ResearchPad - catheters https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Safety of tunneled central venous catheters in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell recipients with severe primary immunodeficiency diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14693 Tunneled central venous catheters (TCVCs) provide prolonged intravenous access for pediatric patients with severe primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, little is known about the epidemiology and clinical significance of TCVC-related morbidity in this particular patient group. We conducted the retrospective analysis of patients with severe PID who received percutaneous landmark-guided TCVC implantation prior to HSCT. We analyzed 92 consecutive TCVC implantations in 69 patients (median [interquartile range] age 3.0 [0–11] years) with severe combined immune deficiency (n = 39, 42.4%), chronic granulomatous disease (n = 17, 18.4%), and other rare PID syndromes (n = 36, 39.2%). The median length of TCVC observation was 144.1 (85.5–194.6) days with a total of 14,040 catheter days at risk (cdr). The overall rate of adverse events during catheter insertion was 17.4% (n = 16) and 25.0% during catheter dwell period (n = 23, catheter risk [CR] per 1000 cdr = 1.64). The most common complication was TCVC-related infection with an overall prevalence of 9.8% (n = 9, CR = 0.64), followed by late dislocation (n = 6, 6.5%, CR = 0.43), early dislocation (n = 4, 4.3%) and catheter dysfunction (n = 4, 4.3%, CR = 0.28). TCVCs are safe in children with severe PID undergoing HSCT with relatively low rates of TCVC-related infection.

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<![CDATA[Effect of moderate elevated intra-abdominal pressure on lung mechanics and histological lung injury at different positive end-expiratory pressures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nccafa6f6-e83a-4af1-be67-e451f21e0145

Introduction

Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is a well-known phenomenon in critically ill patients. Effects of a moderately elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on lung mechanics are still not fully analyzed. Moreover, the optimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in elevated IAP is unclear.

Methods

We investigated changes in lung mechanics and transformation in histological lung patterns using three different PEEP levels in eighteen deeply anesthetized pigs with an IAP of 10 mmHg. After establishing the intra-abdominal pressure, we randomized the animals into 3 groups. Each of n = 6 (Group A = PEEP 5, B = PEEP 10 and C = PEEP 15 cmH2O). End-expiratory lung volume (EELV/kg body weight (bw)), pulmonary compliance (Cstat), driving pressure (ΔP) and transpulmonary pressure (ΔPL) were measured for 6 hours. Additionally, the histological lung injury score was calculated.

Results

Comparing hours 0 and 6 in group A, there was a decrease of EELV/kg (27±2 vs. 16±1 ml/kg; p<0.05) and of Cstat (42±2 vs. 27±1 ml/cmH2O; p<0.05) and an increase of ΔP (11±0 vs. 17±1 cmH2O; p<0.05) and ΔPL (6±0 vs. 10±1 cmH2O; p<0.05). In group B, there was no significant change in EELV/kg (27±3 vs. 24±3 ml/kg), but a decrease in Cstat (42±3 vs. 32±1 ml/cmH20; p<0.05) and an increase in ΔP (11±1 vs. 15±1 cmH2O; p<0.05) and ΔPL (5±1 vs. 7±0 cmH2O; p<0.05). In group C, there were no significant changes in EELV/kg (27±2 vs. 29±3 ml/kg), ΔP (10±1 vs. 12±1 cmH2O) and ΔPL (5±1 vs. 7±1 cmH2O), but a significant decrease of Cstat (43±1 vs. 37±1 ml/cmH2O; p<0.05). Histological lung injury score was lowest in group B.

Conclusions

A moderate elevated IAP of 10 mmHg leads to relevant changes in lung mechanics during mechanical ventilation. In our study, a PEEP of 10 cmH2O was associated with a lower lung injury score and was able to overcome the IAP induced alterations of EELV.

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<![CDATA[Ser96Ala genetic variant of the human histidine-rich calcium-binding protein is a genetic predictor of recurrence after catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897742d5eed0c4847d2858

Background

Atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) still remains a serious issue. Ca2+ handling has a considerable effect on AF recurrence. The histidine-rich calcium-binding protein (HRC) genetic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs3745297 (T>G, Ser96Ala), is known to cause a sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak. We investigated the association between HRC Ser96Ala and AF recurrence after RFCA in paroxysmal AF (PAF) patients.

