ResearchPad - case-control-studies https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A sustainable working life in the car manufacturing industry: The role of psychosocial factors, gender and occupation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14576 In order to add to the existing knowledge about factors associated with retirement timing, in the car industry, it is useful to consider the psychosocial working conditions prior to retirement. This case-control study aimed to investigate relationships between psychosocial job factors and extended work after the age of 62 years among workers in the car industry in Sweden.MethodsA study invitation with a survey was sent to workers in one of Sweden’s largest car manufacturing company, who were employed 2005–2015 and either retired at the age 55–62 years or working at 63 years or older. Psychosocial variables such as job demand-control (JDC) and effort-reward imbalance (ERI) were recorded through the survey. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between psychosocial variables and retirement in 572 cases that had continued to work ≥ 63 years, and 771 controls who had retired at 62 or earlier.ResultsNo associations were found between JDC-variables and retirement in the total sample or gender stratified analyses, but high demands-low control (high strain) was related to retirement before the age of 63 years in blue-collar workers. In contrast, high strain was related to continuing to work after 62 years for white-collar men and, high ERI was associated with extended work for the total sample of white-collar workers, and white-collar men, however these effects became non-significant in fully adjusted models.ConclusionsThe relationships between psychosocial factors and extended work after 62 years were inconsistent, with high strain being related to retiring earlier for blue-collar workers. ]]> <![CDATA[A smartphone-based test for the assessment of attention deficits in delirium: A case-control diagnostic test accuracy study in older hospitalised patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8fecd5fe-2073-4d74-805a-6132ddca5eea

Background

Delirium is a common and serious acute neuropsychiatric syndrome which is often missed in routine clinical care. Inattention is the core cognitive feature. Diagnostic test accuracy (including cut-points) of a smartphone Delirium App (DelApp) for assessing attention deficits was assessed in older hospital inpatients.

Methods

This was a case-control study of hospitalised patients aged ≥65 years with delirium (with or without pre-existing cognitive impairment), who were compared to patients with dementia without delirium, and patients without cognitive impairment. Reference standard delirium assessment, which included a neuropsychological test battery, was based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 criteria. A separate blinded assessor administered the DelApp arousal assessment (score 0–4) and attention task (0–6) yielding an overall score of 0 to 10 (lower scores indicate poorer performance). Analyses included receiver operating characteristic curves and sensitivity and specificity. Optimal cut-points for delirium detection were determined using Youden’s index.

Results

A total of 187 patients were recruited, mean age 83.8 (range 67–98) years, 152 (81%) women; n = 61 with delirium; n = 61 with dementia without delirium; and n = 65 without cognitive impairment. Patients with delirium performed poorly on the DelApp (median score = 4/10; inter-quartile range 3.0, 5.5) compared to patients with dementia (9.0; 5.5, 10.0) and those without cognitive impairment (10.0; 10.0, 10.0). Area under the curve for detecting delirium was 0.89 (95% Confidence Interval 0.84, 0.94). At an optimal cut-point of ≤8, sensitivity was 91.7% (84.7%, 98.7%) and specificity 74.2% (66.5%, 81.9%) for discriminating delirium from the other groups. Specificity was 68.3% (56.6%, 80.1%) for discriminating delirium from dementia (cut-point ≤6).

Conclusion

Patients with delirium (with or without pre-existing cognitive impairment) perform poorly on the DelApp compared to patients with dementia and those without cognitive impairment. A cut-point of ≤8/10 is suggested as having optimal sensitivity and specificity. The DelApp is a promising tool for assessment of attention deficits associated with delirium in older hospitalised adults, many of whom have prior cognitive impairment, and should be further validated in representative patient cohorts.

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<![CDATA[Psychological factors and premenstrual syndrome: A Spanish case-control study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c89777bd5eed0c4847d2df4

Objective

To assess whether the psychological variables perceived stress, neuroticism and coping strategies, are associated with Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Premenstrual Dysphoric Syndrome (PMDD).

Design

Case-control study with incident cases using the Spanish public healthcare system.

Setting

3 major public hospitals and one family counseling and planning center.

