ResearchPad - cataract-surgery https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Factors associated with visual outcomes after cataract surgery: A cross-sectional or retrospective study in Liberia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15712 To report the initial outcomes and associated risk factors for poor outcome of cataract surgery performed in LiberiaMethods and analysisLV Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI), Hyderabad, started providing eye care in Liberia since July 2017. Electronic Medical Records of 573 patients operated for age-related cataract from July 2017 to January 2019 were reviewed. One eye per patient was included for analysis. All patients underwent either phacoemulsification or manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS). Pre and postoperative uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were recorded at one day, 1–3 weeks and 4–11 weeks. Main outcome measure was BCVA at 4–11 weeks; Intraoperative complications and preoperative ocular comorbidities (POC) were noted. BCVA less than 6/12 was classified as visual impairment (VI). Risk factor for VI was analysed using the logistic regression model.ResultsOf the 573 patients, 288 were males and 285 were females (49.7%). Mean age was 65.9±10.9 years; 14.3% had POC. The surgical technique was mainly MSICS (94.59%, n = 542). At 4–11 weeks, good outcome of 6/12 or better was noted in 38.55% (UCVA) and 82.54% (BCVA). Visual acuity (VA) of 6/18 or better as UCVA and BCVA was noted in 63.5% and 88% eyes respectively. Poor outcome of less than 6/60 was noted as UCVA (11.11%) and BCVA (5.22%). Multivariable analysis showed poor visual outcomes significantly higher in patients with POC (odds ratio 3.28; 95% CI: 1.70, 6.34).ConclusionThe cataract surgical outcomes in Liberia were good; with ocular comorbidities as the only risk factor. ]]> <![CDATA[Surgical management of intraocular lens dislocation: A meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe14d5eed0c484e5b438

Purpose

To compare the efficacy and safety of intraocular lens (IOL) repositioning and IOL exchange for the treatment of patients with IOL dislocation.

Methods

We systematically searched for relevant publications in English or Chinese in MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, WHO International Clinical Trial Registration Platform, Clinical Trial.gov, China Biology Medicine Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database and grey literature sources. Study quality was assessed using the STROBE template for observational studies and the Cochrane template for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Data were meta-analyzed using RevMan 5.3.

Results

The review included 14 English-language studies reporting 1 RCT and 13 retrospective case series involving 1,082 eyes. Average follow-up time was 13.7 months. Pooled analysis of 10 studies showed that the two procedures had a similarly effect on best corrected visual acuity (MD -0.00, 95%CI: -0.08 to 0.08, P = 0.99). Pooled analysis of nine studies showed no significant difference in incidence of IOL redislocation (RR 2.12, 95%CI 0.85 to 5.30, P = 0.11); pooled analysis of seven studies showed greater extent of incidence of cystoid macular edema in IOL exchange (RR 0.47, 95%CI 0.21 to 1.30, P = 0.06). Pooled analysis of three studies showed greater extent of incidence of anterior vitrectomy in IOL exchange (RR 0.11, 95%CI 0.04 to 0.33, P<0.0001). Pooled analysis of two studies showed greater postoperative spherical equivalents in IOL repositioning (MD 1.02, 95%CI 0.51 to 1.52, P<0.0001). pooled analysis suggested no significant differences between the two procedures in terms of intraocular pressure, endothelial cell density, surgically induced astigmatism, or incidence of retinal detachment, intraocular hemorrhage or pupillary block.

Conclusion

IOL repositioning and exchange are safe and effective procedures for treating IOL dislocation. Neither procedure significantly affects best corrected visual acuity and IOL redislocation. IOL exchange was superior to repositioning in terms of postoperative SE, but IOL repositioning was associated with lower incidence of anterior vitrectomy, potentially lower incidence of cystoid macular edema.

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<![CDATA[Trinucleotide repeat expansion length as a predictor of the clinical progression of Fuchs’ Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e6cbd5eed0c484ef3e0d

Purpose

To determine if CTG18.1 TNR expansion length prognosticates the clinical progression of Fuchs’ Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD).