Methods and results

We enrolled PAF patients who underwent RFCA (N = 334 for screening and N = 245 for replication) and were genotyped for HRC SNP (rs3745297). The patient age was younger and rate of diabetes and hypertension lower in the PAF patients with Ser96Ala than in those without (TT/TG/GG, 179/120/35; 64±10/60±12/59±13 y, P = 0.001; 18.5/ 9.2/8.6%, P = 0.04 and 66.1/50.0/37.1%, P = 0.001, respectively). During a mean 19 month follow-up, 57 (17.1%) patients suffered from AF recurrences. The rate of an Ser96Ala was significantly higher in patients with AF recurrence than in those without in the screening set (allele frequency model: odds ratio [OR], 1.80; P = 0.006). We also confirmed this significant association in the replication set (OR 1.74; P = 0.03) and combination (P = 0.0008). A multivariate analysis revealed that the AF duration, sinus node dysfunction, and HRC Ser96Ala were independent predictors of an AF recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04, P = 0.037; HR 2.42, P = 0.018; and HR 2.66, P = 0.007, respectively).

Conclusion

HRC SNP Ser96Ala is important as a new genetic marker of AF recurrence after RFCA.

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<![CDATA[Efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B and anidulafungin using an antifungal lock technique (ALT) for catheter-related Candida albicans and Candida glabrata infections in an experimental model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac7dd5eed0c484d088b2

Objective

The aims of this study were as follows. First, we sought to compare the in vitro susceptibility of liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) and anidulafungin on Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms growing on silicone discs. Second, we sought to compare the activity of LAmB versus anidulafungin for the treatment of experimental catheter-related C. albicans and C. glabrata infections with the antifungal lock technique in a rabbit model.

Methods

Two C. albicans and two C. glabrata clinical strains were used. The minimum biofilm eradication concentration for 90% eradication (MBEC90) values were determined after 48h of treatment with LAmB and anidulafungin. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the morphology and viability of yeasts growing in biofilms. Central venous catheters were inserted into New Zealand rabbits, which were inoculated of each strain of C. albicans and C. glabrata. Then, catheters were treated for 48h with saline or with antifungal lock technique using either LAmB (5mg/mL) or anidulafungin (3.33mg/mL).

Results

In vitro: anidulafungin showed greater activity than LAmB against C. albicans and C. glabrata strains. For C. albicans: MBEC90 of anidulafungin versus LAmB: CA176, 0.03 vs. 128 mg/L; CA180, 0.5 vs. 64 mg/L. For C. glabrata: MBEC90 of anidulafungin versus LAmB: CG171, 0.5 vs. 64 mg/L; CG334, 2 vs. 32 mg/L. In vivo: for C. albicans species, LAmB and anidulafungin achieved significant reductions relative to growth control of log10 cfu recovered from the catheter tips (CA176: 3.6±0.3 log10 CFU, p≤0.0001; CA180: 3.8±0.1 log10 CFU, p≤0.01). For C. glabrata, anidulafungin lock therapy achieved significant reductions relative to the other treatments (CG171: 4.8 log10 CFU, p≤0.0001; CG334: 5.1 log10 CFU, p≤0.0001)

Conclusions

For the C. albicans strains, both LAmB and anidulafungin may be promising antifungal lock technique for long-term catheter-related infections; however, anidulafungin showed significantly higher activity than LAmB against the C. glabrata strains.

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<![CDATA[Isolated diastolic potentials as predictors of success in ablation of right ventricular outflow tract idiopathic premature ventricular contractions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648cdbd5eed0c484c8196e

Background and aims

Discrete potentials, low voltage and fragmented electrograms, have been previously reported at ablation site, in patients with premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) originating in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). The aim of this study was to review the electrograms at ablation site and assess the presence of diastolic potentials and their association with success.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed the electrograms obtained at the radiofrequency (RF) delivery sites of 48 patients subjected to ablation of RVOT frequent PVCs. We assessed the duration and amplitude of local electrogram, local activation time, and presence of diastolic potentials and fragmented electrograms.

Results

We reviewed 134 electrograms, median 2 (1–4) per patient. Success was achieved in 40 patients (83%). At successful sites the local activation time was earlier– 54 (-35 to -77) ms vs -26 (-12 to -35) ms, p<0.0001; the local electrogram had lower amplitude 1 (0.45–1.15) vs 1.5 (0.5–2.1) mV, p = 0.006, and longer duration 106 (80–154) vs 74 (60–90) ms, p<0.0001. Diastolic potentials and fragmented electrograms were more frequently present, respectively 76% vs 9%, p <0.0001 and 54% vs 11%, p<0.0001. In univariable analysis these variables were all associated with success. In multivariable analysis only the presence of diastolic potentials [OR 15.5 (95% CI: 3.92–61.2; p<0.0001)], and the value of local activation time [OR 1.11 (95% CI: 1.049–1.172 p<0.0001)], were significantly associated with success.

