ResearchPad - cancer-epidemiology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Plasma metabolites associated with colorectal cancer stage: Findings from an international consortium]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6747 What's new?

Metabolomics is a sophisticated method for investigating whether the metabolite profile of a patient's blood, etc., may reflect the pathophysiological state of cancers and other diseases. In the present study, the authors analyzed circulating metabolites, seeking biomarkers related to colorectal cancer progression. Their results at various stages of colorectal cancer suggest that metabolic pathways involving citrulline, histidine, and other molecules that have been previously implicated in colorectal cancer development may also be linked to progression.

]]>
<![CDATA[Thyroid cancer incidence near nuclear sites in Belgium: An ecological study at small geographical level]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N82b4a2b8-5727-41c9-9a6f-5904f9361222

In Belgium, variations in thyroid cancer incidence were observed around the major nuclear sites. The present ecological study investigates whether there is an excess incidence of thyroid cancer among people living in the vicinity of the four nuclear sites at the smallest Belgian geographical level. Rate ratios were obtained from a Bayesian hierarchical model for areas of varying sizes around the nuclear sites. Focused hypothesis tests and generalized additive models were performed to test the hypothesis of a gradient in thyroid cancer incidence with increasing levels of surrogate exposures. No evidence was found for more incident cases of thyroid cancer near the two nuclear power plants. Regarding the two industrial and research nuclear sites, no evidence for a higher incidence in the vicinity of Mol‐Dessel was observed, whereas a slightly nonsignificant higher incidence was found in the close vicinity of Fleurus. In addition, significant gradients for thyroid cancer incidence were observed with the different types of surrogate exposure considered in the 20 km area around the site of Fleurus (decreasing distance, increasing wind direction frequency and increasing exposure to estimated hypothetical radioactive discharges of iodine‐131). In the investigation at the smallest Belgian geographical level, variations in thyroid cancer incidence were found around the Belgian nuclear sites. Significant exposure–response relationships were also observed for the site of Fleurus. Further investigations into these findings could be useful to allow inferring causal relationships on the origin of variations in incidence and to provide information at the individual level.

]]>
<![CDATA[Breast cancer survival in sub‐Saharan Africa by age, stage at diagnosis and human development index: A population‐based registry study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N43f8e048-15b3-435b-b30e-61f4488f804f

Breast cancer is the leading cancer diagnosis and second most common cause of cancer deaths in sub‐Saharan Africa (SSA). Yet, there are few population‐level survival data from Africa and none on the survival differences by stage at diagnosis. Here, we estimate breast cancer survival within SSA by area, stage and country‐level human development index (HDI). We obtained data on a random sample of 2,588 breast cancer incident cases, diagnosed in 2008–2015 from 14 population‐based cancer registries in 12 countries (Benin, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe) through the African Cancer Registry Network. Of these, 2,311 were included for survival analyses. The 1‐, 3‐ and 5‐year observed and relative survival (RS) were estimated by registry, stage and country‐level HDI. We equally estimated the excess hazards adjusting for potential confounders. Among patients with known stage, 64.9% were diagnosed in late stages, with 18.4% being metastatic at diagnosis. The RS varied by registry, ranging from 21.6%(8.2–39.8) at Year 3 in Bulawayo to 84.5% (70.6–93.5) in Namibia. Patients diagnosed at early stages had a 3‐year RS of 78% (71.6–83.3) in contrast to 40.3% (34.9–45.7) at advanced stages (III and IV). The overall RS at Year 1 was 86.1% (84.4–87.6), 65.8% (63.5–68.1) at Year 3 and 59.0% (56.3–61.6) at Year 5. Age at diagnosis was not independently associated with increased mortality risk after adjusting for the effect of stage and country‐level HDI. In conclusion, downstaging breast cancer at diagnosis and improving access to quality care could be pivotal in improving breast cancer survival outcomes in Africa.