Population

Women consulting for troubles related to menstruation and for other motives such as screening for uterine cancer, contraception counselling or desire for pregnancy.

Methods

Logistic regression.

Main outcome measures

Odds of PMS and PMDD.

Results

285 PMS and 285 age-matched controls, as well as 88 PMDD cases and 176 controls participated in the study. Medium and high levels of perceived stress were associated with an increase in the odds of PMS (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.49; 95%CI: 1.41–4.39 and OR = 4.90; 95%CI: 2.70–8.89, respectively). For PMDD the results were: OR = 2.61; 95%CI: 1.35–5.05 and OR = 5.79; 95%CI: 2.63–12.76, respectively.

Subjects with medium and high levels of neuroticism were also at higher odds of suffering from PMS (OR = 2.53; 95%CI: 1.06–6.06 and OR = 8.05; 95%CI: 3.07–2.12, respectively). For PMDD, the results were OR = 3.70; 95%CI: 1.27–10.77 and 5.73: 95%CI: 1.96–16.77, respectively.

High levels in the large majority of coping strategies were also associated with increased odds of PMS and PMDD.

Conclusions

Psychological factors including perceived stress, neuroticism and coping strategies are strongly related to PMS/PMDD. This association is unlikely to be due to confounding or misclassification bias. A reverse causation process cannot be ruled out although its likelihood is remote.

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<![CDATA[The risk factors for diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe3ad5eed0c484e5b744

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), the most common chronic complication of diabetes, has become an important public health crisis worldwide. Given that DPN is extremely difficult to treat, determining its risk factors and controlling it at an early stage is critical to preventing its serious consequences and the burden of social disease. Current studies suggest that the risk factors for diabetic peripheral neuropathy are the duration of diabetes, age, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), diabetic retinopathy (DR), smoking, and body mass Index (BMI). However, most of the aforementioned studies are cross-sectional, and the sample sizes are very limited, so the strength of causal reasoning is relatively low. The current study systematically evaluated DPN’s influencing factors in patients with type 2 diabetes using evidence-based medicine. Overall, 16 included studies (14 cross-sectional studies and 2 case-control studies including 12,116 cases) that conformed to the present criteria were included in the final analysis. The results suggested that the duration of diabetes (MD 2.5, 95% CI 1.71~3.29), age (MD 4.00, 95% CI 3.05~4.95), HbA1c (MD 0.48, 95% CI 0.33~0.64), and DR (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.74~3.16) are associated with significantly increased risks of DPN among diabetic patients, while BMI, smoking, total triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol (TC) did not indicate any risks of increasing DPN. The findings provide a scientific basis for a further understanding of the causes of type 2 diabetes complicated with peripheral neuropathy and the improvement of preventive strategies. The next step is to conduct further high-quality prospective cohort studies to validate this paper’s findings.

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<![CDATA[Seasonal malaria chemoprevention packaged with malnutrition prevention in northern Nigeria: A pragmatic trial (SMAMP study) with nested case-control]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e6e0d5eed0c484ef40d4

Integrating seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC), recommended by the WHO since 2012 to prevent malaria infection, with nutrition interventions may improve health outcomes and operational efficiencies. This study assessed the effects of co-packaging interventions on distribution coverage, nutrition, and clinical malaria outcomes in northern Nigeria. From August to November 2014, community volunteers delivered sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine (SP-AQ) door-to-door each month to approximately 7,000 children aged 6–24 months in seven wards of Madobi, Kano State, Nigeria. In three of the wards children additionally received a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS–medium quantity), Plumpy Doz. Coverage, adherence, and anthropometric outcomes were assessed through baseline, midline, and endline household surveys. A facility-based case-control study was also conducted to estimate impact on clinical malaria outcomes. Coverage of SP-AQ was similar between arms at 89% (n = 2,409 child-months [88–90%]) in the SP-AQ only arm and 90% (n = 1,947 child-months [88–92%]) in the SP-AQ plus LNS arm (p = 0.52). Coverage of LNS was 83% (n = 2,409 child-months [81–84%]). Whilst there were marked changes in anthropometric status between baseline, midline and endline, these were largely accounted for by socioeconomic status and must be interpreted with care due to possible measurement issues, especially length-based indices. Overall nutritional status of our most robust measure, weight-for-age, does appear to have improved by endline, but was similar in the two study arms, suggesting no additional benefit of the LNS. While the odds of clinical malaria among those who received the intended intervention were lower in each study arm compared to children who did not receive interventions (SP-AQ only OR = 0.23 [0.09–0.6]; SP-AQ plus LNS OR = 0.22 [0.09–0.55]), LNS was not shown to have an additional impact. Coverage of SMC was high regardless of integrating LNS delivery into the SMC campaign. Supplementation with LNS did not appear to impact nutritional outcomes, but appeared to enhance the impact of SP-AQ on clinical odds of malaria. These results indicate that combining nutritional interventions with seasonal malaria chemoprevention in high-risk areas can be done successfully, warranting further exploration with other products or dosing.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN 11413895