Methods

This was a prospective cohort study. A total of 51 patients with newly diagnosed FECD were recruited and followed-up over a period of 12 years, from November 2004 to April 2016. Baseline clinical measurements included central corneal thickness (CCT), endothelial cell density (ECD) and CTG18.1 TNR expansion length from peripheral leukocytes, with yearly repeat measurements of CCT and ECD. A patient was defined to have experienced significant clinical progression and to have developed Threshold Disease if any of these criteria were fulfilled in either eye: a) CCT increased to >700μm, b) ECD decreased to <700 cells/mm2, or c) underwent keratoplasty for treatment of FECD.

Results

Patients were categorized as having at least one allele whose maximum allele length was equal to or greater than 40 repeats (L≥40, n = 22, 43.1%), or having both alleles shorter than 40 repeats (L<40). Threshold Disease rates at the 5-year time point were 87.5% for the L≥40 group and 47.8% for the L<40 group (p = 0.012). This difference narrowed and was no longer statistically significant at the 8-years (92.9% vs 78.9%, p = 0.278) and 10-years (92.9% vs 84.2%, p = 0.426) time points.

Conclusions

L≥40 patients are at greater risk of FECD progression and development of Threshold Disease within the first 5 years following diagnosis.

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<![CDATA[Effect of anterior capsule polish on visual function: A meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e4f7ad5eed0c484d75cec

Purpose

To investigate the relationship between anterior capsule polish and visual function.

Methods

Data were obtained from Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, WanFang, VIP and CNKI up to the end of May 2018, without any date or language restrictions for trials. The modified Jadad scale and the newcastle-ottawa scale were used to assess the quality of included studies. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and posterior capsule opacification (PCO) were used as outcome variables. Data on anterior capsule polish were pooled using weighted, random-effect meta-analysis.

Results

One randomized controlled trial and 4 observational cohort studies involving 2533 patients were included in the analyses. There was a statistically significant difference of UCVA (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.41–2.61) between the polish group and the control group, indicating that anterior capsule polish improved UCVA. Further studies with continuous data also suggested that anterior capsule polish was associated with good UCVA (MD 0.11, 95% CI 0.06–0.16). Posterior capsule opacification rate for 1-year or longer follow-up were extracted for 2561 eyes in 3 studies. Posterior capsule opacification rate was lower in the anterior capsule polish group according to summary odds ratio on PCO rate (OR 0.42 95% CI 0.24–0.73).

Conclusions

Anterior capsule polish prevents complication of modern cataract surgery and benefits on visual function in short term follow-up period.

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<![CDATA[Post-phacoemulsification iris changes in eyes with glaucoma or glaucoma suspect status]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0b0dd5eed0c48442732d

Purpose

This prospective study used anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) to determine how phacoemulsification (phaco) changes iris parameters in eyes with glaucoma or glaucoma suspect status.

Methods

Using Visante AS-OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG), the following pre- and post-phaco parameters were measured: IT750 = iris thickness at 750 μm from the scleral spur; IT2000 = iris thickness 2000 μm from the scleral spur; ITCM = the maximum iris thickness at the middle one third of the iris; ICURV = iris curvature; IAREA = iris area; and pupil size = pupil diameter (mm). Only high-quality images with an identifiable scleral spur were included, and only the nasal quadrant was analyzed. A single glaucoma specialist analyzed the parameters according to the Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program (ZAAP, Guangzhou, China). Multivariate analysis was performed using mixed effects regression correcting for age, gender, and ethnicity.

Results

89 subjects and 110 eyes were included in this study. The mean age of subjects was 74.83 {+/-} 8.69 years old. Most common diagnoses were POAG and glaucoma suspect (23% and 52%, respectively), and 16% of subjects had an LPI. In multivariate analysis of AS-OCT parameters, decreases in IT750, IT2000, ITCM, ICURV, and pupil size were statistically significant (p<0.05).

Conclusions

After phacoemulsification, eyes with glaucoma as well as glaucoma suspect eyes have thinner irises and smaller pupils. This may lead to less iris-mediated aqueous outflow obstruction, providing support for early phacoemulsification glaucoma treatment.

Translational relevance

Our AS-OCT imaging findings may guide clinical practice as iris parameters become increasingly relevant in preoperative phaco planning.