]]>
<![CDATA[Human papillomavirus genotypes in cervical and other HPV‐related anogenital cancer in Rwanda, according to HIV status]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N84e371df-ac8e-4afa-8c9d-9552b6e6f933

The study aim was to describe human papillomavirus (HPV)‐attributable cancer burden in Rwanda, according to anogenital cancer site, HPV type, age and HIV status. Tissue specimens of cervical, vulvar, vaginal, penile and anal cancer diagnosed in 2012–2018 were retrieved from three cancer referral hospitals and tested for high‐risk (HR) HPV DNA. Cervical cancer represented the majority of cases (598 of 738), of which 96.0% were HR‐HPV positive. HPV‐attributable fractions in other cancer sites varied from 53.1% in 81 penile, through 76.7% in 30 vulvar, 83.3% in 24 vaginal, up to 100% in 5 anal cases. HPV16 was the predominant HR‐HPV type in cervical cancer (55.0%), followed by HPV18 (16.6%) and HPV45 (13.4%). HPV16 also predominated in other cancer sites (60–80% of HR‐HPV‐attributable fraction). For cervical cancer, type‐specific prevalence varied significantly by histology (higher alpha‐9 type prevalence in 509 squamous cell carcinoma vs. higher alpha‐7 type prevalence in 80 adenocarcinoma), but not between 501 HIV‐negative and 97 HIV‐positive cases. With respect to types targeted, and/or cross‐protected, by HPV vaccines, HPV16/18 accounted for 73%, HPV31/33/45/52/58 for an additional 22% and other HR‐HPV types for 5%, of HPV‐attributable cancer burden, with no significant difference by HIV status nor age. These data highlight the preventive potential of the ongoing national HPV vaccination program in Rwanda, and in sub‐Saharan Africa as a whole. Importantly for this region, the impact of HIV on the distribution of causal HPV types was relatively minor, confirming type‐specific relevance of HPV vaccines, irrespective of HIV status.

]]>
<![CDATA[Absolute risks of cervical precancer among women who fulfill exiting guidelines based on HPV and cytology cotesting]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8038decd-5f75-48bc-9a9e-80bf0da56256

US guidelines recommend that most women older than 65 years cease cervical screening after two consecutive negative cotests (concurrent HPV and cytology tests) in the previous 10 years, with one in the last 5 years. However, this recommendation was based on expert opinion and modeling rather than empirical data on cancer risk. We therefore estimated the 5‐year risks of cervical precancer (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or adenocarcinoma in situ [CIN3]) after one, two and three negative cotests among 346,760 women aged 55–64 years undergoing routine cotesting at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (2003–2015). Women with a history of excisional treatment or CIN2+ were excluded. No woman with one or more negative cotests was diagnosed with cancer during follow‐up. Five‐year risks of CIN3 after one, two, and three consecutive negative cotests were 0.034% (95% CI: 0.023%–0.046%), 0.041% (95% CI: 0.007%–0.076%) and 0.016% (95% CI: 0.000%–0.052%), respectively (p trend < 0.001). These risks did not appreciably differ by a positive cotest result prior to the one, two or three negative cotest(s). Since CIN3 risks after one or more negative cotests were significantly below a proposed 0.12% CIN3+ risk threshold for a 5‐year screening interval, a longer screening interval in these women is justified. However, the choice of how many negative cotests provide sufficient safety against invasive cancer over a woman's remaining life represents a value judgment based on the harms versus benefits of continued screening. Ideally, this guideline should be informed by longer‐term follow‐up given that exiting is a long‐term decision.

]]>
<![CDATA[Radiation risk of incident colorectal cancer by anatomical site among atomic bomb survivors: 1958–2009]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N54d4e848-b53f-4056-8cab-c9aa35e95af9

