ResearchPad - brucellosis https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Forecasting the monthly incidence rate of brucellosis in west of Iran using time series and data mining from 2010 to 2019]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13811 The identification of statistical models for the accurate forecast and timely determination of the outbreak of infectious diseases is very important for the healthcare system. Thus, this study was conducted to assess and compare the performance of four machine-learning methods in modeling and forecasting brucellosis time series data based on climatic parameters.MethodsIn this cohort study, human brucellosis cases and climatic parameters were analyzed on a monthly basis for the Qazvin province–located in northwestern Iran- over a period of 9 years (2010–2018). The data were classified into two subsets of education (80%) and testing (20%). Artificial neural network methods (radial basis function and multilayer perceptron), support vector machine and random forest were fitted to each set. Performance analysis of the models were done using the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Absolute Root Error (MARE), and R2 criteria.ResultsThe incidence rate of the brucellosis in Qazvin province was 27.43 per 100,000 during 2010–2019. Based on our results, the values of the RMSE (0.22), MAE (0.175), MARE (0.007) criteria were smaller for the multilayer perceptron neural network than their values in the other three models. Moreover, the R2 (0.99) value was bigger in this model. Therefore, the multilayer perceptron neural network exhibited better performance in forecasting the studied data. The average wind speed and mean temperature were the most effective climatic parameters in the incidence of this disease.ConclusionsThe multilayer perceptron neural network can be used as an effective method in detecting the behavioral trend of brucellosis over time. Nevertheless, further studies focusing on the application and comparison of these methods are needed to detect the most appropriate forecast method for this disease. ]]> <![CDATA[A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of osteoarticular brucellosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c4b7f2bd5eed0c484840b19

Background

Infection of bones and joints remains one of the most commonly described complications of brucellosis in humans and is predominantly reported in all ages and sexes in high-risk regions, such as the Middle East, Asia, South and Central America, and Africa. We aimed to systematically review the literature and perform a meta-analysis to estimate the global prevalence of osteoarticular brucellosis (OAB).

Methodology

Major bibliographic databases were searched using keywords and suitable combinations. All studies reporting the incidence and clinical manifestations of osteoarticular brucellosis in humans, and demonstrated by two or more diagnostic methods (bacteriological, molecular, serological, and/or radiographic) were included. Random model was used, and statistical significance was set at 0.05%

Principal findings

A total of 56 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. There was an evidence of geographical variation in the prevalence of osteoarticular disease with estimates ranging from 27% in low-risk regions to 36% in high-risk regions. However, the difference was not significant. Thus, brucellosis patients have at least a 27% chance of developing osteoarticular disease.

Conclusions

The prevalence of OAB is not dependent on the endemicity of brucellosis in a particular region. Hence, further research should investigate the potential mechanisms of OAB, as well as the influence of age, gender, and other socioeconomic factor variations in its global prevalence, as this may provide insight into associated exposure risks and management of the disease.

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<![CDATA[Etiology of Severe Non-malaria Febrile Illness in Northern Tanzania: A Prospective Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da15ab0ee8fa60b7adaa

Introduction

The syndrome of fever is a commonly presenting complaint among persons seeking healthcare in low-resource areas, yet the public health community has not approached fever in a comprehensive manner. In many areas, malaria is over-diagnosed, and patients without malaria have poor outcomes.

Methods and Findings

We prospectively studied a cohort of 870 pediatric and adult febrile admissions to two hospitals in northern Tanzania over the period of one year using conventional standard diagnostic tests to establish fever etiology. Malaria was the clinical diagnosis for 528 (60.7%), but was the actual cause of fever in only 14 (1.6%). By contrast, bacterial, mycobacterial, and fungal bloodstream infections accounted for 85 (9.8%), 14 (1.6%), and 25 (2.9%) febrile admissions, respectively. Acute bacterial zoonoses were identified among 118 (26.2%) of febrile admissions; 16 (13.6%) had brucellosis, 40 (33.9%) leptospirosis, 24 (20.3%) had Q fever, 36 (30.5%) had spotted fever group rickettsioses, and 2 (1.8%) had typhus group rickettsioses. In addition, 55 (7.9%) participants had a confirmed acute arbovirus infection, all due to chikungunya. No patient had a bacterial zoonosis or an arbovirus infection included in the admission differential diagnosis.