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<![CDATA[Association between vision-specific quality of life and falls in community-dwelling older adults: LOHAS]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5aefe68f463d7e5657a08cdb

Background

Falls and fall-related fractures are a major public health problem among the older adults. Although objective measures of poor vision have been reported to be associated with falls, the association of self-reported visual function and vision-specific quality of life (QOL) with falls has been inconsistent across several studies. We investigated the association of self-reported visual function and vision specific QOL with falls in community-dwelling older adults.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using the baseline data from participants of the Locomotive Syndrome and Health Outcome in Aizu Cohort Study (LOHAS), which is an ongoing population-based cohort study to evaluate the association of physical dysfunction with the clinical outcomes in community-dwelling people. In the present study, the participants aged over 65 years in 2010 were eligible. The exposure variable was the composite score of the VFQ-J11, which was newly developed using item response theory to evaluate vision specific QOL, and the self-reported outcomes were any fall and frequent falls (≥2) over a 1-month period. We estimated odds ratios using separate logistic regression models adjusted for relevant confounding factors.

Results

Among 1624 participants, the median (interquartile range) composite score of VFQ-J11 was 86.8 (76.0–95.9). Any fall and frequent falls were reported by 13.9% and 5.4% of participants, respectively. The composite score of the VFQ-J11 was significantly associated with both frequent falls (adjusted ORs per 10 points, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.68–0.93) and any fall (adjusted ORs per 10 points, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.76–0.94).

Conclusions

We found that the composite score of the VFQ-J11 was associated with falls in community-dwelling older adults. Detecting individuals with visual impairments associated with falls using the VFQ-J11 and improvement in the score by interventions could prevent falls. We may consider adding self-reported visual function and vision-specific QOL to conventional risk factors for fall among older adults.

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<![CDATA[SiRNA Targeting mTOR Effectively Prevents the Proliferation and Migration of Human Lens Epithelial Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf8ab0ee8fa60bc3aff

Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is the most common complication that causes visual decrease after extracapsular cataract surgery. The primary cause of PCO formation is the proliferation of the residual lens epithelial cells (LECs). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays an important role in the growth and migration of LECs. In the current study, we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to specifically attenuate mTOR in human lens epithelial B3 cells (HLE B3). We aimed to examine the effect of mTOR-siRNA on the proliferation, migration and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HLE B3 cells and explore the underlying mechanisms. The mTOR-siRNA was transfected into HLE B3 cells using lipofectamine 2000. The mRNA and protein levels of mTOR were examined to confirm the efficiency of mTOR-siRNA. The levels of mRNA and protein as well as the activity of mTOR down-stream effectors p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and protein kinase B (PKB, AKT) were examined using real-time PCR or Western blot, respectively. The cell proliferation was determined using cell counting kit (CCK) 8 and cell growth curve assay. The cell migration was examined using Transwell system and Scratch assay. MTOR-siRNA effectively eliminated mTOR mRNA and protein. The proliferation and migration were significantly suppressed by mTOR-siRNA transfection. mTOR-siRNA reduced the mRNA of p70S6K and AKT in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of p70S6K and AKT was decreased by mTOR-siRNA. MTOR-siRNA also eliminated the formation of mTORC1 and mTORC2 protein complex and blocked the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-induced EMT. Our results suggested that mTOR-siRNA could effectively inhibit the proliferation, migration and EMT of HLE B3 cells through the inhibition of p70S6K and AKT. These results indicated that mTOR-siRNA might be an effective agent inhibiting HLE cells growth and EMT following cataract surgery and provide an alternative therapy for preventing PCO.

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<![CDATA[Mutations of RagA GTPase in mTORC1 Pathway Are Associated with Autosomal Dominant Cataracts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6fab0ee8fa60b941cb

Cataracts are a significant public health problem with no proven methods for prevention. Discovery of novel disease mechanisms to delineate new therapeutic targets is of importance in cataract prevention and therapy. Herein, we report that mutations in the RagA GTPase (RRAGA), a key regulator of the mechanistic rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), are associated with autosomal dominant cataracts. We performed whole exome sequencing in a family with autosomal dominant juvenile-onset cataracts, and identified a novel p.Leu60Arg mutation in RRAGA that co-segregated with the disease, after filtering against the dbSNP database, and at least 123,000 control chromosomes from public and in-house exome databases. In a follow-up direct screening of RRAGA in another 22 families and 142 unrelated patients with congenital or juvenile-onset cataracts, RRAGA was found to be mutated in two unrelated patients (p.Leu60Arg and c.-16G>A respectively). Functional studies in human lens epithelial cells revealed that the RRAGA mutations exerted deleterious effects on mTORC1 signaling, including increased relocation of RRAGA to the lysosomes, up-regulated mTORC1 phosphorylation, down-regulated autophagy, altered cell growth or compromised promoter activity. These data indicate that the RRAGA mutations, associated with autosomal dominant cataracts, play a role in the disease by acting through disruption of mTORC1 signaling.