Radiation effects on colorectal cancer rates, adjusted for smoking, alcohol intake and frequency of meat consumption and body mass index (BMI) by anatomical subsite (proximal colon, distal colon and rectum) were examined in a cohort of 105,444 atomic bomb survivors. Poisson regression methods were used to describe radiation‐associated excess relative risks (ERR) and excess absolute rates (EAR) for the 1958–2009 period. There were 2,960 first primary colorectal cancers including 894 proximal, 871 distal and 1,046 rectal cancers. Smoking, alcohol intake and BMI were associated with subsite‐specific cancer background rates. Significant linear dose–responses were found for total colon (sex‐averaged ERR/Gy for 70 years old exposed at age 30 = 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34; 0.98), proximal [ERR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.32; 1.44] and distal colon cancers [ERR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.04; 0.97], but not for rectal cancer [ERR = 0.023, 95% CI: −0.081; 0.13]. The ERRs for proximal and distal colon cancers were not significantly different (p = 0.41). The ERR decreased with attained age for total colon, but not for proximal colon cancer, and with calendar year for distal colon cancer. The ERRs and EARs did not vary by age at exposure, except for decreasing trend in EAR for proximal colon cancer. In conclusion, ionizing radiation is associated with increased risk of proximal and distal colon cancers. The ERR for proximal cancer persists over time, but that for distal colon cancer decreases. There continues to be no indication of radiation effects on rectal cancer incidence in this population.

]]>
<![CDATA[The systemic immune‐inflammation index is associated with an increased risk of incident cancer—A population‐based cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd547ec39-ae52-4dd7-b94b-b01d4ad801ee

Several studies found that the systemic immune‐inflammation index (SII) is a prognostic factor for mortality in patients with solid tumors. It is unknown whether an increased SII in generally healthy individuals reflects a risk for developing cancer. Our objective was to investigate the association between the SII and incident cancers in a prospective cohort study. Data were obtained from the Rotterdam Study; a population‐based study of individuals aged ≥45 years, between 2002 and 2013. The SII at baseline was calculated from absolute blood counts. The association between the SII and the risk of any solid incident cancer during follow‐up was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. Individuals with a prior cancer diagnosis were excluded. Data of 8,024 individuals were included in the analyses. The mean age at baseline was 65.6 years (SD 10.5 years) and the majority were women. During a maximum follow‐up period of 10.7 years, 733 individuals were diagnosed with cancer. A higher SII at baseline was associated with a 30% higher risk of developing a solid cancer (HR of 1.30 [95% CI; 1.11–1.53]), after adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking, BMI and type 2 diabetes. The absolute cumulative 10‐year cancer risk increased from 9.7% in the lowest quartile of SII to 14.7% in the highest quartile (p‐value = 0.009). The risk of developing cancer was persistent over time and increased for individuals with the longest follow‐up. In conclusion, a high SII is a strong and independent risk indicator for developing a solid cancer.

]]>
<![CDATA[What is epidemiology? Changing definitions of epidemiology 1978-2017]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1813a4d5eed0c48477570f

Context

Epidemiology is a discipline which has evolved with the changes taking place in society and the emergence of new diseases and new discipline related to epidemiology. With these evolutions, it is important to understand epidemiology and to analyse the evolution of content of definitions of epidemiology.

Objectives

The main objective of this paper was to identify new definitions of epidemiology available since 1978. Secondary objectives were to analyse the content of these definitions, to compare them with those used by Lilienfeld and to determine whether changes have taken place over the last forty years.

Methods

A review of grey literature and published literature was conducted to find the definitions of epidemiology written between 1978 and 2017.

Results

102 definitions of epidemiology were retained. They helped to highlight 20 terms and concepts related to epidemiology. Most of them were already used in the definitions used by Lilienfeld. Five terms were present in more than 50% of definitions from the period 1978 to 2017: “population”, “study”, “disease”, “health” and “distribution”. Several developments have occurred: strengthening of the terms “control” and “health” already used, the concept of “disease” was less frequently encountered whereas the concepts “infectious diseases”, “mass phenomenon” are no longer used in definitions from 1978 to 2017.

Conclusion

This evolution of content of definition of epidemiology is absent from books on epidemiology. A thematic analysis of definitions of epidemiology could be conducted in order to improve our understanding of changes observed.

]]>
<![CDATA[Association between Class III Obesity (BMI of 40&#8211;59 kg/m2) and Mortality: A Pooled Analysis of 20 Prospective Studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da19ab0ee8fa60b7c300

In a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies, Cari Kitahara and colleagues find that class III obesity (BMI of 40–59) is associated with excess rates of total mortality, particularly due to heart disease, cancer, and diabetes.

Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

]]>
<![CDATA[Pretreatment Serum Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Breast Cancer Prognostic Characteristics: A Case-Control and a Case-Series Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da35ab0ee8fa60b8611c

Background

Results from epidemiologic studies on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. It is possible that vitamin D may be effective in reducing risk only of specific subtypes due to disease heterogeneity.

Methods and Findings

In case-control and case-series analyses, we examined serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in relation to breast cancer prognostic characteristics, including histologic grade, estrogen receptor (ER), and molecular subtypes defined by ER, progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2, among 579 women with incident breast cancer and 574 controls matched on age and time of blood draw enrolled in the Roswell Park Cancer Institute from 2003 to 2008. We found that breast cancer cases had significantly lower 25OHD concentrations than controls (adjusted mean, 22.8 versus 26.2 ng/mL, p<0.001). Among premenopausal women, 25OHD concentrations were lower in those with high- versus low-grade tumors, and ER negative versus ER positive tumors (p≤0.03). Levels were lowest among women with triple-negative cancer (17.5 ng/mL), significantly different from those with luminal A cancer (24.5 ng/mL, p = 0.002). In case-control analyses, premenopausal women with 25OHD concentrations above the median had significantly lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.08–0.53) than those with levels below the median; and every 10 ng/mL increase in serum 25OHD concentrations was associated with a 64% lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.22–0.56). The differential associations by tumor subtypes among premenopausal women were confirmed in case-series analyses.

Conclusion

In our analyses, higher serum levels of 25OHD were associated with reduced risk of breast cancer, with associations strongest for high grade, ER negative or triple negative cancers in premenopausal women. With further confirmation in large prospective studies, these findings could warrant vitamin D supplementation for reducing breast cancer risk, particularly those with poor prognostic characteristics among premenopausal women.

]]>
<![CDATA[Body Size, Physical Activity and Risk of Colorectal Cancer with or without the CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e2ab0ee8fa60b6a26c

Background

We investigated how body size and physical activity influence the risk of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer (CRC).

Methods

In the Netherlands Cohort Study (n = 120,852), risk factors were self-reported at baseline in 1986. After 7.3 years of follow-up, 603 cases and 4,631 sub-cohort members were available. CIMP status according to the Weisenberger markers was determined using methylation specific PCR on DNA from paraffin embedded tumor tissue. Hazard rate ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for CIMP (27.7%) and non-CIMP (72.3%) tumors were calculated according to BMI, BMI at age 20, BMI change, trouser/skirt size, height, and physical activity.

Results

BMI modeled per 5 kg/m2 increase was associated with both CIMP and non-CIMP tumors, however, HRs were attenuated when additionally adjusted for trouser/skirt size. Trouser/skirt size, per 2 size increase, was associated with both tumor subtypes, even after adjustment for BMI (CIMP HR: 1.20, 95%CI: 1.01–1.43; non-CIMP HR: 1.14, 95%CI: 1.04–1.28). Height per 5 cm was associated with both tumor sub-types, but HRs were attenuated when adjusted for body weight. BMI at age 20 was positively associated with increased risk of CIMP tumors and the association was significantly less pronounced for non-CIMP tumors (P-heterogeneity = 0.01). Physical activity was inversely associated with both subtypes, but a dose-response association was observed only for non-CIMP tumors (P-trend = 0.02).

Conclusions

Body size, especially central adiposity, may increase the risk of both CIMP and non-CIMP tumors. Body fat at young age may differentially influence risk. Physical activity appears to decrease the risk of CRC regardless of these molecular subtypes.

