ResearchPad - cell-activation https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Distinct patterns of dentate gyrus cell activation distinguish physiologic from aberrant stimuli]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14621 Under physiologic conditions, the dentate gyrus (DG) exhibits exceptionally low levels of activity compared to other brain regions. A sparse activation pattern is observed even when the DG is engaged to process new information; for example, only ~1–3% of neurons in the DG granule cell layer (GCL) are activated after placing animals in a novel, enriched environment. Moreover, such physiologic stimulation of GCL neurons recruits young granule cells more readily than older cells. This sparse pattern of cell activation has largely been attributed to intrinsic circuit properties of the DG, such as reduced threshold for activation in younger cells, and increased inhibition onto older cells. Given these intrinsic properties, we asked whether such activation of young granule cells was unique to physiologic stimulation, or could be elicited by general pharmacological activation of the hippocampus. We found that administration of kainic acid (KA) at a low dose (5 mg/kg) to wildtype C57BL/6 mice activated a similarly sparse number of cells in the GCL as physiologic DG stimulation by exposure to a novel, enriched environment. However, unlike physiologic stimulation, 5 mg/kg KA activated primarily old granule cells as well as GABAergic interneurons. This finding indicates that intrinsic circuit properties of the DG alone may not be sufficient to support the engagement of young granule cells, and suggest that other factors such as the specificity of the pattern of inputs, may be involved.

]]>
<![CDATA[The organization of leukotriene biosynthesis on the nuclear envelope revealed by single molecule localization microscopy and computational analyses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c673071d5eed0c484f37b3f

The initial steps in the synthesis of leukotrienes are the translocation of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) to the nuclear envelope and its subsequent association with its scaffold protein 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP). A major gap in our understanding of this process is the knowledge of how the organization of 5-LO and FLAP on the nuclear envelope regulates leukotriene synthesis. We combined single molecule localization microscopy with Clus-DoC cluster analysis, and also a novel unbiased cluster analysis to analyze changes in the relationships between 5-LO and FLAP in response to activation of RBL-2H3 cells to generate leukotriene C4. We identified the time-dependent reorganization of both 5-LO and FLAP into higher-order assemblies or clusters in response to cell activation via the IgE receptor. Clus-DoC analysis identified a subset of these clusters with a high degree of interaction between 5-LO and FLAP that specifically correlates with the time course of LTC4 synthesis, strongly suggesting their role in the initiation of leukotriene biosynthesis.

]]>
<![CDATA[TGF-Beta Downregulation of Distinct Chloride Channels in Cystic Fibrosis-Affected Epithelia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f4ab0ee8fa60b6f826

Rationale

The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Calcium-activated Chloride Conductance (CaCC) each play critical roles in maintaining normal hydration of epithelial surfaces including the airways and colon. TGF-beta is a genetic modifier of cystic fibrosis (CF), but how it influences the CF phenotype is not understood.

Objectives

We tested the hypothesis that TGF-beta potently downregulates chloride-channel function and expression in two CF-affected epithelia (T84 colonocytes and primary human airway epithelia) compared with proteins known to be regulated by TGF-beta.

Measurements and Main Results

TGF-beta reduced CaCC and CFTR-dependent chloride currents in both epithelia accompanied by reduced levels of TMEM16A and CFTR protein and transcripts. TGF-beta treatment disrupted normal regulation of airway-surface liquid volume in polarized primary human airway epithelia, and reversed F508del CFTR correction produced by VX-809. TGF-beta effects on the expression and activity of TMEM16A, wtCFTR and corrected F508del CFTR were seen at 10-fold lower concentrations relative to TGF-beta effects on e-cadherin (epithelial marker) and vimentin (mesenchymal marker) expression. TGF-beta downregulation of TMEM16A and CFTR expression were partially reversed by Smad3 and p38 MAPK inhibition, respectively.

Conclusions

TGF-beta is sufficient to downregulate two critical chloride transporters in two CF-affected tissues that precedes expression changes of two distinct TGF-beta regulated proteins. Our results provide a plausible mechanism for CF-disease modification by TGF-beta through effects on CaCC.

