ResearchPad - cardiovascular-medicine https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Efficacy and safety of xuezhikang once per day versus two times per day in patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolaemia (APEX study): a protocol for a multicentre, prospective randomised controlled, open-label, non-inferiority study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12537 Reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) improves clinical outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease. However, rates of lipid-lowering medication adherence are far from ideal. Reducing dosage frequency from multiple dosing to once-daily dosing may improve patients’ medication adherence. Xuezhikang (XZK), an extract of Chinese red yeast rice, contains a family of naturally occurring statins and is traditionally prescribed as 600 mg two times per day. A comParative Efficacy study of XZK (APEX study) is designed to test the hypothesis that XZK prescribed 1200 mg once per day (OD group) is non-inferior to 600 mg two times per day (TD group) in patients with hypercholesterolaemia.Methods and analysisThe APEX study is a multicentre, prospective randomised controlled, open-label, non-inferiority study. We plan to recruit 316 patients aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of mild to moderate hypercholesterolaemia for primary prevention. Patients will be randomised (1:1) to OD group and TD group. The OD group take XZK 1200 mg once per day after dinner while TD group take a traditional dose of 600 mg, two times per day after meals. Participants will have an 8-week medication period and be followed up at weeks 0, 4 and 8. The primary end point is the mean percentage change from baseline to week 8 in serum LDL-C. Secondary end points are safety and lipid-lowering effect on other lipoproteins and compliance. Data analyses will be on the intention-to-treat principle using non-inferiority analysis.Ethics and disseminationThe research had been approved by the Clinical Research and Laboratory Animal Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University ((2017)286). The results will be reported through peer-reviewed journals, seminars and conference presentations.Trial registration numberChiCTR-IIR-17013660. ]]> <![CDATA[Age-related trends in lipid levels: a large-scale cross-sectional study of the general Chinese population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9092 This study aimed to investigate the dynamic trends in total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with ageing.DesignA Chinese population-based cross-sectional study.SettingA physical examination centre of a general hospital.ParticipantsAdult subjects (178 167: 103 461 men and 74 706 women) without a known medical history or treatments that affect lipid metabolism.Main outcome measuresDynamic trends in the above-mentioned lipid parameters with ageing were explored; turning points of age were established using age stratification and validated by fitted multivariate linear regression modelling.ResultsAge was found to be an independent factor extensively associated with lipid levels in both sexes when adjusted for serum glucose, body mass index, lifestyle, drinking and smoking. Age was positively associated with TC, logarithm-transformed TG (LnTG) and LDL-C levels in men ≤40, ≤40 and ≤60 years old (yo) and in women ≤60, ≤70 and ≤60 yo, respectively. Conversely, age correlated negatively with TC, LnTG and LDL-C levels in men ≥61, ≥41 and ≥61 yo and in women ≥61, ≥71 and ≥61 yo, respectively. TC, TG and LDL-C levels in women were initially lower than those in men but surpassed those in men in 51–55, 61–65 and 51–55 yo age groups. The trends in HDL-C levels with age were relatively irregular, although HDL-C levels in women were higher than in men for all age groups.ConclusionsThe definition of dyslipidaemia, the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk assessment and the initiation/goals of statin therapy should fully consider age-related trends in lipid levels and sex differences. ]]> <![CDATA[High Density Lipoprotein and Its Precursor Protein Apolipoprotein A1 as Potential Therapeutics to Prevent Anthracycline Associated Cardiotoxicity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7853 Cardiovascular disease and cancer are the leading causes of death in developed societies. Despite their effectiveness, many cancer therapies exhibit deleterious cardiovascular side effects such as cardiotoxicity and heart failure. The cardiotoxic effects of anthracyclines such as doxorubicin are the most well-characterized of cardiotoxic anti-cancer therapies. While other anti-neoplastic drugs also induce cardiotoxicity, often leading to heart failure, they are beyond the scope of this review. This review first summarizes the mechanisms of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. It then reviews emerging preclinical evidence that high density lipoprotein and its precursor protein apolipoprotein A1, which are known for their protective effects against ischemic cardiovascular disease, may also protect against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity both directly and indirectly, when used therapeutically.