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<![CDATA[Cataract surgery causes biomechanical alterations to the eye detectable by Corvis ST tonometry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbb29

Purpose

Modern cataract surgery is generally considered to bring about modest and sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction. However, the pathophysiological mechanism for this remains unclear. Moreover, a change in ocular biomechanical properties after surgery can affect the measurement of IOP. The aim of the study is to investigate ocular biomechanics, before and following cataract surgery, using Corvis ST tonometry (CST).

Patients and methods

Fifty-nine eyes of 59 patients with cataract were analyzed. IOP with Goldmann applanation tonometry (IOP-G), axial length, corneal curvature and CST parameters were measured before cataract surgery and, up to 3 months, following surgery. Since CST parameters are closely related to IOP-G, linear modeling was carried out to investigate whether there was a change in CST measurements following cataract surgery, adjusted for a change in IOP-G.

Results

IOP-G significantly decreased after surgery (mean±standard deviation: 11.8±3.1 mmHg) compared to pre-surgery (15.2±4.3 mmHg, P<0.001). Peak distance (the distance between the two surrounding peaks of the cornea at the highest concavity), maximum deformation amplitude (the movement of the corneal apex from the start of deformation to the highest concavity) and A1/A2 velocity (the corneal velocity during inward or outward movement) significantly increased after cataract surgery (P<0.05) while radius (the central curvature radius at the highest concavity) was significantly smaller following cataract surgery (P<0.05). Linear modeling supported many of these findings, suggesting that peak distance, maximum deformation amplitude and A2 velocity were increased, whereas A2 deformation amplitude and highest concavity time were decreased (after adjustment for IOP change), following cataract surgery.

Conclusion

Corneal biomechanical properties, as measured with CST, were observed to change significantly following cataract surgery.

Trial registration

Japan Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000014370

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<![CDATA[Effective cataract surgical coverage: An indicator for measuring quality-of-care in the context of Universal Health Coverage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbc14

Objective

To define and demonstrate effective cataract surgical coverage (eCSC), a candidate UHC indicator that combines a coverage measure (cataract surgical coverage, CSC) with quality (post-operative visual outcome).

Methods

All Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) surveys with datasets on the online RAAB Repository on April 1 2016 were downloaded. The most recent study from each country was included. By country, cataract surgical outcome (CSOGood, 6/18 or better; CSOPoor, worse than 6/60), CSC (operated cataract as a proportion of operable plus operated cataract) and eCSC (operated cataract and a good outcome as a proportion of operable plus operated cataract) were calculated. The association between CSC and CSO was assessed by linear regression. Gender inequality in CSC and eCSC was calculated.

Findings

Datasets from 20 countries were included (2005–2013; 67,337 participants; 5,474 cataract surgeries). Median CSC was 53.7% (inter-quartile range[IQR] 46.1–66.6%), CSOGood was 58.9% (IQR 53.7–67.6%) and CSOPoor was 17.7% (IQR 11.3–21.1%). Coverage and quality of cataract surgery were moderately associated—every 1% CSC increase was associated with a 0.46% CSOGood increase and 0.28% CSOPoor decrease. Median eCSC was 36.7% (IQR 30.2–50.6%), approximately one-third lower than the median CSC. Women tended to fare worse than men, and gender inequality was slightly higher for eCSC (4.6% IQR 0.5–7.1%) than for CSC (median 2.3% IQR -1.5–11.6%).

Conclusion

eCSC allows monitoring of quality in conjunction with coverage of cataract surgery. In the surveys analysed, on average 36.7% of people who could benefit from cataract surgery had undergone surgery and obtained a good visual outcome.

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<![CDATA[Primary Phacoemulsification and Intraocular Lens Implantation for Acute Primary Angle-Closure]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0fab0ee8fa60bcb8e1

Background

To investigate the effect of primary phacoemulsification on intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with acute primary angle-closure (PAC) and coexisting cataract.

Methodology

Sixteen eyes of 14 patients with acute PAC received phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation as initial management for medically uncontrolled IOP in a retrospective chart review. The effects on IOP, vision, anterior chamber depth (ACD), and number of antiglaucoma medications were evaluated.