Conclusions

Malaria was uncommon and over-diagnosed, whereas invasive infections were underappreciated. Bacterial zoonoses and arbovirus infections were highly prevalent yet overlooked. An integrated approach to the syndrome of fever in resource-limited areas is needed to improve patient outcomes and to rationally target disease control efforts.

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<![CDATA[MLVA16 Typing of Portuguese Human and Animal Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus Isolates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d9ab0ee8fa60b66dbb

To investigate the epidemiological relationship of isolates from different Portuguese geographical regions and to assess the diversity among isolates, the MLVA16Orsay assay (panels 1, 2A and 2B) was performed with a collection of 126 Brucella melitensis (46 human and 80 animal isolates) and 157 B. abortus field isolates, seven vaccine strains and the representative reference strains of each species. The MLVA16Orsay showed a similar high discriminatory power (HGDI 0.972 and 0.902) for both species but panel 1 and 2A markers displayed higher diversity (HGDI 0.693) in B. abortus compared to B. melitensis isolates (HGDI 0.342). The B. melitensis population belong to the “Americas” (17%) and “East Mediterranean” (83%) groups. No isolate belonged to the “West Mediterranean” group. Eighty-five percent of the human isolates (39 in 46) fit in the “East-Mediterranean” group where a single lineage known as MLVA11 genotype 116 is responsible for the vast majority of Brucella infections in humans. B. abortus isolates formed a consistent group with bv1 and bv3 isolates in different clusters. Four MLVA11 genotypes were observed for the first time in isolates from S. Jorge and Terceira islands from Azores. From the collection of isolates analysed in this study we conclude that MLVA16Orsay provided a clear view of Brucella spp. population, confirming epidemiological linkage in outbreak investigations. In particular, it suggests recent and ongoing colonisation of Portugal with one B. melitensis lineage usually associated with East Mediterranean countries.

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<![CDATA[Antigenic, Immunologic and Genetic Characterization of Rough Strains B.abortus RB51, B.melitensis B115 and B.melitensis B18]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0aab0ee8fa60b77654

The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is considered the major virulent factor in Brucella spp. Several genes have been identified involved in the synthesis of the three LPS components: lipid A, core and O-PS. Usually, Brucella strains devoid of O-PS (rough mutants) are less virulent than the wild type and do not induce undesirable interfering antibodies. Such of them proved to be protective against brucellosis in mice. Because of these favorable features, rough strains have been considered potential brucellosis vaccines. In this study, we evaluated the antigenic, immunologic and genetic characteristics of rough strains B.abortus RB51, B.melitensis B115 and B.melitensis B18. RB51 derived from B.abortus 2308 virulent strain and B115 is a natural rough strain in which the O-PS is present in the cytoplasm. B18 is a rough rifampin-resistan mutant isolated in our laboratory.

The surface antigenicity of RB51, B115 and B18 was evaluated by testing their ability to bind antibodies induced by rough or smooth Brucella strains. The antibody response induced by each strain was evaluated in rabbits. Twenty-one genes, involved in the LPS-synthesis, were sequenced and compared with the B.melitensis 16M strain.

The results indicated that RB51, B115 and B18 have differences in antigenicity, immunologic and genetic properties. Particularly, in B115 a nonsense mutation was detected in wzm gene, which could explain the intracellular localization of O-PS in this strain.

Complementation studies to evaluate the precise role of each mutation in affecting Brucella morphology and its virulence, could provide useful information for the assessment of new, attenuated vaccines for brucellosis.