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<![CDATA[Computed Tomography Angiography in Peripheral Arterial Disease: Comparison of Three Image Acquisition Techniques to Optimize Vascular Enhancement—Randomized Controlled Trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7852 Objectives: To prospectively compare three image acquisition techniques in lower extremity CT angiography: the “standard” anterograde technique (SA), the adaptive anterograde technique (AA), and the retrograde acquisition technique (RA).

Materials and Methods: Sixty consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled and randomized into three acquisition groups: 20 patients were evaluated with SA, 20 with AA as described by Qanadli et al., and 20 with caudocranial acquisition from the feet to the abdominal aorta (RA). Quantitative image quality was assessed by measuring the intraluminal attenuation at different levels of interest, with a total of 536 levels. Qualitative image quality was assessed by two radiologists in consensus using a Likert scale to rate the arterial enhancement and venous return. For each patient and limb, the presence of occlusive or aneurysmal disease was documented.

Results: In quantitative analysis, RA showed lower attenuation values than SA and AA (p < 0.01). AA showed the highest and most homogeneous attenuation along the arterial tree. In qualitative analysis, AA had the lowest rate of non-diagnostic vascular segments (3.9%) compared to SA and RA (4.7 and 13.1%, respectively, p < 0.01). The influence of venous return was significantly different among the different techniques; venous contamination was particularly prevalent at the aortic level with RA (9.4% of patients, 0% with SA and AA, p < 0.01). The presence of stenosis or occlusion had no significant influence on the attenuation values across all levels and acquisition techniques. Conversely, the presence of aneurysmal disease had a significant effect on the luminal attenuation in AA (higher attenuation) and RA (lower attenuation) at the iliac (p = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively) and femoral levels (p = 0.02 and <0.01, respectively).

Conclusion: Considering both quantitative and qualitative analysis, AA performed better than SA and RA, providing the highest percentage of optimal vascular enhancement. AA should be recommended as the technique of choice, specifically in the presence of aneurysmal disease. Alternatively, SA can be useful in case of renal failure, as the test bolus is unnecessary. Finally, the increasing availability of fast CT systems will likely overcome the limitations of RA.

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<![CDATA[Cardiovascular Impairment in COVID-19: Learning From Current Options for Cardiovascular Anti-Inflammatory Therapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7614 In December 2019, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2, occurred in China and has currently led to a global pandemic. In addition to respiratory involvement, COVID-19 was also associated with significant multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Cardiovascular impairment has been observed and is now drawing growing attention. Cardiovascular protective strategies are urgent and of great significance to the overall prognosis of COVID-19 patients. Direct viral infection, cytokine storm, and aggravation of existing cardiovascular diseases were recognized as possible mechanisms of cardiovascular impairment in COVID-19. Hyperactivated inflammation plays an important role in all three mechanisms and is considered to be fundamental in the development of cardiovascular impairment and MODS in COVID-19. Therefore, in addition to conventional cardiovascular treatment, anti-inflammatory therapy is a reasonable strategy for severe cases to further enhance cardiovascular protection and potentially mitigate MODS. We reviewed the inflammatory features and current promising treatments of COVID-19 as well as cardiovascular anti-inflammatory therapies that have been verified in previous clinical trials with positive outcomes. We believe that targeting the central pathway (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6), balancing the Th1 and Th2 response, and administering long-term anti-inflammatory therapy might be promising prospects to reduce cardiovascular impairment and even MODS during the acute and recovery phases of COVID-19. The cardiovascular anti-inflammatory therapies might be of great application value to the management of COVID-19 patients and we further propose an algorithm for the selection of anti-inflammatory therapy for COVID-19 patients with or at high risk of cardiovascular impairment. We recommend to take the experiences in cardiovascular anti-inflammatory therapy as references in the management of COVID-19 and conduct related clinical trials, while the clinical translation of novel treatments from preclinical studies or in vitro drug screening should proceed with caution due to unguaranteed efficacy and safety profiles.