Principal Findings

The postoperative IOP was reduced in 16 eyes (100%). The mean ± standard deviation preoperative IOP was 48.81±16.83 mm Hg, which decreased postoperatively to 16.46±10.67 mm Hg at 1 day, 9.43±3.03 mm Hg at 1 week, 9.49±2.14 mm Hg at 2 weeks, 10.78±3.56 mm Hg at 1 month, and 10.70±2.80 mm Hg at 3 months (p<0.001). The mean number of antiglaucoma medications decreased from 3.56±1.14 to 0.13±0.34 (p<0.001). The average preoperative ACD was 2.08±0.35 mm, which increased to 3.59±0.33 mm after surgery (p<0.001). Visual acuity (converted into logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]) improved from 1.14±0.71 to 0.73±0.53 (p = 0.001).

Conclusions

Primary phacoemulsification plus intraocular lens implantation lowered IOP, reduced the use of antiglaucoma medications, and improved vision in patients with acute PAC. This is a safe and effective method of IOP control and can be considered a first treatment option in managing patients with acute PAC and coexisting cataract.

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<![CDATA[Perioperative Antibiotics to Prevent Acute Endophthalmitis after Ophthalmic Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafbab0ee8fa60bc4873

Background

Post-operative endophthalmitis is a rare and dreaded complication in ophthalmic operations because it often induces irreparable vision loss. Although many ophthalmological studies aimed at reducing the rate of endophthalmitis have been performed around the world, controversy continues to surround some issues, including the choice of antimicrobials and their route of administration, duration and timing. The aim of this study is to investigate some of these unresolved issues.

Methods

A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies was performed. The PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Clinical Trials databases were searched to identify studies published until Feb. 2016. The relative risk (RR) for each clinical outcome data is presented with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Pooled estimates of effects were calculated using random-effect models.

Results

Thirty-four studies from twenty-four reports involving 1264797 eyes were included in this analysis. Endophthalmitis occurred, on average, in one out of 6177 eyes when intracameral vancomycin/moxifloxacin were used and in one out of 1517 eyes when intracameral vancomycin/moxifloxacin were not used. The relative risk (95% CI) of endophthalmitis was reduced to 0.20 (0.10, 0.42) when intracameral antibiotics were used (p<0.0001). The subconjunctival injection of antibiotics was not superior to other administration routes included in this study (RR = 1.67, 95% CI (0.55, 5.05), p = 0.36). A statistically significant difference was found in the rate of endophthalmitis between the use and lack of use of topical antibiotics (RR = 0.65, 95% CI (0.43, 0.99), p = 0.04). However, no statistically significant difference was found in microbial isolation rates between these groups (RR = 0.77, 95% CI (0.34, 1.75), p = 0.53). When long-term and short-term use of topical antibiotics before surgery were compared, a statistically significant difference was found in microbial isolation rates (RR = 0.57, 95% CI (0.44, 0.74), p<0.0001).

Conclusions

This meta-analysis concluded intracameral antibiotics are effective at preventing endophthalmitis in ocular surgery. A randomized controlled trial confirms the efficacy of cefuroxime but recent large cohort studies support the efficacy of vancomycin/moxifloxacin intracamerally. Intracameral antibitoics are superior to subconjunctival injections but that irrigation antibitoic data are not of enough quality to make a comparison. Different results were found in two clinical outcomes between the use or lack of use of topical antibiotic therapy, we did not find sufficient evidence to conclude that its use prevents endophthalmitis.

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<![CDATA[Detecting Visual Function Abnormality with a Contrast-Dependent Visual Test in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da92ab0ee8fa60ba0897