Conclusion

In this group of patients the presence of diastolic potentials at the ablation site was associated with success.

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<![CDATA[Reporting of “dialysis adequacy” as an outcome in randomised trials conducted in adults on haemodialysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633962d5eed0c484ae65b8

Background

Clinical trials are most informative for evidence-based decision-making when they consistently measure and report outcomes of relevance to stakeholders, especially patients, clinicians, and policy makers. However, sometimes terminology used is interpreted differently by different stakeholders, which might lead to confusion during shared decision making. The construct dialysis adequacy is frequently used, suggesting it is an important outcome both for health care professionals as for patients.

Objective

To assess the scope and consistency of the construct dialysis adequacy as reported in randomised controlled trials in hemodialysis, and evaluate whether these align to the insights and understanding of this construct by patients.

Methods

To assess scope and consistency of dialysis adequacy by professionals, we performed a systematic review searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) up to July 2017. We identified all randomised controlled trails (RCT) including patients on hemodialysis and reporting dialysis adequacy, adequacy or adequacy of dialysis and extracted and classified all reported outcomes. To explore interpretation and meaning of the construct of adequacy by patients, we conducted 11 semi-structured interviews with HD patients using thematic analysis. Belgian registration number B670201731001.

Findings

From the 31 included trials, we extracted and classified 98 outcome measures defined by the authors as adequacy of dialysis, of which 94 (95%) were biochemical, 3 (3%) non-biochemical surrogate and 2 (2%) patient-relevant. The three most commonly reported measures were all biochemical. None of the studies defined adequacy of dialysis as a patient relevant outcome such as survival or quality of life. Patients had a substantially different understanding of the construct dialysis adequacy than the biochemical interpretation reported in the literature. Being alive, time spent while being on dialysis, fatigue and friendliness of staff were the most prominent themes that patients linked to the construct of dialysis adequacy.

Conclusion

Adequacy of dialysis as reported in the literature refers to biochemical outcome measures, most of which are not related with patient relevant outcomes. For patients, adequate dialysis is a dialysis that enables them to spend as much quality time in their life as possible.

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<![CDATA[Patency rates of arteriovenous fistulas created before versus after hemodialysis initiation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d614d5eed0c484031566

In an incident hemodialysis (HD) population, we aimed to investigate whether arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation before HD initiation was associated with improved AVF patency compared with AVF creation from a central venous catheter (CVC), and also to compare patient survival between these patients. Between January 2011 and December 2013, 524 incident HD patients with identified first predialysis vascular access with an AVF (pre-HD group, n = 191) or an AVF from a CVC (on-HD group, n = 333) were included and analyzed retrospectively. The study outcome was defined as AVF patency and all-cause mortality (time to death). On Kaplan–Meier survival analysis, primary and secondary AVF patency rates did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.812 and P = 0.586, respectively), although the overall survival rate was significantly higher in the pre-HD group compared with the on-HD group (P = 0.013). On multivariate analysis, well-known patient factors were associated with decreased primary (older age and diabetes mellitus [DM]) and secondary (DM and peripheral arterial occlusive disease) AVF patency, whereas use of a CVC as the initial predialysis access (hazard ratios, 1.84; 95% confidence intervals, 1.20–2.75; P = 0.005) was significantly associated with worse survival in addition to well-known patient factors (older age, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral arterial occlusive disease). Worse survival in the on-HD group was likely confounded by selection bias because of the retrospective nature of our study. Therefore, the observed lower mortality associated with AVF creation before HD initiation is not fully attributable to CVC use, but rather, affected by other patient-level prognostic factors. There were no CVC-related complications in the pre-HD group, whereas 10.2% of CVC-related complications were noted in the on-HD group. In conclusion, among incident HD patients, compared with patients who underwent creation of an AVF from a CVC, initial AVF creation showed similar primary and secondary AVF patency rates, but lower mortality risk. We also observed that an initial CVC use was an independent risk factor associated with worse survival. A fistula-first strategy might be the best option for incident HD patients who are good candidates for AVF creation.