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<![CDATA[Association of pre-eclampsia risk with maternal levels of folate, homocysteine and vitamin B12 in Colombia: A case-control study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c12cf01d5eed0c484913cf4

Background

Maternal serum concentrations of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 have been associated with pre-eclampsia. Nevertheless, reported studies involve limited number of cases to reliably assess the nature of these associations. Our aim was to examine the relation of these three biomarkers with pre-eclampsia risk in a large Colombian population.

Materials and methods

Design: A case-control study.

Setting: Cases of pre-eclampsia and healthy pregnant controls were recruited at the time of delivery from eight different Colombian cities between 2000 and 2012.

Population or Sample: 2978 cases and 4096 controls were studied. Maternal serum concentrations of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 were determined in 1148 (43.6%) cases and 1300 (31.7%) controls. Also, self-reported folic acid supplementation was recorded for 2563 (84%) cases and 3155 (84%) controls.

Analysis: Adjusted odds ratios (OR) for pre-eclampsia were estimated for one standard deviation (1SD) increase in log-transformed biomarkers. Furthermore, we conducted analyses to compare women that reported taking folic acid supplementation for different periods during pregnancy.

Main Outcomes Measures: Odds ratio for pre-eclampsia.

Results

After adjusting for potential confounders in logistic regression models, the OR for pre-eclampsia was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.90) for 1SD increase in log-folate, 1.16 (95%CI: 1.05, 1.27) for 1SD increase in log-homocysteine, and 1.10 (95%CI: 0.99, 1.22) for 1SD increase in log-vitamin B12. No interactions among the biomarkers were identified. Women who self-reported consumption of folic acid (1 mg/day) throughout their pregnancy had an adjusted OR for pre-eclampsia of 0.86 (95%CI: 0.67, 1.09) compared to women that reported no consumption of folic acid at any point during pregnancy.

Conclusions

Maternal serum concentrations of folate were associated as a protective factor for pre-eclampsia while concentrations of homocysteine were associated as a risk factor. No association between maternal vitamin B12 concentrations and preeclampsia was found.

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<![CDATA[Altered Cell Cycle Gene Expression and Apoptosis in Post-Implantation Dog Parthenotes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9dab0ee8fa60ba48aa

Mature oocytes can be parthenogenetically activated by a variety of methods and the resulting embryos are valuable for studies of the respective roles of paternal and maternal genomes in early mammalian development. In the present study, we report the first successful development of parthenogenetic canine embryos to the post-implantation stage. Nine out of ten embryo transfer recipients became pregnant and successful in utero development of canine parthenotes was confirmed. For further evaluation of these parthenotes, their fetal development was compared with artificially inseminated controls and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were compared using ACP RT-PCR, histological analysis and immunohistochemistry. We found formation of the limb-bud and no obvious differences in histological appearance of the canine parthenote recovered before degeneration occurred; however canine parthenotes were developmentally delayed with different cell cycle regulating-, mitochondria-related and apoptosis-related gene expression patterns compared with controls. In conclusion, our protocols were suitable for activating canine oocytes artificially and supported early fetal development. We demonstrated that the developmental abnormalities in canine parthenotes may result from defective regulation of apoptosis and aberrant gene expression patterns, and provided evidence that canine parthenotes can be a useful tool for screening and for comparative studies of imprinted genes.