In addition to diabetic retinopathy, diabetes also causes early retinal neurodegeneration and other eye problems, which cause various types of visual deficits. This study used a computer-based visual test (Macular Multi-Function Assessment (MMFA)) to assess contrast-dependent macular visual function in patients with type 2 diabetes to collect more visual information than possible with only the visual acuity test. Because the MMFA is a newly developed test, this study first compared the agreement and discriminative ability of the MMFA and the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) contrast acuity charts. Then symbol discrimination performances of diabetic patients and controls were evaluated at 4 contrast levels using the MMFA. Seventy-seven patients and 45 controls participated. The agreement between MMFA and ETDRS scores was examined by fitting three-level linear mixed-effect models to estimate the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The estimated areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to compare the discriminative ability of diseased versus non-diseased participants between the two tests. The MMFA scores of patients and controls were compared with multiple linear regression analysis after adjusting the effects of age, sex, hypertension and cataract. Results showed that the scores of the MMFA and ETDRS tests displayed high levels of agreement and acceptable and similar discriminative ability. The MMFA performance was correlated with the severity of diabetic retinopathy. Most of the MMFA scores differed significantly between the diabetic patients and controls. In the low contrast condition, the MMFA scores were significantly lower for 006Eon-DR patients than for controls. The potential utility of the MMFA as an easy screening tool for contrast-dependent visual function and for detecting early functional visual change in patients with type 2 diabetes is discussed.

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<![CDATA[Personalized Pseudophakic Model for Refractive Assessment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9daab0ee8fa60b67476

Purpose

To test a pseudophakic eye model that allows for intraocular lens power (IOL) calculation, both in normal eyes and in extreme conditions, such as post-LASIK.

Methods

Participants: The model’s efficacy was tested in 54 participants (104 eyes) who underwent LASIK and were assessed before and after surgery, thus allowing to test the same method in the same eye after only changing corneal topography.

Modelling

The Liou-Brennan eye model was used as a starting point, and biometric values were replaced by individual measurements. Detailed corneal surface data were obtained from topography (Orbscan®) and a grid of elevation values was used to define corneal surfaces in an optical ray-tracing software (Zemax®). To determine IOL power, optimization criteria based on values of the modulation transfer function (MTF) weighted according to contrast sensitivity function (CSF), were applied.

Results

Pre-operative refractive assessment calculated by our eye model correlated very strongly with SRK/T (r = 0.959, p<0.001) with no difference of average values (16.9±2.9 vs 17.1±2.9 D, p>0.05). Comparison of post-operative refractive assessment obtained using our eye model with the average of currently used formulas showed a strong correlation (r = 0.778, p<0.001), with no difference of average values (21.5±1.7 vs 21.8±1.6 D, p>0.05).

Conclusions

Results suggest that personalized pseudophakic eye models and ray-tracing allow for the use of the same methodology, regardless of previous LASIK, independent of population averages and commonly used regression correction factors, which represents a clinical advantage.

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<![CDATA[Better Visual Outcome by Intraocular Lens Ejection in Geriatric Patients with Ruptured Ocular Injuries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcec9

Ocular trauma is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. Because of the popularity of cataract surgeries, aged individuals with ocular trauma commonly have a surgical wound in their eyes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcome of cases that were coincident with intraocular lens (IOL) ejection in the eyes with ruptured open-globe ocular injuries. Consecutive patients with open-globe ocular injuries were first reviewed. Patients’ characteristics, corrected distance visual acuities (CDVAs) over 3 years after the trauma, causes of injuries, traumatic wound patterns, and coexistence of retinal detachment were examined. The relationships between poor CDVA and the other factors, including the complications of crystalline lens and IOL ejection, were examined. A total of 105 eyes/patients [43 eyes with rupture, 33 with penetrating, 28 with intraocular foreign body (IOFB), and 1 with perforating injuries] were included. Rupture injuries were common in aged patients and were mostly caused by falls, whereas penetrating and IOFB injuries were common in young male patients. CDVAs of the eyes with rupture injuries were significantly worse than those of the eyes with penetrating or IOFB injuries. CDVA from more than 50% of the ruptured eyes resulted in no light perception or light perception to 20/500. CDVA of the ruptured eyes complicated by crystalline lens ejection was significantly worse than that of those complicated by IOL ejection. The wounds of the ruptured eyes complicated by IOL ejection were mainly located at the superior corneoscleral limbus, whereas those of the eyes complicated by crystalline lens ejection were located at the posterior sclera. There were significant correlations between poor CDVA and retinal detachment and crystalline lens ejection. These results proposed a new trend in the ocular injuries that commonly occur in aged patients; history of cataract surgery might affect the final visual outcome after open-globe ocular injuries.