]]>
<![CDATA[Genetic Variations in Key MicroRNA Processing Genes and Risk of Head and Neck Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Chinese Population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da71ab0ee8fa60b94ca6

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to play a key role in oncogenesis. Genetic variations in miRNA processing genes and miRNA binding sites may affect the biogenesis of miRNA and the miRNA-mRNA interactions, hence promoting tumorigenesis. In the present study, we hypothesized that potentially functional polymorphisms in miRNA processing genes may contribute to head and neck cancer (HNC) susceptibility. To test this hypothesis, we genotyped three SNPs at miRNA binding sites of miRNA processing genes (rs1057035 in 3′UTR of DICER, rs3803012 in 3′UTR of RAN and rs10773771 in 3′UTR of HIWI) with a case-control study including 397 HNC cases and 900 controls matched by age and sex in Chinese. Although none of three SNPs was significantly associated with overall risk of HNC, rs1057035 in 3′UTR of DICER was associated with a significantly decreased risk of oral cancer (TC/CC vs. TT: adjusted OR  = 0.65, 95% CI  = 0.46–0.92). Furthermore, luciferase activity assay showed that rs1057035 variant C allele led to significantly lower expression levels as compared to the T allele, which may be due to the relatively high inhibition of hsa-miR-574-3p on DICER mRNA. These findings indicated that rs1057035 located at 3′UTR of DICER may contribute to the risk of oral cancer by affecting the binding of miRNAs to DICER. Large-scale and well-designed studies are warranted to validate our findings.

]]>
<![CDATA[Common Commensal Cancer Viruses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcef2 ]]> <![CDATA[NOTCH1, HIF1A and Other Cancer-Related Proteins in Lung Tissue from Uranium Miners—Variation by Occupational Exposure and Subtype of Lung Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf6ab0ee8fa60bc2ee7

Background

Radon and arsenic are established pulmonary carcinogens. We investigated the association of cumulative exposure to these carcinogens with NOTCH1, HIF1A and other cancer-specific proteins in lung tissue from uranium miners.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Paraffin-embedded tissue of 147 miners was randomly selected from an autopsy repository by type of lung tissue, comprising adenocarcinoma (AdCa), squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC), small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and cancer-free tissue. Within each stratum, we additionally stratified by low or high level of exposure to radon or arsenic. Lifetime exposure to radon and arsenic was estimated using a quantitative job-exposure matrix developed for uranium mining. For 22 cancer-related proteins, immunohistochemical scores were calculated from the intensity and percentage of stained cells. We explored the associations of these scores with cumulative exposure to radon and arsenic with Spearman rank correlation coefficients (rs). Occupational exposure was associated with an up-regulation of NOTCH1 (radon rs = 0.18, 95% CI 0.02–0.33; arsenic: rs = 0.23, 95% CI 0.07–0.38). Moreover, we investigated whether these cancer-related proteins can classify lung cancer using supervised and unsupervised classification. MUC1 classified lung cancer from cancer-free tissue with a failure rate of 2.1%. A two-protein signature discriminated SCLC (HIF1A low), AdCa (NKX2-1 high), and SqCC (NKX2-1 low) with a failure rate of 8.4%.

Conclusions/Significance

These results suggest that the radiation-sensitive protein NOTCH1 can be up-regulated in lung tissue from uranium miners by level of exposure to pulmonary carcinogens. We evaluated a three-protein signature consisting of a physiological protein (MUC1), a cancer-specific protein (HIF1A), and a lineage-specific protein (NKX2-1) that could discriminate lung cancer and its major subtypes with a low failure rate.

]]>
<![CDATA[Leukocyte DNA Methylation Signature Differentiates Pancreatic Cancer Patients from Healthy Controls]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f2ab0ee8fa60b6efeb