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<![CDATA[Suprapubic bladder drainage and epidural catheters following abdominal surgery—A risk for urinary tract infections?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5217e7d5eed0c48479586d

Background

Epidural catheters are state of the art for postoperative analgesic in abdominal surgery. Due to neurolysis it can lead to postoperative urinary tract retention (POUR), which leads to prolonged bladder catheterization, which has an increased risk for urinary tract infections (UTI). Our aim was to identify the current perioperative management of urinary catheters and, second, to identify the optimal time of suprapubic bladder catheter removal in regard to the removal of the epidural catheter.

Methods

We sent a questionnaire to 102 German hospitals and analyzed the 83 received answers to evaluate the current handling of bladder drainage and epidural catheters. Then, we conducted a retrospective study including 501 patients, who received an epidural and suprapubic catheter after abdominal surgery at the University Hospital Würzburg. We divided the patients into three groups according to the point in time of suprapubic bladder drainage removal in regard to the removal of the epidural catheter and analyzed the onset of a UTI.

Results

Our survey showed that in almost all hospitals (98.8%), patients received an epidural catheter and a bladder drainage after abdominal surgery. The point in time of urinary catheter removal was equally distributed between before, simultaneously and after the removal of the epidural catheter (respectively: ~28–29%). The retrospective study showed a catheter-associated UTI in 6.7%. Women were affected significantly more often than men (10,7% versus 2,5%, p<0.001). There was a non-significant trend to more UTIs when the suprapubic catheter was removed after the epidural catheter (before: 5.7%, after: 8.4%).

Conclusion

The point in time of suprapubic bladder drainage removal in relation to the removal of the epidural catheter does not seem to correlate with the rate of UTIs. The current handling in Germany is inhomogeneous, so further studies to standardize treatment are recommended.

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<![CDATA[Liver regeneration therapy through the hepatic artery-infusion of cultured bone marrow cells in a canine liver fibrosis model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c521890d5eed0c484798f50

Background

We previously reported regenerative therapies for decompensated cirrhosis based on peripheral venous drip infusion using non-cultured whole bone marrow (BM) cells, or the less invasive cultured BM-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Here, we assessed the efficacy and safety of hepatic arterial infusion using cultured autologous BMSCs, comparing it with peripheral infusion, using our established canine liver fibrosis model.

Methods

Canine BM cells were harvested and cultured, and the resultant BMSCs were returned to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver cirrhosis model canines via either a peripheral vein (Vein group) or hepatic artery (Artery group). A variety of assays were performed before and 4, 8, and 12 weeks after BMSC infusion, and liver fibrosis and indocyanine green (ICG) half-life (t1/2) were compared to those in a control group that received CCl4 but not BMSCs. The safety of this approach was evaluated by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and serial blood examinations after infusion.

Results

Four weeks after infusing BMSCs, a significant improvement was observed in the Vein group (n = 8) compared to outcome in the Control group (n = 10), along with a decrease in ICG t1/2. In the Artery group (n = 4), ICG t1/2 was significantly shorter than that in the Vein group at 8 weeks (Δt1/2: −3.8 ± 1.7 min vs. +0.4 ± 2.4 min; p < 0.01) and 12 weeks (Δt1/2: −4.2 ± 1.7 min vs. +0.4 ± 2.7 min; p < 0.01) after BMSC administration. Post-infusion contrast-enhanced CT showed no liver infarction, and blood tests showed no elevations in either serum lactate dehydrogenase concentrations or hypercoagulability.

Conclusions

We confirmed the efficacy and safety of the hepatic arterial infusion of cultured autologous BMSCs using a canine model, thereby providing non-clinical proof-of-concept.

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<![CDATA[Electric stimulation-guided epidural analgesia for vaginal delivery: A randomized prospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c42436ed5eed0c4845e0193

Background

The failure rate of epidural anesthesia using the loss of resistance technique is 13–23%.

Objectives

To investigate the efficacy of epidural electric stimulation-guided epidural analgesia in vaginal delivery.

Study design

An open label randomized prospective study.

Methods

Laboring women were randomized to two groups: epidural catheter insertion using only a loss of resistance technique or a loss of resistance technique with confirmation by electric stimulation. Catheters in both groups were initially tested with 3 ml of 1% lidocaine and those with any evidence of motor blockade were considered intrathecal. Sensory blockade and an 11 point numerical rating score for pain were assessed 30 minutes after administration of an epidural bolus of 10 ml of 0.22% ropivacaine with fentanyl. Successful epidural analgesia was defined as a decrease of 2 or more in the pain score and a bilateral L1-T10 sensory blockade.