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<![CDATA[Brucella abortus Choloylglycine Hydrolase Affects Cell Envelope Composition and Host Cell Internalization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da08ab0ee8fa60b766cd

Choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH, E.C. 3.5.1.24) is a conjugated bile salt hydrolase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond in conjugated bile acids. Bile salt hydrolases are expressed by gastrointestinal bacteria, and they presumably decrease the toxicity of host's conjugated bile salts. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a disease affecting livestock and humans. CGH confers Brucella the ability to deconjugate and resist the antimicrobial action of bile salts, contributing to the establishment of a successful infection through the oral route in mice. Additionally, cgh-deletion mutant was also attenuated in intraperitoneally inoculated mice, which suggests that CGH may play a role during systemic infection other than hydrolyzing conjugated bile acids. To understand the role CGH plays in B. abortus virulence, we infected phagocytic and epithelial cells with a cgh-deletion mutant (Δcgh) and found that it is defective in the internalization process. This defect along with the increased resistance of Δcgh to the antimicrobial action of polymyxin B, prompted an analysis of the cell envelope of this mutant. Two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of Δcgh cell envelope-associated proteins showed an altered expression of Omp2b and different members of the Omp25/31 family. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Altogether, the results indicate that Brucella CGH not only participates in deconjugation of bile salts but also affects overall membrane composition and host cell internalization.

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<![CDATA[Human Brucellosis in Maghreb: Existence of a Lineage Related to Socio-Historical Connections with Europe]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad0ab0ee8fa60bb5f5a

Despite control/eradication programs, brucellosis, major worldwide zoonosis due to the Brucella genus, is endemic in Northern Africa and remains a major public health problem in the Maghreb region (Algeria/Morocco/Tunisia). Brucella melitensis biovar 3 is mostly involved in human infections and infects mainly small ruminants. Human and animal brucellosis occurrence in the Maghreb seems still underestimated and its epidemiological situation remains hazy. This study summarizes official data, regarding Brucella melitensis infections in Algeria, from 1989 to 2012, with the purpose to provide appropriate insights concerning the epidemiological situation of human and small ruminant brucellosis in Maghreb. Algeria and Europe are closely linked for historical and economical reasons. These historical connections raise the question of their possible impact on the genetic variability of Brucella strains circulating in the Maghreb. Other purpose of this study was to assess the genetic diversity among Maghreb B. melitensis biovar 3 strains, and to investigate their possible epidemiological relationship with European strains, especially with French strains. A total of 90 B. melitensis biovar 3 Maghreb strains isolated over a 25 year-period (1989–2014), mainly from humans, were analysed by MLVA-16. The obtained results were compared with genotypes of European B. melitensis biovar 3 strains. Molecular assays showed that Algerian strains were mainly distributed into two distinct clusters, one Algerian cluster related to European sub-cluster. These results led to suggest the existence of a lineage resulting from socio-historical connections between Algeria and Europe that might have evolved distinctly from the Maghreb autochthonous group. This study provides insights regarding the epidemiological situation of human brucellosis in the Maghreb and is the first molecular investigation regarding B. melitensis biovar 3 strains circulating in the Maghreb.

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<![CDATA[Detection and characterization of Brucella spp. in bovine milk in small-scale urban and peri-urban farming in Tajikistan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdcf60

Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonoses globally, and Central Asia remains a Brucella hotspot. The World Health Organization classifies brucellosis as a neglected zoonotic disease that is rarely in the spotlight for research and mainly affects poor, marginalized people. Urban and peri-urban farming is a common practice in many low-income countries, and it increases the incomes of families that are often restrained by limited economic resources. However, there is a concern that the growing number of people and livestock living close together in these areas will increase the transmission of zoonotic pathogens such as Brucella. This study investigates the presence of Brucella DNA in bovine milk in the urban and peri-urban area of Dushanbe, Tajikistan. Brucella DNA was detected in 10.3% of 564 cow milk samples by IS711-based real-time PCR. This finding is concerning because consumption of unpasteurized dairy products is common in the region. Furthermore, Brucella DNA was detected in the milk of all seropositive cows, but 8.3% of the seronegative cows also showed the presence of Brucella DNA. In addition, sequence analysis of the rpoB gene suggests that one cow was infected with B. abortus and another cow was most likely infected with B. melitensis. The discrepancies between the serology and real-time PCR results highlight the need to further investigate whether there is a need for implementing complementary diagnostic strategies to detect false serological negative individuals in Brucella surveillance, control, and eradication programmes. Furthermore, vaccination of cattle with S19 in addition to vaccination of small ruminants with Rev 1 might be needed in order to control Brucella infections in the livestock population but further research focusing on the isolation of Brucella is required to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the Brucella spp. circulating among the livestock in this region.