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<![CDATA[Pretreatment Serum Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Breast Cancer Prognostic Characteristics: A Case-Control and a Case-Series Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da35ab0ee8fa60b8611c

Background

Results from epidemiologic studies on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. It is possible that vitamin D may be effective in reducing risk only of specific subtypes due to disease heterogeneity.

Methods and Findings

In case-control and case-series analyses, we examined serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in relation to breast cancer prognostic characteristics, including histologic grade, estrogen receptor (ER), and molecular subtypes defined by ER, progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2, among 579 women with incident breast cancer and 574 controls matched on age and time of blood draw enrolled in the Roswell Park Cancer Institute from 2003 to 2008. We found that breast cancer cases had significantly lower 25OHD concentrations than controls (adjusted mean, 22.8 versus 26.2 ng/mL, p<0.001). Among premenopausal women, 25OHD concentrations were lower in those with high- versus low-grade tumors, and ER negative versus ER positive tumors (p≤0.03). Levels were lowest among women with triple-negative cancer (17.5 ng/mL), significantly different from those with luminal A cancer (24.5 ng/mL, p = 0.002). In case-control analyses, premenopausal women with 25OHD concentrations above the median had significantly lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.08–0.53) than those with levels below the median; and every 10 ng/mL increase in serum 25OHD concentrations was associated with a 64% lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.22–0.56). The differential associations by tumor subtypes among premenopausal women were confirmed in case-series analyses.

Conclusion

In our analyses, higher serum levels of 25OHD were associated with reduced risk of breast cancer, with associations strongest for high grade, ER negative or triple negative cancers in premenopausal women. With further confirmation in large prospective studies, these findings could warrant vitamin D supplementation for reducing breast cancer risk, particularly those with poor prognostic characteristics among premenopausal women.

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<![CDATA[Phagocytic Activity Is Impaired in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Increases after Metabolic Improvement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae1ab0ee8fa60bbc0e8

Objective

1) To evaluate whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from type 2 diabetic patients present an impairment of phagocytic activity; 2) To determine whether the eventual impairment in phagocytic activity is related to glycemic control and can be reversed by improving blood glucose levels.

Methods

21 type 2 diabetic patients and 21 healthy volunteers were prospectively recruited for a case-control study. In addition, those patients in whom HbA1c was higher than 8% (n = 12) were hospitalized in order to complete a 5-day intensification treatment of blood glucose. Phagocytic activity was assessed by using a modified flow cytometry procedure developed in our laboratory based on DNA/RNA viable staining to discriminate erythrocytes and debris. This method is simple, highly sensitive and reproducible and it takes advantage of classic methods that are widely used in flow cytometry.

Results

Type 2 diabetic patients showed a lower percentage of activated macrophages in comparison with non-diabetic subjects (54.00±18.93 vs 68.53±12.77%; p = 0.006) Significant negative correlations between phagocytic activity and fasting glucose (r = −0.619, p = 0.004) and HbA1c (r = −0.506, p = 0.019) were detected. In addition, multiple linear regression analyses showed that either fasting plasma glucose or HbA1c were independently associated with phagocytic activity. Furthermore, in the subset of patients who underwent metabolic optimization a significant increase in phagocytic activity was observed (p = 0.029).

Conclusions

Glycemic control is related to phagocytic activity in type 2 diabetes. Our results suggest that improvement in phagocytic activity can be added to the beneficial effects of metabolic optimization.

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<![CDATA[Alcohol abstinence and risk assessment for second esophageal cancer in Japanese men after mucosectomy for early esophageal cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc209

Background

Alcohol consumption combined with inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) and the presence of multiple esophageal Lugol-voiding lesions (LVLs; dysplasia) are strong predictors for multiple development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in East Asians. We invented a health risk appraisal (HRA) model for predicting the risk of ESCC based on drinking, smoking, dietary habits, and alcohol flushing, i.e., past or present facial flushing after drinking a glass of beer, a surrogate marker for inactive ALDH2.