]]>
<![CDATA[Regulation of Thrombomodulin Expression and Release in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells by Cyclic Strain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e1ab0ee8fa60b69b2e

Background and Objectives

Thrombomodulin (TM), an integral membrane glycoprotein expressed on the lumenal surface of vascular endothelial cells, promotes anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. Release of functional TM from the endothelium surface into plasma has also been reported. Much is still unknown however about how endothelial TM is regulated by physiologic hemodynamic forces (and particularly cyclic strain) intrinsic to endothelial-mediated vascular homeostasis.

Methods

This study employed human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) to investigate the effects of equibiaxial cyclic strain (7.5%, 60 cycles/min, 24 hrs), and to a lesser extent, laminar shear stress (10 dynes/cm2, 24 hrs), on TM expression and release. Time-, dose- and frequency-dependency studies were performed.

Results

Our initial studies demonstrated that cyclic strain strongly downregulated TM expression in a p38- and receptor tyrosine kinase-dependent manner. This was in contrast to the upregulatory effect of shear stress. Moreover, both forces significantly upregulated TM release over a 48 hr period. With continuing focus on the cyclic strain-induced TM release, we noted both dose (0–7.5%) and frequency (0.5–2.0 Hz) dependency, with no attenuation of strain-induced TM release observed following inhibition of MAP kinases (p38, ERK-1/2), receptor tyrosine kinase, or eNOS. The concerted impact of cyclic strain and inflammatory mediators on TM release from HAECs was also investigated. In this respect, both TNFα (100 ng/ml) and ox-LDL (10–50 µg/ml) appeared to potentiate strain-induced TM release. Finally, inhibition of neither MMPs (GM6001) nor rhomboids (3,4-dichloroisocoumarin) had any effect on strain-induced TM release. However, significantly elevated levels (2.1 fold) of TM were observed in isolated microparticle fractions following 7.5% strain for 24 hrs.

Conclusions

A preliminary in vitro investigation into the effects of cyclic strain on TM in HAECs is presented. Physiologic cyclic strain was observed to downregulate TM expression, whilst upregulating in a time-, dose- and frequency-dependent manner the release of TM.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Adaptor Protein Swiprosin-1/EFhd2 Is Dispensable for Platelet Function in Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da34ab0ee8fa60b85b80

Background

Platelets are anuclear cell fragments derived from bone marrow megakaryocytes that safeguard vascular integrity, but may also cause pathological vessel occlusion. Reorganizations of the platelet cytoskeleton and agonist-induced intracellular Ca2+-mobilization are crucial for platelet hemostatic function. EF-hand domain containing 2 (EFhd2, Swiprosin-1) is a Ca2+-binding cytoskeletal adaptor protein involved in actin remodeling in different cell types, but its function in platelets is unknown.

Objective

Based on the described functions of EFhd2 in immune cells, we tested the hypothesis that EFhd2 is a crucial adaptor protein for platelet function acting as a regulator of Ca2+-mobilization and cytoskeletal rearrangements.

Methods and Results

We generated EFhd2-deficient mice and analyzed their platelets in vitro and in vivo. Efhd2-/- mice displayed normal platelet count and size, exhibited an unaltered in vivo life span and showed normal Ca2+-mobilization and activation/aggregation responses to classic agonists. Interestingly, upon stimulation of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-coupled receptor glycoprotein (GP) VI, Efhd2-/- platelets showed a slightly increased coagulant activity. Furthermore, absence of EFhd2 had no significant impact on integrin-mediated clot retraction, actomyosin rearrangements and spreading of activated platelets on fibrinogen. In vivo EFhd2-deficiency resulted in unaltered hemostatic function and unaffected arterial thrombus formation.

Conclusion

These results show that EFhd2 is not essential for platelet function in mice indicating that other cytoskeletal adaptors may functionally compensate its loss.

]]>
<![CDATA[Environmental Particulate (PM2.5) Augments Stiffness-Induced Alveolar Epithelial Cell Mechanoactivation of Transforming Growth Factor Beta]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9deab0ee8fa60b68818