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<![CDATA[Prioritization of Zoonotic Diseases in Kenya, 2015]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db01ab0ee8fa60bc6d4d

Introduction

Zoonotic diseases have varying public health burden and socio-economic impact across time and geographical settings making their prioritization for prevention and control important at the national level. We conducted systematic prioritization of zoonotic diseases and developed a ranked list of these diseases that would guide allocation of resources to enhance their surveillance, prevention, and control.

Methods

A group of 36 medical, veterinary, and wildlife experts in zoonoses from government, research institutions and universities in Kenya prioritized 36 diseases using a semi-quantitative One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization tool developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with slight adaptations. The tool comprises five steps: listing of zoonotic diseases to be prioritized, development of ranking criteria, weighting criteria by pairwise comparison through analytical hierarchical process, scoring each zoonotic disease based on the criteria, and aggregation of scores.

Results

In order of importance, the participants identified severity of illness in humans, epidemic/pandemic potential in humans, socio-economic burden, prevalence/incidence and availability of interventions (weighted scores assigned to each criteria were 0.23, 0.22, 0.21, 0.17 and 0.17 respectively), as the criteria to define the relative importance of the diseases. The top five priority diseases in descending order of ranking were anthrax, trypanosomiasis, rabies, brucellosis and Rift Valley fever.

Conclusion

Although less prominently mentioned, neglected zoonotic diseases ranked highly compared to those with epidemic potential suggesting these endemic diseases cause substantial public health burden. The list of priority zoonotic disease is crucial for the targeted allocation of resources and informing disease prevention and control programs for zoonoses in Kenya.

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<![CDATA[The Predicted ABC Transporter AbcEDCBA Is Required for Type IV Secretion System Expression and Lysosomal Evasion by Brucella ovis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0dab0ee8fa60bcab75

Brucella ovis is a major cause of reproductive failure in rams and it is one of the few well-described Brucella species that is not zoonotic. Previous work showed that a B. ovis mutant lacking a species-specific ABC transporter (ΔabcBA) was attenuated in mice and was unable to survive in macrophages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of this ABC transporter during intracellular survival of B. ovis. In HeLa cells, B. ovis WT was able to survive and replicate at later time point (48 hpi), whereas an ΔabcBA mutant was attenuated at 24 hpi. The reduced survival of the ΔabcBA mutant was associated with a decreased ability to exclude the lysosomal marker LAMP1 from its vacuolar membrane, suggesting a failure to establish a replicative niche. The ΔabcBA mutant showed a reduced abundance of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS) proteins VirB8 and VirB11 in both rich and acid media, when compared to WT B. ovis. However, mRNA levels of virB1, virB8, hutC, and vjbR were similar in both strains. These results support the notion that the ABC transporter encoded by abcEDCBA or its transported substrate acts at a post-transcriptional level to promote the optimal expression of the B. ovis T4SS within infected host cells.

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<![CDATA[Deep-Sequencing Analysis of the Mouse Transcriptome Response to Infection with Brucella melitensis Strains of Differing Virulence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daeeab0ee8fa60bc028b

Brucella melitensis is an important zoonotic pathogen that causes brucellosis, a disease that affects sheep, cattle and occasionally humans. B. melitensis strain M5-90, a live attenuated vaccine cultured from B. melitensis strain M28, has been used as an effective tool in the control of brucellosis in goats and sheep in China. However, the molecular changes leading to attenuated virulence and pathogenicity in B. melitensis remain poorly understood. In this study we employed the Illumina Genome Analyzer platform to perform genome-wide digital gene expression (DGE) analysis of mouse peritoneal macrophage responses to B. melitensis infection. Many parallel changes in gene expression profiles were observed in M28- and M5-90-infected macrophages, suggesting that they employ similar survival strategies, notably the induction of anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic factors. Moreover, 1019 differentially expressed macrophage transcripts were identified 4 h after infection with the different B. melitensis strains, and these differential transcripts notably identified genes involved in the lysosome and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Further analysis employed gene ontology (GO) analysis: high-enrichment GOs identified endocytosis, inflammatory, apoptosis, and transport pathways. Path-Net and Signal-Net analysis highlighted the MAPK pathway as the key regulatory pathway. Moreover, the key differentially expressed genes of the significant pathways were apoptosis-related. These findings demonstrate previously unrecognized changes in gene transcription that are associated with B. melitensis infection of macrophages, and the central signaling pathways identified here merit further investigation. Our data provide new insights into the molecular attenuation mechanism of strain M5-90 and will facilitate the generation of new attenuated vaccine strains with enhanced efficacy.