Methods

Prospective follow-up examinations (median follow-up time, 50.3 months) were performed in 278 Japanese men after endoscopic mucosectomy for early ESCC (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry ID: UMIN000001676).

Results

Sixty-four subjects developed metachronous ESCC. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed that HRA scores ≥12 best predicted the development of metachronous ESCC. The ESCC detection rate per 100 person-years was 9.8 in the high-HRA-score group (n = 104) and 4.5 in the low-HRA-score group (n = 174), and the risk of development of metachronous ESCC was higher in the high-HRA-score group than in the low-HRA-score group (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.00 [95% CI: 1.12–3.30]). Multiple LVLs was a very strong predictor of the development of metachronous SCC, but high HRA scores predicted it independently. The cumulative incidences of metachronous ESCC decreased after drinking cessation in the high-HRA-score drinker group (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.37 [0.14–0.97]).

Conclusions

Both the HRA model that included alcohol flushing and the multiple LVL grade predicted the development of metachronous ESCC in Japanese men after endoscopic mucosectomy for ESCC. Drinking cessation in the high-HRA-score drinker group reduced the rate of metachronous ESCC.

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<![CDATA[Leukocyte DNA Methylation Signature Differentiates Pancreatic Cancer Patients from Healthy Controls]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f2ab0ee8fa60b6efeb

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PaC) is one of most difficult tumors to treat. Much of this is attributed to the late diagnosis. To identify biomarkers for early detection, we examined DNA methylation differences in leukocyte DNA between PaC cases and controls in a two-phase study. In phase I, we measured methylation levels at 1,505 CpG sites in treatment-naïve leukocyte DNA from 132 never-smoker PaC patients and 60 never-smoker healthy controls. We found significant differences in 110 CpG sites (false discovery rate <0.05). In phase II, we tested and validated 88 of 96 phase I selected CpG sites in 240 PaC cases and 240 matched controls (p≤0.05). Using penalized logistic regression, we built a prediction model consisting of five CpG sites (IL10_P348, LCN2_P86, ZAP70_P220, AIM2_P624, TAL1_P817) that discriminated PaC patients from controls (C-statistic = 0.85 in phase I; 0.76 in phase II). Interestingly, one CpG site (LCN2_P86) alone could discriminate resectable patients from controls (C-statistic  = 0.78 in phase I; 0.74 in phase II). We also performed methylation quantitative trait loci (methQTL) analysis and identified three CpG sites (AGXT_P180_F, ALOX12_E85_R, JAK3_P1075_R) where the methylation levels were significantly associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (false discovery rate <0.05). Our results demonstrate that epigenetic variation in easily obtainable leukocyte DNA, manifested by reproducible methylation differences, may be used to detect PaC patients. The methylation differences at certain CpG sites are partially attributable to genetic variation. This study strongly supports future epigenome-wide association study using leukocyte DNA for biomarker discovery in human diseases.

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<![CDATA[Effectiveness of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease in children aged 7-59 months. A matched case-control study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5aafbfcc463d7e7cbd91358a

Background

The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was licensed based on the results of immunogenicity studies and correlates of protection derived from randomized clinical trials of the 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine. We assessed the vaccination effectiveness (VE) of the PCV13 in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children aged 7–59 months in a population with suboptimal vaccination coverage of 55%.

Methods

The study was carried out in children with IPD admitted to three hospitals in Barcelona (Spain) and controls matched by hospital, age, sex, date of hospitalization and underlying disease. Information on the vaccination status was obtained from written medical records. Conditional logistic regression was made to estimate the adjusted VE and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results

169 cases and 645 controls were included. The overall VE of ≥1 doses of PCV13 in preventing IPD due to vaccine serotypes was 75.8% (95% CI, 54.1–87.2) and 90% (95% CI, 63.9–97.2) when ≥2 doses before 12 months, two doses on or after 12 months or one dose on or after 24 months, were administered. The VE of ≥1 doses was 89% (95% CI, 42.7–97.9) against serotype 1 and 86.0% (95% CI, 51.2–99.7) against serotype 19A. Serotype 3 showed a non-statistically significant effectiveness (25.9%; 95% CI, -65.3 to 66.8).