Results

Thirty-one patients were randomized to each group. The first 20 patients in each group were enrolled in a pilot study and were also included in the final analysis. One patient in the electric stimulation group was excluded owing to dural puncture by the Tuohy needle. One patient in each group demonstrated motor blockade after test dose and were considered failures. The number (% (95% confidence interval)) of successful cases were 29 out of 30 (97% (85, 100%)) in the electric stimulation group and 24 out of 31 (77% (61, 89%)) in the loss of resistance group (P = 0.053). However, analysis of only patients with absence of motor blockade revealed that 29 out of 29 (100% (92, 100%)) patients in the electric stimulation group and 24 of 29 (80% (63, 91%)) patients in the loss of resistance group had adequate analgesia (P = 0.024).

Conclusions

Although limited by lack of blinding, small study size and inclusion of pilot study data, this study suggests epidural electric stimulation improves the success rate of subsequent labor analgesia.

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<![CDATA[The axillary vein and its tributaries are not in the mirror image of the axillary artery and its branches]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f76dd5eed0c484386118

Introduction

The axillary and cephalic veins are used for various clinical purposes but their anatomy is not fully understood. Increased knowledge and information about them as well as superficial veins in the upper arm would be useful.

Objective

The aim of this study is to contribute to the literature regarding the anatomy of the venous drainage of the upper extremity.

Methods

The veins of forty upper extremities from twenty one adult cadavers were injected and their axillary regions dissected. The course and pattern of drainage of the venous tributaries in the axillary region were identified and recorded.

Results

The basilic, brachial, subscapular, lateral thoracic and superior thoracic veins drained mainly into the axillary vein, in common with most textbook descriptions. However, the thoracoacromial veins were observed to drain into the cephalic vein in 70.0% of upper limbs. In addition, a venous channel connecting the distal part and proximal part of the axilla was found along the posterolateral wall of the axilla in 77.5% of the upper limbs. In 95.0% of upper limbs, we discovered a superficial vein which ran from the axillary base and drained directly into the axillary vein.

Conclusion

The veins from the inferomedial part of the axilla drain into the axillary vein, whereas the veins from the superolateral part of the axilla drain into the cephalic vein. The venous drainage of the axilla is variable and in common with venous drainage elsewhere, does not necessarily follow the pattern of the arterial supply.

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<![CDATA[Doppler sonography enhances rtPA-induced fibrinolysis in an in vitro clot model of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c605aabd5eed0c4847cd3f5

Background

Transcranial Doppler (TCD) was shown to enhance intravascular fibrinolysis by rtPA in ischemic stroke. Studies revealed that catheter-based administration of rtPA induces lysis of intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH). However, it is unknown whether TCD would be suitable to enhance rtPA-induced fibrinolysis in patients with ICH. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of TCD to enhance rtPA-induced fibrinolysis in an in vitro clot system.

Methods

Reproducible human blood clots of 25 ml were incubated in a water bath at 37°C during treatments. They were weighed before and after 6 different treatments: (I) control (incubation only), (II) rtPA only, (III) one Doppler probe, (IV) two Doppler probes placed vis-à-vis, (V) one probe and rtPA and (VI) two probes and rtPA. To quantify lysis of the blood clots and attenuation of the Doppler through a temporal squama acoustic peak rarefaction pressure (APRP) was measured in the field of the probes. Temperature was assessed to evaluate possible side effects.

Results

Clot weight was reduced in all groups. The control group had the highest relative end weight of 70.2%±7.2% compared to all other groups (p<0,0001). Most efficient lysis was achieved using (VI) 2 probes and rtPA 36.3%±4.4% compared to (II, III, IV) (p<0.0001; p = 0.0002; p = 0.048). APRP was above lysis threshold (535.5±7.2 kPa) using 2 probes even through the temporal squama (731.6±32.5 kPa) (p = 0.0043). There was a maximal temperature elevation of 0.17±0.07°C using both probes.

Conclusions

TCD significantly enhances rtPA-induced lysis of blood clots, and the effect is amplified by using multiple probes. Our results indicate that bitemporal TCD insonation of hematomas could be a new and safe approach to enhance fibrinolysis of ICH´s treated with intralesional catheter and rtPA.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of visual assessment and computer image analysis of intracoronary thrombus type by optical coherence tomography]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2151bbd5eed0c4843fba32

Background

Analysis of intracoronary thrombus type by optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is highly subjective. We aimed to compare a newly developed image analysis method to subjective visual classification of thrombus type identified by OCT.