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PaC) is one of most difficult tumors to treat. Much of this is attributed to the late diagnosis. To identify biomarkers for early detection, we examined DNA methylation differences in leukocyte DNA between PaC cases and controls in a two-phase study. In phase I, we measured methylation levels at 1,505 CpG sites in treatment-naïve leukocyte DNA from 132 never-smoker PaC patients and 60 never-smoker healthy controls. We found significant differences in 110 CpG sites (false discovery rate <0.05). In phase II, we tested and validated 88 of 96 phase I selected CpG sites in 240 PaC cases and 240 matched controls (p≤0.05). Using penalized logistic regression, we built a prediction model consisting of five CpG sites (IL10_P348, LCN2_P86, ZAP70_P220, AIM2_P624, TAL1_P817) that discriminated PaC patients from controls (C-statistic = 0.85 in phase I; 0.76 in phase II). Interestingly, one CpG site (LCN2_P86) alone could discriminate resectable patients from controls (C-statistic  = 0.78 in phase I; 0.74 in phase II). We also performed methylation quantitative trait loci (methQTL) analysis and identified three CpG sites (AGXT_P180_F, ALOX12_E85_R, JAK3_P1075_R) where the methylation levels were significantly associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (false discovery rate <0.05). Our results demonstrate that epigenetic variation in easily obtainable leukocyte DNA, manifested by reproducible methylation differences, may be used to detect PaC patients. The methylation differences at certain CpG sites are partially attributable to genetic variation. This study strongly supports future epigenome-wide association study using leukocyte DNA for biomarker discovery in human diseases.

]]>
<![CDATA[Birth Weight, Breast Cancer and the Potential Mediating Hormonal Environment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db2cab0ee8fa60bd171f

Background

Previous studies have shown that woman’s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother’s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.

Methods and Findings

Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant’s birth weight, mother’s own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3), anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years) 31 women (7.6 %) were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile) had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR), 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2–5.2; P = 0.012). The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2–5.6; P = 0.021). An infant’s birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother’s serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships.

Conclusions

Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother’s own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

]]>
<![CDATA[Genetic Variation in MDM2 and p14ARF and Susceptibility to Salivary Gland Carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e5ab0ee8fa60b6aead

Background

The p14ARF/MDM2/p53 pathway plays an important role in modulation of DNA damage and oxidative stress responses. The aim of this study was to determine whether genetic variants in MDM2 and p14ARF are associated with risk of salivary gland carcinoma (SGC).

Methods

Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MDM2 and p14ARF (MDM2-rs2279744, MDM2-rs937283, p14ARF-rs3731217, and p14ARF-rs3088440) were genotyped in 156 patients with SGC and 511 cancer-free controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results

MDM2-rs2279744 was significantly associated with a moderately increased risk of SGC (OR, 1.5, 95% CI, 1.1–2.2). There was a trend toward significantly increased SGC risk with increasing number of risk genotypes of the four polymorphisms (Ptrend = 0.004). Individuals carrying 3–4 risk genotypes in MDM2 and p14ARF were at increased SGC risk (OR, 2.0, 95% CI, 1.1–2.7) compared with individuals carrying 0–2 risk genotypes. Moreover, the combined effect of risk genotypes of MDM2 and p14ARF was more pronounced among young subjects (≤45 years), female subjects, subjects with race/ethnicity other than non-Hispanic white, ever-smokers, and ever-drinkers.

Conclusion

Our results support the involvement of SNPs of MDM2 and p14ARF, either alone or more likely in combination, in susceptibility to SGC. Larger studies are needed to validate our findings.

]]>
<![CDATA[Comprehensive Evaluation of One-Carbon Metabolism Pathway Gene Variants and Renal Cell Cancer Risk]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9deab0ee8fa60b68c21

Introduction

Folate and one-carbon metabolism are linked to cancer risk through their integral role in DNA synthesis and methylation. Variation in one-carbon metabolism genes, particularly MTHFR, has been associated with risk of a number of cancers in epidemiologic studies, but little is known regarding renal cancer.

Methods

Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected to produce high genomic coverage of 13 gene regions of one-carbon metabolism (ALDH1L1, BHMT, CBS, FOLR1, MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, SHMT1, SLC19A1, TYMS) and the closely associated glutathione synthesis pathway (CTH, GGH, GSS) were genotyped for 777 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cases and 1,035 controls in the Central and Eastern European Renal Cancer case-control study. Associations of individual SNPs (n = 163) with RCC risk were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex and study center. Minimum p-value permutation (Min-P) tests were used to identify gene regions associated with risk, and haplotypes were evaluated within these genes.