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<![CDATA[Health-Related Quality of Life in Children With Earlier Surgical Repair for Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Anomalies and the Agreement Between Children and Their Parents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7537 Background: Children diagnosed with right ventricle outflow tract (RVOT) anomalies require surgical repair early in life, reoperations and lifelong follow-up. The aim is to comprehensively describe their health related quality of life (HRQoL) and to assess the agreement in this regard between children and parents.

Methods and Results: Child- and parent-reported HRQoL was assessed in 97 children aged 8–18 years using three different HRQoL questionnaires. The mean age was 12.9 ± 3 years. The mean total score for the child report was lower in the PedsQL Cardiac Module than in the PedsQL 4.0 and DISABKIDS (p ≤ 0.001). The mean score for each domain in PedsQL Cardiac Module ranged between 67 (cognitive function) and 79 (physical appearance), and between 72 (school function) and 82 (physical and social function) in PedsQL 4.0. Nearly half of the children reported problems with shortness of breath during physical activity. In the PedsQL Cardiac Module the child-parent agreement was strong for 13 of 22 items.

Conclusion: HRQoL problems as perceived by children with RVOT anomalies are best identified with the PedsQL Cardiac Module and relate mostly to cognitive and physical functioning. The agreement findings suggest the need to take into account both child- and parent reports in the assessment of HRQoL.

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<![CDATA[DNA Damage, an Innocent Bystander in Atrial Fibrillation and Other Cardiovascular Diseases?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7487 Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common clinical tachyarrhythmia with a strong tendency to progress in time. AF is difficult to treat and therefore there is a great need to dissect root causes of AF with the ultimate goal to develop mechanism-based (drug) therapies. New findings related to mechanisms driving AF progression indicate a prime role for DNA damage-induced metabolic remodeling. A recent study uncovered that AF results in oxidative DNA damage and consequently excessive poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) activation and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) depletion and finally atrial cardiomyocyte electrical and contractile dysfunction. This newly elucidated role of DNA damage in AF opens opportunities for novel therapeutic strategies. Recently developed PARP inhibitors, such as ABT-888 and olaparib, provide beneficial effects in limiting experimental AF, and are also found to limit atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and heart failure. Another therapeutic option to protect against AF is to replenish the NAD+ pool by supplementation with NAD+ or its precursors, such as nicotinamide and nicotinamide riboside. In this review, we describe the role of DNA damage-mediated metabolic remodeling in AF and other cardiovascular diseases, discuss novel druggable targets for AF and highlight future directions for clinical trials with drugs directed at PARP1-NAD+ pathway with the ultimate aim to preserve quality of life and to attenuate severe complications such as heart failure or stroke in patients with AF.

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<![CDATA[Inter-operator Reliability for Measuring Pulse Wave Velocity and Augmentation Index]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7482 Background: Arterial stiffness is a reversible precursor to hypertension. However, research is needed to determine the minimum amount of training required before acceptable arterial stiffness measurements are collected by novice operators.

Objective: To compare novice vs. experienced operator measurements over a 2-week training period to assess when expert-like measures are achieved by the novice operator.

Method: Forty-one participants (18 males, 23 females, age: 46.6 ± 14.9 years; BMI: 25.2 ± 3.8; systolic blood pressure: 122.8 ± 14.7 mmHg) received alternating novice and experienced operator arterial stiffness assessments. Measurements included: pulse wave velocity (PWV; using the automatic-capture time-periods of 5-, 10-, and 20-s) and augmentation index (AIx75) measurements using the SphygmoCor XCEL System v1 (AtCor Medical Pty Ltd., Sydney, Australia). Data were chronologically arranged into quintiles.

Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient for PWV substantially improved from quintile 1 (r < 0.8) to quintile 2 and beyond (typically r > 0.8) while AIx75 improved consistently (r = 0.7 in quintile 1 and r = 0.97 in quintile 5). The coefficient of variation was lowest in quintile 4 (PWV: 4.7–6% across the three measurement time-periods; and 15% for AIx75) but increased in quintile 5 (PWV: 6.2–10.5%; and 25% for AIx75). All measurements demonstrated acceptable to excellent reliability after quintile 2.

Conclusion: To achieve expert-like PWV measurements in this study, the novice operator underwent a familiarization session including guided practice measurements on 5 different people, for 10–15 min per person on two occasions (~2.5 h). The novice operator then required ≥14 practice measurements, with accuracy continuing to improve up to 30 participants. At least 30 training measurements are recommended for novices to take acceptable AIx75 measurements after a familiarization training.

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<![CDATA[Organ System Crosstalk in Cardiometabolic Disease in the Age of Multimorbidity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7477 The close association among cardiovascular, metabolic, and kidney diseases suggests a common pathological basis and significant interaction among these diseases. Metabolic syndrome and cardiorenal syndrome are two examples that exemplify the interlinked development of disease or dysfunction in two or more organs. Recent studies have been sorting out the mechanisms responsible for the crosstalk among the organs comprising the cardiovascular, metabolic, and renal systems, including heart–kidney and adipose–liver signaling, among many others. However, it is also becoming clear that this crosstalk is not limited to just pairs of organs, and in addition to organ–organ crosstalk, there are also organ–system and organ–body interactions. For instance, heart failure broadly impacts various organs and systems, including the kidney, liver, lung, and nervous system. Conversely, systemic dysregulation of metabolism, immunity, and nervous system activity greatly affects heart failure development and prognosis. This is particularly noteworthy, as more and more patients present with two or more coexisting chronic diseases or conditions (multimorbidity) due in part to the aging of society. Advances in treatment also contribute to the increase in multimorbidity, as exemplified by cardiovascular disease in cancer survivors. To understand the mechanisms underlying the increasing burden of multimorbidity, it is vital to elucidate the multilevel crosstalk and communication within the body at the levels of organ systems, tissues, and cells. In this article, we focus on chronic inflammation as a key common pathological basis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and discuss emerging mechanisms that drive chronic inflammation in the context of multimorbidity.

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<![CDATA[Text messages for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: the TextMe2 randomised controlled trial protocol]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N75362589-ae67-4329-bf99-a4d2439bac03 Mobile health may be an effective means of delivering customised individually directed health promotion interventions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) primary prevention. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a lifestyle-focused text messaging programme for primary CVD prevention.Methods and analysisSingle-blind randomised controlled trial with 6 months’ follow-up in 246 patients with moderate-high absolute cardiovascular risk and without coronary heart disease recruited from a rapid access cardiology clinic. Participants will be randomised to receive either usual care or TextMe2 (text message-based prevention programme). The TextMe2 programme provides support, motivation and education on five topics: diet, physical activity, smoking, general cardiovascular health and medication adherence, and is delivered in four text messages per week over 6 months. The primary outcome is change in the proportion of patients who have three or more of five key modifiable risk factors that are uncontrolled (low-density lipoprotein >2.0 mmol/L, systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg, body mass index >24.9 kg/m2, physical activity (less than the equivalent of 150 min of moderate intensity each week), current smoker). Secondary outcomes are changes in single biomedical risk factors, behavioural risk factors, quality of life, depression/anxiety scores, medication adherence, cardiovascular health literacy and hospital readmissions/representations. Analysis will be according to the intention-to-treat principle and full statistical analysis plan developed prior to data lock.Ethics and disseminationThis study has been approved by the Western Sydney Local Health District Human Research Ethics Committee at Westmead (AU/RED/HREC/17/WMEAD/186). Results will be presented at scientific meetings and published in peer-reviewed publications.Trial registration numberACTRN12618001153202. ]]> <![CDATA[Coronary artery disease prediction in women and men using chest pain characteristics and risk factors: an observational study in outpatient clinics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N757c6b79-0a26-4dfa-8917-d097f0d22d03 To assess the diagnostic value of non-acute chest pain characteristics for coronary artery disease in women and men referred to outpatient cardiology clinics.Design and settingThis is an observational study performed at outpatient cardiology centres of the Netherlands.ParticipantsThe study population consisted of 1028 patients with non-acute chest pain (505 women).Analysis and resultsTwenty-four women (5%) and 75 men (15%) were diagnosed with coronary artery disease by invasive coronary angiography or CT angiography during regular care follow-up. Elastic net regression was performed to assess which chest pain characteristics and risk factors were of diagnostic value. The overall model selected age, provocation by temperature or stress, relief at rest and functional class as determinants and was accurate in both sexes (area under the curve (AUC) of 0.76 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.85) in women and 0.83 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.88) in men). Both sex-specific models selected age, pressuring nature, radiation, duration, frequency, progress, provocation and relief at rest as determinants. The female model additionally selected dyspnoea, body mass index, hypertension and smoking while the male model additionally selected functional class and diabetes. The sex-specific models performed better than the overall model, but more so in women (AUC: 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.96) than in men (AUC: 0.84, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.90).ConclusionsIn both sexes, the diagnostic value of non-acute chest pain characteristics and risk factors for coronary artery disease was high. Provocation, relief at rest and functional class of chest pain were the most powerful diagnostic predictors in both women and men. When stratified by sex the performance of the model improved, mostly in women. ]]> <![CDATA[Timing of Circulatory and Neurological Events in Syncope]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N227c9153-2275-487c-bace-d82e2e525883

