d-921f-4482-a5ee-8db4ac0dbd3e

Background

Due to uncertainty regarding chronic pain in Fibromyalgia (FM) patients, there has been a growing interest in social comparison and its influence on emotional responses.

Aims

to analyze profiles in FM patients according to pain perception, social comparison strategies and anxiety and depression.

Methods

The sample consisted of 131 FM outpatients (Mean age: 50.15, SD = 11.1). Two scales were used: the Social Comparison Illness Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.

Results

Two profiles were found by cluster analysis (K-means method): one (66%) with a higher level of pain perception, anxiety and depression and greater use of upward contrast and downward identification social comparison; and another (34%) with lower levels of pain perception, anxiety and depression and greater use of upward identification and downward contrast.

Conclusion

These profiles underline the interest in social comparison strategies and their role in FM.

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