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<![CDATA[The Burden of Zoonoses in Kyrgyzstan: A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da65ab0ee8fa60b91a5a

Introduction

Zoonotic disease (ZD) pose a serious threat to human health in low-income countries. In these countries the human burden of disease is often underestimated due to insufficient monitoring because of insufficient funding. Quantification of the impact of zoonoses helps in prioritizing healthcare needs. Kyrgyzstan is a poor, mountainous country with 48% of the population employed in agriculture and one third of the population living below the poverty line.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We have assessed the burden of zoonoses in Kyrgyzstan by conducting a systematic review. We have used the collected data to estimate the burden of ZDs and addressed the underestimation in officially reported disease incidence. The estimated incidences of the ZDs were used to calculate incidence-based Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). This standardized health gap measure enhances comparability between injuries and diseases. The combined burden for alveolar echinococcosis, cystic echinococcosis, brucellosis, campylobacteriosis, congenital toxoplasmosis, non-typhoidal salmonellosis and rabies in Kyrgyzstan in 2013 was 35,209 DALYs [95% Uncertainty interval (UI):13,413–83,777]; 576 deaths [95% UI: 279–1,168] were attributed to these infections. We estimate a combined median incidence of ZDs of 141,583 cases [95% UI: 33,912–250,924] in 2013. The highest burden was caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella and Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively 14,792 DALYs [95% UI: 3,966–41,532] and 11,915 DALYs [95% UI: 4,705–27,114] per year.

Conclusion/Significance

The health impact of zoonoses in Kyrgyzstan is substantial, comparable to that of HIV. Community-based surveillance studies and hospital-based registration of all occurrences of zoonoses would increase the accuracy of the estimates.

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<![CDATA[Thioredoxin 80-Activated-Monocytes (TAMs) Inhibit the Replication of Intracellular Pathogens]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da63ab0ee8fa60b9161c

Background

Thioredoxin 80 (Trx80) is an 80 amino acid natural cleavage product of Trx, produced primarily by monocytes. Trx80 induces differentiation of human monocytes into a novel cell type, named Trx80-activated-monocytes (TAMs).

Principal Findings

In this investigation we present evidence for a role of TAMs in the control of intracellular bacterial infections. As model pathogens we have chosen Listeria monocytogenes and Brucella abortus which replicate in the cytosol and the endoplasmic reticulum respectively. Our data indicate that TAMs efficiently inhibit intracellular growth of both L. monocytogenes and B. abortus. Further analysis shows that Trx80 activation prevents the escape of GFP-tagged L. monocytogenes into the cytosol, and induces accumulation of the bacteria within the lysosomes. Inhibition of the lysosomal activity by chloroquine treatment resulted in higher replication of bacteria in TAMs compared to that observed in control cells 24 h post-infection, indicating that TAMs kill bacteria by preventing their escape from the endosomal compartments, which progress into a highly degradative phagolysosome.

Significance

Our results show that Trx80 potentiates the bactericidal activities of professional phagocytes, and contributes to the first line of defense against intracellular bacteria.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of the Effects of Erythritol on Gene Expression in Brucella abortus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac5ab0ee8fa60bb259e