Conclusions

The effectiveness of ≥1 doses of PCV13 in preventing IPD caused by all PCV13 serotypes in children aged 7–59 months was good and, except for serotype 3, the effectiveness of ≥1 doses against the most frequent PCV13 serotypes causing IPD was high when considered individually.

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<![CDATA[Genetic Variation in MDM2 and p14ARF and Susceptibility to Salivary Gland Carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e5ab0ee8fa60b6aead

Background

The p14ARF/MDM2/p53 pathway plays an important role in modulation of DNA damage and oxidative stress responses. The aim of this study was to determine whether genetic variants in MDM2 and p14ARF are associated with risk of salivary gland carcinoma (SGC).

Methods

Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MDM2 and p14ARF (MDM2-rs2279744, MDM2-rs937283, p14ARF-rs3731217, and p14ARF-rs3088440) were genotyped in 156 patients with SGC and 511 cancer-free controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results

MDM2-rs2279744 was significantly associated with a moderately increased risk of SGC (OR, 1.5, 95% CI, 1.1–2.2). There was a trend toward significantly increased SGC risk with increasing number of risk genotypes of the four polymorphisms (Ptrend = 0.004). Individuals carrying 3–4 risk genotypes in MDM2 and p14ARF were at increased SGC risk (OR, 2.0, 95% CI, 1.1–2.7) compared with individuals carrying 0–2 risk genotypes. Moreover, the combined effect of risk genotypes of MDM2 and p14ARF was more pronounced among young subjects (≤45 years), female subjects, subjects with race/ethnicity other than non-Hispanic white, ever-smokers, and ever-drinkers.

Conclusion

Our results support the involvement of SNPs of MDM2 and p14ARF, either alone or more likely in combination, in susceptibility to SGC. Larger studies are needed to validate our findings.

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<![CDATA[Immuno-related polymorphisms and cervical cancer risk: The IARC multicentric case-control study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf7b8

A small proportion of women who are exposed to infection with human-papillomavirus (HPV) develop cervical cancer (CC). Genetic factors may affect the risk of progression from HPV infection to cervical precancer and cancer. We used samples from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) multicentric case-control study to evaluate the association of selected genetic variants with CC. Overall, 790 CC cases and 717 controls from Algeria, Morocco, India and Thailand were included. Cervical exfoliated cells were obtained from control women and cervical exfoliated cells or biopsy specimens from cases. HPV-positivity was determined using a general primer GP5+/6+ mediated PCR. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of host genotypes with CC risk, using the homozygous wild type genotype as the referent category and adjusting by age and study centre. The association of polymorphisms with the risk of high-risk HPV-positivity among controls was also evaluated. A statistically significant association was observed between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) CHR6 rs2844511 and CC risk: the OR for carriers of the GA or GG genotypes was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.43–1.14) and 0.61 (95% CI: 0.38–0.98), respectively, relative to carriers of AA genotype (p-value for trend 0.03). We also observed associations of borderline significance with the TIPARP rs2665390 polymorphism, which was previously found to be associated with ovarian and breast cancer, and with the EXOC1 rs13117307 polymorphism, which has been linked to cervical cancer in a large study in a Chinese population. We confirmed the association between CC and the rs2844511 polymorphism previously identified in a GWAS study in a Swedish population. The major histocompatibility region of chromosome 6, or perhaps other SNPs in linkage disequilibrium, may be involved in CC onset.

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<![CDATA[The Relationship between Asthma and Depression in Primary Care Patients: A Historical Cohort and Nested Case Control Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da07ab0ee8fa60b760b8

Background and Objectives

Asthma and depression are common health problems in primary care. Evidence of a relationship between asthma and depression is conflicting. Objectives: to determine 1. The incidence rate and incidence rate ratio of depression in primary care patients with asthma compared to those without asthma, and 2. The standardized mortality ratio of depressed compared to non-depressed patients with asthma.