Syncope usually lasts less than a minute, in which short time arterial blood pressure temporarily falls enough to decrease brain perfusion so much that loss of consciousness ensues. Blood pressure decreases quickest when the heart suddenly stops pumping, which happens in arrhythmia and in severe cardioinhibitory reflex syncope. Loss of consciousness starts about 8 s after the last heart beat and circulatory standstill occurs after 10–15 s. A much slower blood pressure decrease can occur in syncope due to orthostatic hypotension Standing blood pressure can then stabilize at low values often causing more subtle signs (i.e., inability to act) but often not low enough to cause loss of consciousness. Cerebral autoregulation attempts to keep cerebral blood flow constant when blood pressure decreases. In reflex syncope both the quick blood pressure decrease and its low absolute value mean that cerebral autoregulation cannot prevent syncope. It has more protective value in orthostatic hypotension. Neurological signs are related to the severity and timing of cerebral hypoperfusion. Several unanswered pathophysiological questions with possible clinical implications are identified.

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<![CDATA[Considerations for Using the Vasculature as a Coordinate System to Map All the Cells in the Human Body]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne4e34947-bebf-4062-9870-b306f4bf2409

Several ongoing international efforts are developing methods of localizing single cells within organs or mapping the entire human body at the single cell level, including the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative's Human Cell Atlas (HCA), and the Knut and Allice Wallenberg Foundation's Human Protein Atlas (HPA), and the National Institutes of Health's Human BioMolecular Atlas Program (HuBMAP). Their goals are to understand cell specialization, interactions, spatial organization in their natural context, and ultimately the function of every cell within the body. In the same way that the Human Genome Project had to assemble sequence data from different people to construct a complete sequence, multiple centers around the world are collecting tissue specimens from diverse populations that vary in age, race, sex, and body size. A challenge will be combining these heterogeneous tissue samples into a 3D reference map that will enable multiscale, multidimensional Google Maps-like exploration of the human body. Key to making alignment of tissue samples work is identifying and using a coordinate system called a Common Coordinate Framework (CCF), which defines the positions, or “addresses,” in a reference body, from whole organs down to functional tissue units and individual cells. In this perspective, we examine the concept of a CCF based on the vasculature and describe why it would be an attractive choice for mapping the human body.