Bacteria of the genus Brucella have the unusual capability to catabolize erythritol and this property has been associated with their virulence mainly because of the presence of erythritol in bovine foetal tissues and because the attenuated S19 vaccine strain is the only Brucella strain unable to oxydize erythritol. In this work we have analyzed the transcriptional changes produced in Brucella by erythritol by means of two high throughput approaches: RNA hybridization against a microarray containing most of Brucella ORF's constructed from the Brucella ORFeome and next generation sequencing of Brucella mRNA in an Illumina GAIIx platform. The results obtained showed the overexpression of a group of genes, many of them in a single cluster around the ery operon, able to co-ordinately mediate the transport and degradation of erythritol into three carbon atoms intermediates that will be then converted into fructose-6P (F6P) by gluconeogenesis. Other induced genes participating in the nonoxidative branch of the pentose phosphate shunt and the TCA may collaborate with the ery genes to conform an efficient degradation of sugars by this route. On the other hand, several routes of amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis are up-regulated whilst amino acid transport and catabolism genes are down-regulated. These results corroborate previous descriptions indicating that in the presence of erythritol, this sugar was used preferentially over other compounds and provides a neat explanation of the the reported stimulation of growth induced by erythritol.

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<![CDATA[A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Bovine Brucellosis Seropositivity in Peninsular Malaysia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da91ab0ee8fa60b9ffd5

Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59–50.05); originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94–443.19) and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10–71.83) were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31–140.24) and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54–590.90) when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program.

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<![CDATA[Early Transcriptional Responses of Bovine Chorioallantoic Membrane Explants to Wild Type, ΔvirB2 or ΔbtpB Brucella abortus Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafaab0ee8fa60bc46ee

The pathogenesis of the Brucella-induced inflammatory response in the bovine placenta is not completely understood. In this study we evaluated the role of the B. abortus Type IV secretion system and the anti-inflammatory factor BtpB in early interactions with bovine placental tissues. Transcription profiles of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) explants inoculated with wild type (strain 2308), ΔvirB2 or ΔbtpB Brucella abortus were compared by microarray analysis at 4 hours post infection. Transcripts with significant variation (>2 fold change; P<0.05) were functionally classified, and transcripts related to defense and inflammation were assessed by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Infection with wild type B. abortus resulted in slightly more genes with decreased than increased transcription levels. Conversely, infection of trophoblastic cells with the ΔvirB2 or the ΔbtpB mutant strains, that lack a functional T4SS or that has impaired inhibition of TLR signaling, respectively, induced more upregulated than downregulated genes. Wild type Brucella abortus impaired transcription of host genes related to immune response when compared to ΔvirB and ΔbtpB mutants. Our findings suggest that proinflammatory genes are negatively modulated in bovine trophoblastic cells at early stages of infection. The virB operon and btpB are directly or indirectly related to modulation of these host genes. These results shed light on the early interactions between B. abortus and placental tissue that ultimately culminate in inflammatory pathology and abortion.

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<![CDATA[Serosurveillance for Livestock Pathogens in Free-Ranging Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab2ab0ee8fa60babce5

Routine disease surveillance has been conducted for decades in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California for pathogens shared between wildlife and domestic ruminants that may have implications for the animal production industry and wildlife health. Deer sampled from 1990 to 2007 (n = 2,619) were tested for exposure to six pathogens: bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Leptospira spp., Anaplasma spp. and Brucella spp. We evaluated the relationship between exposure to these pathogens and demographic risk factors to identify broad patterns in seroprevalence across a large temporal and spatial scale. The overall seroprevalence for the entire study period was 13.4% for BTV, 16.8% for EHDV, 17.1% for BVDV, 6.5% for Leptospira spp., 0.2% for Brucella spp., and 17% for Anaplasma spp. Antibodies against BTV and EHDV were most prevalent in the deer populations of southern California. Antibodies against Leptospira spp. and Anaplasma spp. were most prevalent in coastal and central northern California whereas antibodies against BVDV were most prevalent in central-eastern and northeastern California. The overall seroprevalence for Anaplasma spp. was slightly lower than detected in previous studies. North and central eastern California contains large tracts of federal land grazed by livestock; therefore, possible contact between deer and livestock could explain the high BVDV seroprevalence found in these areas. Findings from this study will help to establish baseline values for future comparisons of pathogen exposure in deer, inform on long-term trends in deer population health and provide relevant information on the distribution of diseases that are shared between wildlife and livestock.