Methods

Thirty patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction were included. Thrombus type visually classified by two independent readers was compared with analysis using QCU-CMS software.

Results

Repeatability of the computer-based measurements was good. By using a ROC, area under curve values for discrimination of white and red thrombi were 0.92 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.83–1.00) for median attenuation, 0.96 (95% CI 0.89–1.00) for mean backscatter and 0.96 (95% CI 0.89–1.00) for mean grayscale intensity. Median attenuation of 0.57 mm-1 (sensitivity 100%, specificity 71%), mean backscatter of 5.35 (sensitivity 92%, specificity 94%) and mean grayscale intensity of 120.1 (sensitivity 85%, specificity 100%) were identified as the best cut-off values to differentiate between red and white thrombi.

Conclusions

Attenuation, backscatter and grayscale intensity of thrombi in OCT images differentiated red and white thrombi with high sensitivity and specificity. Measurement of these continuous parameters can be used as a less user-dependent method to characterize in vivo thrombi. The clinical significance of these findings needs to be tested in further studies.

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<![CDATA[Is there a difference in rhythm outcome between patients undergoing first line versus second line paroxysmal atrial fibrillation ablation?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141e9dd5eed0c484d276f9

Background

Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) is an established second line therapy for patients with symptomatic paroxysmal AF (PAF) and may be considered as a first line therapy in selected patients who are highly symptomatic, considering patient choice, benefit, and risk, according to recent guidelines. Our study investigated whether a first line vs. second line ablation approach may result in improved sinus rhythm maintenance after ablation.

Methods

A total of 153 patients undergoing pulmonary vein isolation for PAF were included in the study (age 55±12 years, 29% female). Seventy-nine patients underwent first line AF ablation and 74 patients underwent second line AF ablation after failed antiarrhythmic drug therapy. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics such as age, history of AF, left atrial size or LVEF between groups. Success was defined as atrial tachyarrhythmia free survival during a 12-month follow-up by means of serial ECG Holter monitoring.

Results

There was no significant difference in cumulative arrhythmia-free survival between those patients who received AF ablation as a first or second line therapy. Single procedure success was 78% in the first line group vs. 81% in the second line group; multiple procedure success was 90 vs. 91%, (n.s.). Complication rate was 1.3% vs. 1.4% (n.s.).

Conclusion

Success of AF ablation did not differ between patients who receive ablation as first vs. second line therapy. Based on these data, a trial of AAD therapy before AF ablation may be justified in most patients with symptomatic PAF eligible for rhythm control.

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<![CDATA[Uterine contractility changes in a perfused swine uterus model induced by local anesthetics procaine, lidocaine, and ropivacaine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c12cf97d5eed0c4849149f9

Background

Local anesthetics (LAs) are increasingly used as therapeutics due to their multiple molecular effects. They may be potential agents also in gynecology and reproductive medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the contractility response of the perfused swine uterus to different concentrations of the LAs procaine, lidocaine, and ropivacaine.

Methods and findings

In an extracorporeal perfusion model with fresh swine uteri, effects of administered boli of these three LAs in concentrations of 0.1 mg/mL, 0.5 mg/mL and 1.0 mg/mL on uterine contractility and peristalsis were assessed using an intrauterine double-chip micro-catheter. A dose-dependent increase in intrauterine pressure (IUP) in the isthmus and corpus uteri was observed after the administration of the ester-LA procaine 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0%, which was not seen with lower concentrations, or buffer solution. An increase-decrease curve was found after increasing concentrations of the amide-LA lidocaine and ropivacaine, with an IUP plateau with 0.1 and 0.5%, and a decrease with 1% (p<0.01). All reactions were seen in both the isthmus and corpus uteri. The difference of the contractility pattern between ester- and amide-LA at 1% concentration was significant.

Conclusion

LAs dose-dependently modulate contractility in non-pregnant swine uteri. The amid-LAs lidocaine and ropivacaine reduce contractility in higher concentrations and may be used as therapeutics in disorders with increased uterine contractility, as dysmenorrhoea, endometriosis, and infertility. The multiple molecular effects of LAs may explain these effects. This in-vitro pilot study in vitro provides initial data for designing further studies to transfer the results onto humans.

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<![CDATA[Problem-based learning for anesthesia resident operating room crisis management training]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bfc6280d5eed0c484ec9ba9

Background

Senior anesthesia residents must acquire competency in crisis management for operating room (OR) emergencies. We conducted problem based learning (PBL) OR emergency scenarios for anesthesia residents, focused on emergencies in ‘Airway’, ‘Circulation’, ‘Central venous catheter’, and ‘Pain management complications’. Non-technical skills are an integral component of team-based OR emergency management.