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<![CDATA[Mechanisms of Anthracycline-Induced Cardiotoxicity: Is Mitochondrial Dysfunction the Answer?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N783387ca-0b5b-4319-b1eb-c8bbee88b4bd

Cardiac side effects are a major drawback of anticancer therapies, often requiring the use of low and less effective doses or even discontinuation of the drug. Among all the drugs known to cause severe cardiotoxicity are anthracyclines that, though being the oldest chemotherapeutic drugs, are still a mainstay in the treatment of solid and hematological tumors. The recent expansion of the field of Cardio-Oncology, a branch of cardiology dealing with prevention or treatment of heart complications due to cancer treatment, has greatly improved our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms behind anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC). Despite excessive generation of reactive oxygen species was originally believed to be the main cause of AIC, recent evidence points to the involvement of a plethora of different mechanisms that, interestingly, mainly converge on deregulation of mitochondrial function. In this review, we will describe how anthracyclines affect cardiac mitochondria and how these organelles contribute to AIC. Furthermore, we will discuss how drugs specifically targeting mitochondrial dysfunction and/or mitochondria-targeted drugs could be therapeutically exploited to treat AIC.

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<![CDATA[A Single-Cell Transcriptional Roadmap of the Mouse and Human Lymph Node Lymphatic Vasculature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N504d0e46-a1a3-4660-87e8-3e89639760ba Single-cell transcriptomics promise to revolutionize our understanding of the vasculature. Emerging computational methods applied to high-dimensional single-cell data allow integration of results between samples and species and illuminate the diversity and underlying developmental and architectural organization of cell populations. Here, we illustrate these methods in the analysis of mouse lymph node (LN) lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) at single-cell resolution. Clustering identifies five well-delineated subsets, including two medullary sinus subsets not previously recognized as distinct. Nearest neighbor alignments in trajectory space position the major subsets in a sequence that recapitulates the known features and suggests novel features of LN lymphatic organization, providing a transcriptional map of the lymphatic endothelial niches and of the transitions between them. Differences in gene expression reveal specialized programs for (1) subcapsular ceiling endothelial interactions with the capsule connective tissue and cells; (2) subcapsular floor regulation of lymph borne cell entry into the LN parenchyma and antigen presentation; and (3) pathogen interactions and (4) LN remodeling in distinct medullary subsets. LEC of the subcapsular sinus floor and medulla, which represent major sites of cell entry and exit from the LN parenchyma respectively, respond robustly to oxazolone inflammation challenge with enriched signaling pathways that converge on both innate and adaptive immune responses. Integration of mouse and human single-cell profiles reveals a conserved cross-species pattern of lymphatic vascular niches and gene expression, as well as specialized human subsets and genes unique to each species. The examples provided demonstrate the power of single-cell analysis in elucidating endothelial cell heterogeneity, vascular organization, and endothelial cell responses. We discuss the findings from the perspective of LEC functions in relation to niche formations in the unique stromal and highly immunological environment of the LN. ]]> <![CDATA[Decomposition of Heart Rate Variability Spectrum into a Power-Law Function and a Residual Spectrum]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5afeb5c0463d7e1b0264d8c9

The power spectral density (PSD) of heart rate variability (HRV) contains a power-law relationship that can be obtained by plotting the logarithm of PSD against the logarithm of frequency. The PSD of HRV can be decomposed mathematically into a power-law function and a residual HRV (rHRV) spectrum. Almost all rHRV measures are significantly smaller than their corresponding HRV measures except the normalized high-frequency power (nrHFP). The power-law function can be characterized by the slope and Y-intercept of linear regression. Almost all HRV measures except the normalized low-frequency power have significant correlations with the Y-intercept, while almost all rHRV measures except the total power [residual total power (rTP)] do not. Though some rHRV measures still correlate significantly with the age of the subjects, the rTP, high-frequency power (rHFP), nrHFP, and low-/high-frequency power ratio (rLHR) do not. In conclusion, the clinical significances of rHRV measures might be different from those of traditional HRV measures. The Y-intercept might be a better HRV measure for clinical use because it is independent of almost all rHRV measures. The rTP, rHFP, nrHFP, and rLHR might be more suitable for the study of age-independent autonomic nervous modulation of the subjects.