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<![CDATA[Meta-Analysis and Advancement of Brucellosis Vaccinology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadcab0ee8fa60bba1b0

Background/Objectives

In spite of all the research effort for developing new vaccines against brucellosis, it remains unclear whether these new vaccine technologies will in fact become widely used. The goal of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to identify parameters that influence vaccine efficacy as well as a descriptive analysis on how the field of Brucella vaccinology is advancing concerning type of vaccine, improvement of protection on animal models over time, and factors that may affect protection in the mouse model.

Methods

A total of 117 publications that met the criteria were selected for inclusion in this study, with a total of 782 individual experiments analyzed.

Results

Attenuated (n = 221), inactivated (n = 66) and mutant (n = 102) vaccines provided median protection index above 2, whereas subunit (n = 287), DNA (n = 68), and vectored (n = 38) vaccines provided protection indexes lower than 2. When all categories of experimental vaccines are analyzed together, the trend line clearly demonstrates that there was no improvement of the protection indexes over the past 30 years, with a low negative and non significant linear coefficient. A meta-regression model was developed including all vaccine categories (attenuated, DNA, inactivated, mutant, subunit, and vectored) considering the protection index as a dependent variable and the other parameters (mouse strain, route of vaccination, number of vaccinations, use of adjuvant, challenge Brucella species) as independent variables. Some of these variables influenced the expected protection index of experimental vaccines against Brucella spp. in the mouse model.

Conclusion

In spite of the large number of publication over the past 30 years, our results indicate that there is not clear trend to improve the protective potential of these experimental vaccines.

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<![CDATA[Prediction and Control of Brucellosis Transmission of Dairy Cattle in Zhejiang Province, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac5ab0ee8fa60bb231f

Brucellosis is a bacterial disease caused by brucella; mainly spread by direct contact transmission through the brucella carriers, or indirect contact transmission by the environment containing large quantities of bacteria discharged by the infected individuals. At the beginning of 21st century, the epidemic among dairy cows in Zhejiang province, began to come back and has become a localized prevalent epidemic. Combining the pathology of brucellosis, the reported positive data characteristics, and the feeding method in Zhejiang province, this paper establishes an dynamic model to excavate the internal transmission dynamics, fit the real disease situation, predict brucellosis tendency and assess control measures in dairy cows. By careful analysis, we give some quantitative results as follows. (1) The external input of dairy cows from northern areas may lead to high fluctuation of the number of the infectious cows in Zhejiang province that can reach several hundreds. In this case, the disease cannot be controlled and the infection situation cannot easily be predicted. Thus, this paper encourages cows farms to insist on self-supplying production of the dairy cows. (2) The effect of transmission rate of brucella in environment to dairy cattle on brucellosis spreading is greater than transmission rate of the infectious dairy cattle to susceptible cattle. The prevalence of the epidemic is mainly aroused by environment transmission. (3) Under certain circumstances, the epidemic will become a periodic phenomenon. (4) For Zhejiang province, besides measures that have already been adopted, sterilization times of the infected regions is suggested as twice a week, and should be combined with management of the birth rate of dairy cows to control brucellosis spread.

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<![CDATA[Low Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in Humans and Small Ruminants in the Gambia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da74ab0ee8fa60b9620f

Background

Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis with significant impact on rural livelihoods and a potentially underestimated contributor to febrile illnesses. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans and small ruminants in The Gambia.

Methods

The study was carried out in rural and urban areas. In 12 rural villages in Kiang West district, sera were collected from humans (n = 599) and small ruminants (n = 623) from the same compounds. From lactating small ruminants, milk samples and vaginal swabs were obtained. At the urban study sites, sera were collected from small ruminants (n = 500) from slaughterhouses and livestock markets. Information on possible risk factors for seropositivity was collected through questionnaires. Sera were screened for antibodies against Brucella spp. with the Rose Bengal Test, ELISA and Micro Agglutination Test (human sera only). PCR was performed on 10 percent of the milk samples and vaginal swabs from small ruminants.

Results

One human and 14 sheep sera were positive by the Rose Bengal Test. The rest were negative in all serological tests used. The PCR results were all negative.

Conclusions

The results suggest that brucellosis is currently not a generalized problem in humans or small ruminants in The Gambia.

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