Dysfunctional pulmonary homeostasis and repair, including diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis (PF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and tumorigenesis have been increasing over the past decade, a fact that heavily implicates environmental influences. Several investigations have suggested that in response to increased transforming growth factor - beta (TGFβ) signaling, the alveolar type II (ATII) epithelial cell undergoes phenotypic changes that may contribute to the complex pathobiology of PF. We have previously demonstrated that increased tissue stiffness associated with PF is a potent extracellular matrix (ECM) signal for epithelial cell activation of TGFβ. The work reported here explores the relationship between tissue stiffness and exposure to environmental stimuli in the activation of TGFβ. We hypothesized that exposure of ATII cells to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) will result in enhanced cell contractility, TGFβ activation, and subsequent changes to ATII cell phenotype. ATII cells were cultured on increasingly stiff substrates with or without addition of PM2.5. Exposure to PM2.5 resulted in increased activation of TGFβ, increased cell contractility, and elongation of ATII cells. Most notably, on 8 kPa substrates, a stiffness greater than normal but less than established fibrotic lung, addition of PM2.5 resulted in increased cortical cell stiffness, enhanced actin staining and cell elongation; a result not seen in the absence of PM2.5. Our work suggests that PM2.5 exposure additionally enhances the existing interaction between ECM stiffness and TGFβ that has been previously reported. Furthermore, we show that this additional enhancement is likely a consequence of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to increased TGFβ signaling events. These results highlight the importance of both the micromechanical and biochemical environment in lung disease initiation and suggest that individuals in early stages of lung remodeling during fibrosis may be more susceptible than healthy individuals when exposed to environmental injury adjuvants.

]]>
<![CDATA[Egr-1 Activation by Cancer-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promotes Endothelial Cell Migration via ERK1/2 and JNK Signaling Pathways]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db22ab0ee8fa60bcf92b

Various mammalian cells, including cancer cells, shed extracellular vesicles (EVs), also known as exosomes and microvesicles, into surrounding tissues. These EVs play roles in tumor growth and metastasis by promoting angiogenesis. However, the detailed mechanism of how cancer-derived EVs elicit endothelial cell activation remains unknown. Here, we provide evidence that early growth response-1 (Egr-1) activation in endothelial cells is involved in the angiogenic activity of colorectal cancer cell-derived EVs. Both RNA interference–mediated downregulation of Egr-1 and ERK1/2 or JNK inhibitor significantly blocked EV-mediated Egr-1 activation and endothelial cell migration. Furthermore, lipid raft-mediated endocytosis inhibitor effectively blocked endothelial Egr-1 activation and migration induced by cancer-derived EVs. Our results suggest that Egr-1 activation in endothelial cells may be a key mechanism involved in the angiogenic activity of cancer-derived EVs. These findings will improve our understanding regarding the proangiogenic activities of EVs in diverse pathological conditions including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases.

]]>
<![CDATA[Helium Generated Cold Plasma Finely Regulates Activation of Human Fibroblast-Like Primary Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da69ab0ee8fa60b926e5

Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine) cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and can be considered a valid therapeutic approach for liver and gut lesions.

]]>
<![CDATA[Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Enhanced Mesenchymal Stem Cell Recruitment through Stromal Derived Factor-1 Signaling in Fracture Healing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7eab0ee8fa60b998de

Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been proven effective in promoting fracture healing but the underlying mechanisms are not fully depicted. We examined the effect of LIPUS on the recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the pivotal role of stromal cell-derived factor-1/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (SDF-1/CXCR4) pathway in response to LIPUS stimulation, which are essential factors in bone fracture healing. For in vitro study, isolated rat MSCs were divided into control or LIPUS group. LIPUS treatment was given 20 minutes/day at 37°C for 3 days. Control group received sham LIPUS treatment. After treatment, intracellular CXCR4 mRNA, SDF-1 mRNA and secreted SDF-1 protein levels were quantified, and MSCs migration was evaluated with or without blocking SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway by AMD3100. For in vivo study, fractured 8-week-old young rats received intracardiac administration of MSCs were assigned to LIPUS treatment, LIPUS+AMD3100 treatment or vehicle control group. The migration of transplanted MSC to the fracture site was investigated by ex vivo fluorescent imaging. SDF-1 protein levels at fracture site and in serum were examined. Fracture healing parameters, including callus morphology, micro-architecture of the callus and biomechanical properties of the healing bone were investigated. The in vitro results showed that LIPUS upregulated SDF-1 and CXCR4 expressions in MSCs, and elevated SDF-1 protein level in the conditioned medium. MSCs migration was promoted by LIPUS and partially inhibited by AMD3100. In vivo study demonstrated that LIPUS promoted MSCs migration to the fracture site, which was associated with an increase of local and serum SDF-1 level, the changes in callus formation, and the improvement of callus microarchitecture and mechanical properties; whereas the blockade of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling attenuated the LIPUS effects on the fractured bones. These results suggested SDF-1 mediated MSCs migration might be one of the crucial mechanisms through which LIPUS exerted influence on fracture healing.