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<![CDATA[Unmasked Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy after Mitral Valve Repair for Severe Mitral Regurgitation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0a567210-0949-4ace-9c5e-18d8659dbd34 ]]> <![CDATA[Coronary Arteriovenous Fistulas Mimicking Coronary Perforation After Chronic Total Occlusion Recanalization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N14beef6a-7a6c-44d9-bd90-76aa469b542b ]]> <![CDATA[Constitutive hydrogen inhalation prevents vascular remodeling via reduction of oxidative stress]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne1330967-900e-43ee-b1f2-140543b0d511

Molecular hydrogen is thought to have an inhibitory effect on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of various diseases including cardiovascular disease; however, few reports have assessed the preventive effect of constitutive inhalation of hydrogen gas on of vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of constitutive inhalation of hydrogen gas on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. After constitutive inhalation of compressed hydrogen gas (O2 21%, N2 77.7%, hydrogen 1.3%) or compressed air only (O2 21%, N2 79%) by C57BL/6 mice for 2 weeks from 8 weeks of age in a closed chamber, inflammatory cuff injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the femoral artery under anesthesia, and hydrogen gas administration was continued until sampling of the femoral artery. Neointima formation, accompanied by an increase in cell proliferation, was significantly attenuated in the hydrogen group compared with the control group. NADPH oxidase NOX1 downregulation in response to cuff injury was shown in the hydrogen group, but the expression levels of NADPH oxidase subunits, p40phox and p47phox, did not differ significantly between the hydrogen and control groups. Although the increase in superoxide anion production did not significantly differ between the hydrogen and control groups, DNA damage was decreased as a result of reduction of reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radical (⋅OH) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) in the hydrogen group. These results demonstrate that constitutive inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates vascular remodeling partly via reduction of oxidative stress, suggesting that constitutive inhalation of hydrogen gas at a safe concentration in the living environment could be an effective strategy for prevention of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis.

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<![CDATA[Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes for Assessment of Anticancer Drug-Induced Cardiotoxicity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na2c7b98c-393e-41ea-bc8c-b94ced8960ad

Cardiotoxicity is a major cause of high attrition rates among newly developed drugs. Moreover, anti-cancer treatment-induced cardiotoxicity is one of the leading reasons of mortality in cancer survivors. Cardiotoxicity screening in vitro may improve predictivity of cardiotoxicity by novel drugs, using human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived-cardiomyocytes. Anthracyclines, including Doxorubicin, are widely used and highly effective chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of different forms of malignancies. Unfortunately, anthracyclines cause many cardiac complications early or late after therapy. Anthracyclines exhibit their potent anti-cancer effect primarily via induction of DNA damage during the DNA replication phase in proliferative cells. In contrast, studies in animals and hPSC-cardiomyocytes have revealed that cardiotoxic effects particularly arise from (1) the generation of oxidative stress inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, (2) disruption of calcium homeostasis, and (3) changes in transcriptome and proteome, triggering apoptotic cell death. To increase the therapeutic index of chemotherapeutic Doxorubicin therapy several protective strategies have been developed or are under development, such as (1) reducing toxicity through modification of Doxorubicin (analogs), (2) targeted delivery of anthracyclines specifically to the tumor tissue or (3) cardioprotective agents that can be used in combination with Doxorubicin. Despite continuous progress in the field of cardio-oncology, cardiotoxicity is still one of the major complications of anti-cancer therapy. In this review, we focus on current hPSC-cardiomyocyte models for assessing anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity and strategies for cardioprotection. In addition, we discuss latest developments toward personalized advanced pre-clinical models that are more closely recapitulating the human heart, which are necessary to support in vitro screening platforms with higher predictivity. These advanced models have the potential to reduce the time from bench-to-bedside of novel antineoplastic drugs with reduced cardiotoxicity.

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