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<![CDATA[Development of topical ophthalmic In Situ gel-forming estradiol delivery system intended for the prevention of age-related cataracts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdba61

The goal of this study was to develop and characterize an ion-activated in situ gel-forming estradiol (E2) solution eye drops intended for the prevention of age-related cataracts. Accordingly, in situ gelling eye drops were made using gellan gum as an ion-activated gel-forming polymer, polysorbate-80 as drug solubilizing agent, mannitol as tonicity agent, and combination of potassium sorbate and edetate disodium dihydrate (EDTA) as preservatives. The formulations were tested for the following characteristics: pH, clarity, osmolality, antimicrobial efficacy, rheological behavior, and in vitro drug release. Stability of the formulation was also monitored for 6 months at multiple storage conditions per ICH Q1A (R2) guidelines. The solution eye drops resulted in an in-situ phase change to gel-state when mixed with simulated tear fluid (STF). The gel structure formation was confirmed by viscoelastic measurements. Drug release from the gel followed non-fickian mechanism with 80% of drug released in 8 hr. The formulations were found to be clear, isotonic with suitable pH and viscoelastic behavior and stable at accelerated and long-term storage conditions for 6 months. In vitro results suggest that the developed formulation is suitable for further investigation in animal models to elucidate the ability of estrogen to prevent and delay cataracts.

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<![CDATA[The Influence of Phacoemulsification on Surgical Outcomes of Trabeculectomy with Mitomycin-C for Uveitic Glaucoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f6ab0ee8fa60b70395

Purpose

To evaluate the influence of phacoemulsification after trabeculectomy on the postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes with uveitic glaucoma (UG).

Setting

Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto, Japan.

Design

A retrospective cohort study.

Methods

The medical records of patients with UG who had trabeculectomy with mitomycin-C (MMC) were reviewed. Complete and qualified surgical failures were defined by an IOP of ≥21 mmHg (condition A), ≥18 mmHg (condition B), or ≥15 mmHg (condition C) without and with glaucoma eye drops, respectively. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, generalized by the Wilcoxon test, and the Cox proportional hazards model analysis were conducted. Post-trabeculectomy phacoemulsification was treated as a time-dependent variable. In 24 (30%) of the included 80 eyes, phacoemulsification was included, and they were divided into two groups: groups I (8 eyes with phacoemulsification within 1 year after trabeculectomy) and group II (16 eyes after 1 year following trabeculectomy).

Results

Multivariable Cox proportional hazards model analysis showed post-trabeculectomy phacoemulsification was a significant factor in both complete success and qualified success based upon condition C (P = 0.0432 and P = 0.0488, respectively), but not for the other conditions. Kaplan–Meier survival analyses indicated significant differences in success probabilities between groups I and group II for complete success and qualified success based upon condition C (P = 0.020 and P = 0.013, respectively). There was also a significant difference for qualified success based upon condition B (P = 0.034), while there was no significant difference for the other conditions.

Conclusion

Post-trabeculectomy phacoemulsification, especially within 1 year, can cause poor prognosis of IOP control of UG eyes after trabeculectomy with MMC.

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<![CDATA[Efficacy of two different thiol-modified crosslinked hyaluronate formulations as vitreous replacement compared to silicone oil in a model of retinal detachment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbd57

The efficacy of two novel artificial vitreous body substitutes (VBS) consisting of highly biocompatible thiolated cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogels in comparison to silicone oil in a model of retinal detachment was investigated. Pars plana vitrectomy (23G) was performed in the right eye of 24 pigmented rabbits. Retinal detachment of two quadrants was induced by creating a small retinotomy near the vascular arcade and injecting balanced salt solution (BSS) subretinally. The retina was reattached by injecting air, which was followed by increasing the infusion pressure, and the retinal tear was treated by endolaser photocoagulation. At the end of the procedure, the eye was filled either with 5000-cs silicone oil (after fluid air exchange) or the respective hydrogel (with two different viscosities). Follow-up examination included slit lamp examination, funduscopy, intraocular pressure measurements (IOP), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and electroretinogram (ERG) measurements. After a maximum follow-up of four weeks both eyes were removed, examined macroscopically, photographed, and prepared for histology. Of the eight rabbits that received silicone oil, seven (87.5%) developed a recurrent retinal detachment with pronounced proliferative vitreoretinopathy within the first two weeks after surgery. In contrast, in the hydrogel treated eyes, the retina stayed attached in the majority of the cases (73.3%). IOP and retinal morphology were normal as long as the retina remained re-attached. In conclusions, this model of retinal detachment, both thiolated crosslinked hyaluronate hydrogels showed superior efficacy when compared to silicone oil. These hydrogels have a promising potential as novel vitreous body substitutes.