Methods

A historical cohort and nested case control study using data derived from the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. Participants: 11,275 incident cases of asthma recorded between 1/1/95 and 31/12/96 age, sex and practice matched with non-cases from the database (ratio 1∶1) and followed up through the database for 10 years. 1,660 cases were matched by date of asthma diagnosis with 1,660 controls. Main outcome measures: number of cases diagnosed with depression, the number of deaths over the study period.

Results

The rate of depression in patients with asthma was 22.4/1,000 person years and without asthma 13.8 /1,000 person years. The incident rate ratio (adjusted for age, sex, practice, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, smoking) was 1.59 (95% CI 1.48–1.71). The increased rate of depression was not associated with asthma severity or oral corticosteroid use. It was associated with the number of consultations (odds ratio per visit 1.09; 95% CI 1.07–1.11). The age and sex adjusted standardized mortality ratio for depressed patients with asthma was 1.87 (95% CI: 1.54–2.27).

Conclusions

Asthma is associated with depression. This was not related to asthma severity or oral corticosteroid use but was related to service use. This suggests that a diagnosis of depression is related to health seeking behavior in patients with asthma. There is an increased mortality rate in depressed patients with asthma. The cause of this needs further exploration. Consideration should be given to case-finding for depression in this population.

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<![CDATA[Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Case-Control Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db21ab0ee8fa60bcf41e

Background

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Given their worldwide use, even small risks account for a large number of cases. This study has been conducted with carefully collected information to further investigate the relationship between SSRIs and upper GI bleeding.

Methods

We conducted a case-control study in hospitals in Spain and in Italy. Cases were patients aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute upper GI bleeding diagnosed by endoscopy; three controls were matched by sex, age, date of admission (within 3 months) and hospital among patients who were admitted for elective surgery for non-painful disorders. Exposures to SSRIs, other antidepressants and other drugs were defined as any use of these drugs in the 7 days before the day on which upper gastrointestinal bleeding started (index day).

Results

581 cases of upper GI bleeding and 1358 controls were considered eligible for the study; no differences in age or sex distribution were observed between cases and controls after matching. Overall, 4.0% of the cases and 3.3% of controls used an SSRI antidepressant in the week before the index day. No significant risk of upper GI bleeding was encountered for SSRI antidepressants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06, 95% CI, 0.57–1.96) or for whichever other grouping of antidepressants.

Conclusions

The results of this case-control study showed no significant increase in upper GI bleeding with SSRIs and provide good evidence that the magnitude of any increase in risk is not greater than 2.

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<![CDATA[Combinations of Host Biomarkers Predict Mortality among Ugandan Children with Severe Malaria: A Retrospective Case-Control Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac0ab0ee8fa60bb054a

Background

Severe malaria is a leading cause of childhood mortality in Africa. However, at presentation, it is difficult to predict which children with severe malaria are at greatest risk of death. Dysregulated host inflammatory responses and endothelial activation play central roles in severe malaria pathogenesis. We hypothesized that biomarkers of these processes would accurately predict outcome among children with severe malaria.

Methodology/Findings

Plasma was obtained from children with uncomplicated malaria (n = 53), cerebral malaria (n = 44) and severe malarial anemia (n = 59) at time of presentation to hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Levels of angiopoietin-2, von Willebrand Factor (vWF), vWF propeptide, soluble P-selectin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), soluble endoglin, soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase-1 (Flt-1), soluble Tie-2, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, 10 kDa interferon gamma-induced protein (IP-10), and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) were determined by ELISA. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess predictive accuracy of individual biomarkers. Six biomarkers (angiopoietin-2, soluble ICAM-1, soluble Flt-1, procalcitonin, IP-10, soluble TREM-1) discriminated well between children who survived severe malaria infection and those who subsequently died (area under ROC curve>0.7). Combinational approaches were applied in an attempt to improve accuracy. A biomarker score was developed based on dichotomization and summation of the six biomarkers, resulting in 95.7% (95% CI: 78.1–99.9) sensitivity and 88.8% (79.7–94.7) specificity for predicting death. Similar predictive accuracy was achieved with models comprised of 3 biomarkers. Classification tree analysis generated a 3-marker model with 100% sensitivity and 92.5% specificity (cross-validated misclassification rate: 15.4%, standard error 4.9%).