Methods

Prior to integrated OR emergency clinical and non-technical skills PBL training, participating 35 anesthesia residents completed two 5-point scale surveys regarding frequency of emergency experiences in the operating room, and self-confidence for anesthesia-related crisis management. Repeat administration of the self-confidence survey was completed immediately following PBL training.

Results

Post-PBL resident clinical management self- confidence improved (P<0.05) in all scenarios on Circulation, Central venous catheter, and Pain treatment related complication topics. Impossible intubation, impossible oxygenation, and awake intubation did not show significant difference following PBL.

Conclusion

Our findings suggest that PBL for OR emergency management can improve resident self- confidence in anesthesia residents.

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<![CDATA[Effects of thrombolysis on outcomes of patients with deep venous thrombosis: An updated meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bb3df3440307c54ff8ce8ef

Background

Small randomized controlled studies and meta-analyses have shown that thrombolysis, especially catheter-directed thrombolysis, can reduce the incidence of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). However, the recent ATTRACT trial did not demonstrate the same effects. Given this confusing situation, we performed an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effects of thrombolysis, especially catheter-directed thrombolysis, on the outcomes of deep venous thrombosis (DVT).

Methods

We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for relevant studies comparing thrombolysis in combination with anticoagulation and with anticoagulation alone. The primary endpoint was PTS during the longest follow-up period. The safety endpoint was the incidence of major bleeding events. We also evaluated the outcomes of catheter-directed thrombolysis as a subgroup analysis.

Results

Six RCTs, including 1418 patients with DVT, were included in our meta-analysis. Thrombolysis in combination with anticoagulation did not reduce PTS (RR: 0.90, [0.80–1.01], P = 0.19) and increased major bleeding (RR: 2.07, [1.12–3.81], P = 0.02). However, trial sequential analysis (TSA) showed that more patients are needed to support the conclusion that thrombolysis in combination with anticoagulation increased major bleeding. Catheter-directed thrombolysis did not reduce the incidence of PTS (RR: 0.88, [0.68–1.13], P = 0.31) and did increase the incidence of major bleeding events (RR: 1.89, [1.00–3.59], P = 0.05).

Conclusion

Thrombolysis, including catheter-directed thrombolysis, did not reduce the incidence of PTS and increased the incidence of major bleeding. However, the results were not supported by TSA and sensitivity analysis, so more relevant studies are needed.

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<![CDATA[Anatomic measurements of cerebral venous sinuses in idiopathic intracranial hypertension patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b28b404463d7e129299938f

Purpose

Magnetic resonance venography (MRV) has not been validated in pre-operative planning of the dural venous sinus stenting (VSS) among idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) patients. We aim to prospectively evaluate dural venous sinus measurement in IIH patient population on two-dimensional time-of-flight (2D-TOF) MRV and Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced (3D-CE) MRV acquisitions and compare them against real-time endoluminal measurements with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), served as the reference.

Materials and methods

The study has been approved by the Weill Cornell Medicine institutional review board. All patients signed written informed consent approved by IRB. Prospective evaluation of forty-five consecutive IIH patients treated with VSS at our institution were evaluated. Patients with pre-stent magnetic resonance venography (MRV) ≤ 6-months of VSS and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) during VSS constituted the study population. Maximum diameter (in mm), Area (in cm2) and Perimeter (in cm) were measured at posterior 1/3rd of superior sagittal sinus (SSS), proximal transverse sinus (PTS), proximal sigmoid sinus (PSS) and mid sigmoid sinus (MSS) on 2D-TOF-MRV, 3D-CE-MRV and IVUS. Statistical analysis performed using box and whisker plots, Bland-Altman analysis and paired sample t-test.

Results

Twenty (n = 20) patients constituted our study population. The mean age was 30±11 years (7–59 years) and 18 out of 20 were female patients. Mean weight and BMI (range) were 86.3±18.3 kilograms (30.8–107.5 kgs) and 32.9±6.8 kg/M2 (16.4–48.3kg/M2) respectively. The CE-MRV significantly oversized the cerebral venous sinuses compared to TOF-MRV (Dmax: +2.0±1.35 mm, p<0.001; Area: +13.31±10.92 mm2, p<0.001 and Perimeter: +4.79±3.4 mm, p<0.001) and IVUS (Dmax: +1.52±2.16 mm, p<0.001; Area: +10.03±21.5 mm2, p<0.001 and Perimeter: +4.15±3.27 mm, p<0.001). The TOF-MRV sinus measurements were in good agreement with the IVUS measurements with no significant variation (Dmax: +.21±2.23 mm, p = 0.49; Area: +2.51±20.41mm2, p = 0.347 and Perimeter: +.001±1.11 mm, p = 0.991).