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<![CDATA[Hospitalization after Cataract Surgery in a Nationwide Managed-Care Population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da5eab0ee8fa60b906b7

Purpose

Little is known regarding the extent by which patients undergoing outpatient cataract surgery are at risk for postoperative hospitalization. We sought to determine the percentage of patients undergoing cataract surgery who were subsequently hospitalized, the patient characteristics associated with postoperative hospitalization, and the reasons for hospitalization.

Methods

We identified all beneficiaries of a large U.S. managed care network age ≥40 years old who underwent ≥1 cataract surgery from 2001–2011. All enrollees who required inpatient hospitalization within 7, 14, 30, and 90 days following initial cataract surgery and the reasons for hospitalization were determined. Logistic regression was performed to assess factors that significantly impacted the odds of requiring postoperative hospitalization.

Results

Among the 64,981 patients who underwent cataract surgery, rates of hospitalization within 7, 14, 30, and 90 days were 0.3%, 0.5%, 1.3% and 4.2%, respectively. Among the 10,674 patients who had no major preexisting medical comorbidities, 0.1% were hospitalized within 7 days. The odds of hospitalization increased by 35% (OR = 1.35 [CI, 1.23–1.48]) with the presence of each additional comorbidity and by 14% with each additional hospitalization in the 3 years prior to cataract surgery (OR = 1.14 [CI, 1.10–1,18]). Those who were hospitalized in the 30 days prior to cataract surgery had 524% increased odds of being hospitalized within 7 days after cataract surgery (OR = 6.24, [CI, 3.37–11.57]) compared to those with no record of preoperative hospitalization. Postoperative hospitalizations were most commonly due to cardiovascular conditions, comprising over 25% of primary diagnoses associated with hospitalization.

Conclusions

The risk of hospitalization after cataract surgery is low, and is very low among those with no major preexisting medical comorbidities. Opportunities may exist to limit comprehensive preoperative evaluation and testing to those who have serious pre-existing medical comorbidities.

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<![CDATA[Population Based Outcomes of Cataract Surgery in Three Tribal Areas of Andhra Pradesh, India: Risk Factors for Poor Outcomes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad4ab0ee8fa60bb7693

Purpose

To report visual outcomes and risk factors for poor outcomes of cataract surgery in three Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA) areas of Andhra Pradesh, India.

Methods and Results

Using validated Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) methodology, a population based cross-sectional study, was conducted in three ITDA areas. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select 7281 participants aged 50 years and above. Vision assessment using a tumbling E chart and standard ocular examinations were completed. Visual outcomes and risk factors for poor outcomes were assessed among subjects undergoing cataract surgery (1548 eyes of 1124 subjects). Mean age at surgery was 67±8 years; Among the operated eyes, presenting visual acuity (PVA) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) worse than 6/18 was seen in 492 (31.8%; 95% CI, 29.5–34.2%) and 298 eyes (19.3%; 95% CI, 17.3–21.3%), respectively. Similarly, PVA and BCVA worse than 6/60 was seen in 219 (14.1%; 95% CI, 12.4–16%) and 147 eyes (9.5%; 95% CI, 8.1–11.1%), respectively. When either eye was taken into consideration, the PVA and BCVA worse than 6/18 was seen in 323 (20.1%; 95% CI, 18.9–23%) and 144 subjects (9.3%; 95% CI, 7.9–10.9%), respectively. PVA and BCVA worse than 6/60 was seen in 74 (4.8%; 95% CI, 3.8–6%) and 49 subjects (3.2%; 95% CI, 2.4–4.2%), respectively. Posterior capsular opacification was seen in 51 of 1316 pseudophakic eyes (3.9%; 95% CI, 2.9–5.1%). In multivariable analysis among pseudophakic subjects with PVA worse than 6/18, increasing age (p = 0.002) and undergoing free surgery (p = 0.05) were independent risk factors. Undergoing surgery before 2005 (p = 0.05) and being illiterate (p = 0.05) were independent risk factors for BCVA worse than 6/18.

Conclusions

There are changing trends with improved outcomes in cataract surgery among these tribal populations of India. However, post-operative refractive error correction remains an issue, especially for those undergoing free surgeries.

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