Results

The strongest associations with RCC risk were observed for SLC19A1 (Pmin-P = 0.03) and MTHFR (Pmin-P = 0.13). A haplotype consisting of four SNPs in SLC19A1 (rs12483553, rs2838950, rs2838951, and rs17004785) was associated with a 37% increased risk (p = 0.02), and exploratory stratified analysis suggested the association was only significant among those in the lowest tertile of vegetable intake.

Conclusions

To our knowledge, this is the first study to comprehensively examine variation in one-carbon metabolism genes in relation to RCC risk. We identified a novel association with SLC19A1, which is important for transport of folate into cells. Replication in other populations is required to confirm these findings.

]]>
<![CDATA[Cancer Risk of Anti-TNF-α at Recommended Doses in Adult Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Meta-Analysis with Intention to Treat and per Protocol Analyses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da71ab0ee8fa60b94f40

Background

The risk of malignancies on TNF-α antagonists is controversial. The aim of this survey was to assess cancer risk on TNF-α antagonists in adult rheumatoid arthritis patients, including the five marketed drugs (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab and certolizumab) used in line with the New Drug Application. Furthermore, the relative interest of modified intention to treat or per protocol analyses to assess such sparse events remains unknown.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Data sources were MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ISI Web of Science, ACR and EULAR meeting abstracts, scientific evaluation of the drugs leading to their marketing approval, and clinicaltrials.gov, until 31 December 2012.We selected double-blind randomized controlled trials in adult rheumatoid arthritis patients, including at least one treatment arm in line with New Drug Application. We performed random effect meta-analysis, with modified intention to treat and per protocol analyses. Thirty-three trials were included. There was no excess risk of malignancies on anti-TNF-α administered in line with New Drug Application in the per protocol model (OR, 0.93 95%CI[0.59–1.44]), as well as in the modified intention to treat model (OR, 1.27 95%CI[0.82–1.98]). There was a non-significant tendency for an excess non-melanoma skin cancer risk in both models (respectively, 1.37 [0.71–2.66] and 1.90 [0.98–3.67]). With fixed effect Peto model restricting to trials during at least 52 weeks, the overall cancer risk was respectively 1.60 [0.97–2.64] and 1.22 [0.72–2.08]. Whatever the model, modified intention to treat analysis led to higher estimations than per protocol analysis. The later may underestimate the treatment effect when assessing very sparse events and when many patients dropped out in placebo arms. In metaregression, there was no differential risk among the five drugs.

Conclusions/Significance

This study did not find any evidence for an excess cancer risk on TNF-α antagonists in adult rheumatoid arthritis patients, but an excess cancer risk after several years of exposure cannot be ruled out. Both modified intention to treat and per protocol analyses should be presented in such safety analyses.

]]>
<![CDATA[Use of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f1ab0ee8fa60b6e6fc

Background

Despite strong laboratory evidence that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) could prevent prostate cancer, epidemiological studies have so far reported conflicting results. Most studies were limited by lack of information on dosage and duration of use of the different classes of NSAIDs.

Methods

We conducted a nested case-control study using data from Saskatchewan Prescription Drug Plan (SPDP) and Cancer Registry to examine the effects of dose and duration of use of five classes of NSAIDs on prostate cancer risk. Cases (N = 9,007) were men aged ≥40 years diagnosed with prostatic carcinoma between 1985 and 2000, and were matched to four controls on age and duration of SPDP membership. Detailed histories of exposure to prescription NSAIDs and other drugs were obtained from the SPDP.

Results

Any use of propionates (e.g., ibuprofen, naproxen) was associated with a modest reduction in prostate cancer risk (Odds ratio = 0.90; 95%CI 0.84-0.95), whereas use of other NSAIDs was not. In particular, we did not observe the hypothesized inverse association with aspirin use (1.01; 0.95–1.07). There was no clear evidence of dose-response or duration-response relationships for any of the examined NSAID classes.

Conclusions

Our findings suggest modest benefits of at least some NSAIDs in reducing prostate cancer risk.

]]>