Conclusions

We identified novel host biomarkers of pediatric severe and fatal malaria (soluble TREM-1 and soluble Flt-1) and generated simple biomarker combinations that accurately predicted death in an African pediatric population. While requiring validation in further studies, these results suggest the utility of combinatorial biomarker strategies as prognostic tests for severe malaria.

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<![CDATA[Meta-analyses of Adverse Effects Data Derived from Randomised Controlled Trials as Compared to Observational Studies: Methodological Overview]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db39ab0ee8fa60bd40b5

Su Golder and colleagues carry out an overview of meta-analyses to assess whether estimates of the risk of harm outcomes differ between randomized trials and observational studies. They find that, on average, there is no difference in the estimates of risk between overviews of observational studies and overviews of randomized trials.

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<![CDATA[Exonic DNA Sequencing of ERBB4 in Bipolar Disorder]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae6ab0ee8fa60bbd729

The Neuregulin-ErbB4 pathway plays a crucial role in brain development and constitutes one of the most biologically plausible signaling pathways implicated in schizophrenia and, to a lesser extent, in bipolar disorder (BP). However, recent genome-wide association analyses have not provided evidence for common variation in NRG1 or ERBB4 influencing schizophrenia or bipolar disorder susceptibility. In this study, we investigate the role of rare coding variants in ERBB4 in BP cases with mood-incongruent psychotic features, a form of BP with arguably the greatest phenotypic overlap with schizophrenia. We performed Sanger sequencing of all 28 exons in ERBB4, as well as part of the promoter and part of the 3′UTR sequence, hypothesizing that rare deleterious variants would be found in 188 cases with mood-incongruent psychosis from the GAIN BP study. We found 42 variants, of which 16 were novel, although none were non-synonymous or clearly deleterious. One of the novel variants, present in 11.2% of cases, is located next to an alternative stop codon, which is associated with a shortened transcript of ERBB4 that is not translated. We genotyped this variant in the GAIN BP case-control samples and found a marginally significant association with mood-incongruent psychotic BP compared with controls (additive model: OR = 1.64, P-value = 0.055; dominant model: OR = 1.73. P-value = 0.039). In conclusion, we found no rare variants of clear deleterious effect, but did uncover a modestly associated novel variant that could affect alternative splicing of ERBB4. However, the modest sample size in this study cannot definitively rule out a role for rare variants in bipolar disorder and studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm the observed association.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Short-Term Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion on Fasting Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 Levels in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa8ab0ee8fa60ba84b9

Background

To investigate the effects of short-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) on plasma fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) levels in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (nT2DM).

Method

Sixty-eight patients with nT2DM (nT2DM group), and 52 gender-, age- and body mass index (BMI) -matched normal glucose tolerance (NGT group) controls participated in the study. 30 nT2DM patients with FBG≥14.0 mmol/L were treated with CSII for 2 weeks, and were underwent a euglycemic–hyperinsulinemic clamp pre- and post-treatment. Plasma FGF-21 concentrations were measured with a commercial ELISA kit. The relationship between plasma FGF-21 levels and metabolic parameters was also analyzed.

Results

Fasting plasma FGF-21 levels were higher in the nT2DM group than in NGT groups (1.60±0.08 vs. 1.13±0.26 µg/L, P<0.01). In nT2DM patients, fasting plasma FGF-21 concentrations were significantly decreased after CSII treatment for 2 weeks (1.60±0.08 vs.1.30±0.05 µg/L, P<0.05), accompanied by a significant increase in the whole body glucose uptake (M value) and blood glucose control. The changes in plasma FGF-21 levels (ΔFGF-21) were positively associated with the amelioration of insulin resistance shown by the changes in M value.

Conclusion

Plasma FGF-21 level is associated with whole body insulin sensitivity and significantly reduced following short-term CSII treatment.

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