Conclusion

We report baseline cerebral venous sinus measurements (maximum diameter, area and perimeter) in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. In our experience, TOF-MRV is a reliable representation of endoluminal cerebral venous sinus dimensions, and CE-MRV measurements reflected an overestimation of the endoluminal sinus dimensions when compared against the real time IVUS measurements.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of forced-air and water-circulating warming for prevention of hypothermia during transcatheter aortic valve replacement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be028a

Introduction

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) procedures at our institution were complicated by perioperative hypothermia despite use of the standard of care forced-air convective warming device (the BairHugger, Augustine Medical Inc, Eden Prairie, MN, USA). To remedy this problem, we initiated a quality improvement process that investigated the use of a conductive warm water-circulating device (the Allon ThermoWrap, Menen Medical Corporation, Trevose, PA, USA), and hypothesized that it would decrease the incidence of perioperative hypothermia.

Methods

We compared two different intraoperative warming devices using a historic control. We retrospectively reviewed intraoperative records of 80 TAVRs between 6/2013 and 6/2015, 46 and 34 of which were done with the forced-air and water-circulating devices, respectively. Continuous temperature data obtained from pulmonary artery catheter, temperature upon arrival to cardiothoracic ICU (CTU), age, BSA, height, and BMI were compared.

Results

Patients warmed with both devices were similar in terms of demographic characteristics. First recorded intraoperative temperature (mean 36.26 ± SD 0.61 vs. 35.95 ± 0.46°C, p = 0.02), lowest intraoperative temperature (36.01 ± 0.58 vs. 34.89 ± 0.76°C, p<0.001), temperature at the end of the procedure (36.47 ± 0.51 vs. 35.17 ± 0.75°C, p<0.001), and temperature upon arrival to the CTU (36.35 ± 0.44 vs. 35.07 ± 0.78°C, p<0.001) were significantly higher in the water-circulating group as compared to the forced-air group.

Conclusion

A quality improvement process led to selection of a new warming device that virtually eliminated perioperative hypothermia at our institution. Patients warmed with the new device were significantly less likely to experience intraoperative hypothermia and were significantly more likely to be normothermic upon arrival to the CTU.

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<![CDATA[The Alpha-1A Adrenergic Receptor in the Rabbit Heart]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad8ab0ee8fa60bb8d8f

The alpha-1A-adrenergic receptor (AR) subtype is associated with cardioprotective signaling in the mouse and human heart. The rabbit is useful for cardiac disease modeling, but data on the alpha-1A in the rabbit heart are limited. Our objective was to test for expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart. By quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR) on mRNA from ventricular myocardium of adult male New Zealand White rabbits, the alpha-1B was 99% of total alpha-1-AR mRNA, with <1% alpha-1A and alpha-1D, whereas alpha-1A mRNA was over 50% of total in brain and liver. Saturation radioligand binding identified ~4 fmol total alpha-1-ARs per mg myocardial protein, with 17% alpha-1A by competition with the selective antagonist 5-methylurapidil. The alpha-1D was not detected by competition with BMY-7378, indicating that 83% of alpha-1-ARs were alpha-1B. In isolated left ventricle and right ventricle, the selective alpha-1A agonist A61603 stimulated a negative inotropic effect, versus a positive inotropic effect with the nonselective alpha-1-agonist phenylephrine and the beta-agonist isoproterenol. Blood pressure assay in conscious rabbits using an indwelling aortic telemeter showed that A61603 by bolus intravenous dosing increased mean arterial pressure by 20 mm Hg at 0.14 μg/kg, 10-fold lower than norepinephrine, and chronic A61603 infusion by iPRECIO programmable micro Infusion pump did not increase BP at 22 μg/kg/d. A myocardial slice model useful in human myocardium and an anthracycline cardiotoxicity model useful in mouse were both problematic in rabbit. We conclude that alpha-1A mRNA is very low in rabbit heart, but the receptor is present by binding and mediates a negative inotropic response. Expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart differ from mouse and human, but the vasopressor response is similar to mouse.

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