]]>
<![CDATA[Characterization of NF-κB Reporter U937 Cells and Their Application for the Detection of Inflammatory Immune-Complexes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9aab0ee8fa60ba3367

Our study tested the hypothesis that immunoglobulins differ in their ability to activate the nuclear factor-κB pathway mediated cellular responses. These responses are modulated by several properties of the immune complex, including the ratio of antibody isotypes binding to antigen. Immunoassays allow the measurement of antigen specific antibodies belonging to distinct immunoglobulin classes and subclasses but not the net biological effect of the combination of these antibodies. We set out to develop a biosensor that is suitable for the detection and characterization of antigen specific serum antibodies. We genetically modified the monocytoid U937 cell line carrying Fc receptors with a plasmid encoding NF-κB promoter-driven GFP. This clone, U937-NF-κB, was characterized with respect to FcR expression and response to solid-phase immunoglobulins. Human IgG3, IgG4 and IgG1 induced GFP production in a time- and dose-dependent manner, in this order of efficacy, while IgG2 triggered no activation at the concentrations tested. IgA elicited no response alone but showed significant synergism with IgG3 and IgG4. We confirmed the importance of activation via FcγRI by direct stimulation with monoclonal antibody and by competition assays. We used citrullinated peptides and serum from rheumatoid arthritis patients to generate immune complexes and to study the activation of U937-NF-κB, observing again a synergistic effect between IgG and IgA. Our results show that immunoglobulins have distinct pro-inflammatory potential, and that U937-NF-κB is suitable for the estimation of biological effects of immune-complexes, offering insight into monocyte activation and pathogenesis of antibody mediated diseases.

]]>
<![CDATA[Regulator of G-Protein Signaling-5 Is a Marker of Hepatic Stellate Cells and Expression Mediates Response to Liver Injury]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0cab0ee8fa60b78080

Liver fibrosis is mediated by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which respond to a variety of cytokine and growth factors to moderate the response to injury and create extracellular matrix at the site of injury. G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signaling, via endothelin-1 (ET-1) and angiotensin II (AngII), increases HSC contraction, migration and fibrogenesis. Regulator of G-protein signaling-5 (RGS5), an inhibitor of vasoactive GPCR agonists, functions to control GPCR-mediated contraction and hypertrophy in pericytes and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Therefore we hypothesized that RGS5 controls GPCR signaling in activated HSCs in the context of liver injury. In this study, we localize RGS5 to the HSCs and demonstrate that Rgs5 expression is regulated during carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute and chronic liver injury in Rgs5LacZ/LacZ reporter mice. Furthermore, CCl4 treated RGS5-null mice develop increased hepatocyte damage and fibrosis in response to CCl4 and have increased expression of markers of HSC activation. Knockdown of Rgs5 enhances ET-1-mediated signaling in HSCs in vitro. Taken together, we demonstrate that RGS5 is a critical regulator of GPCR signaling in HSCs and regulates HSC activation and fibrogenesis in liver injury.

]]>
<![CDATA[Activation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B in the Hepatic Stellate Cells of Mice with Schistosomiasis Japonica]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabfab0ee8fa60bb0186

Schistosomiasis japonica is a serious tropical parasitic disease in humans, which causes inflammation and fibrosis of the liver. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are known to play an important role in schistosome-induced fibrosis, but their role in schistosome-induced inflammation is still largely unknown. Here, we use a murine model of schistosomiasis japonica to investigate the role that nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), a critical mediator of inflammatory responses, plays in schistosome-induced inflammation. We revealed that NF-κB was significantly activated in HSCs at the early stage of infection, but not at later stages. We also show that the expression levels of several chemokines regulated by NF-κB signaling (Ccl2, Ccl3 and Ccl5) were similarly elevated at early infection. TLR4 signaling, one of the strongest known inducers of NF-κB activation, seemed not activated in HSCs post-infection. Importantly, we found that levels of miR-146 (a known negative regulator of NF-κB signaling) in HSCs opposed those of NF-κB signaling, elevating at later stage of infection. These results indicate that HSCs might play an important role in the progression of hepatic schistosomiasis japonica by linking liver inflammation to fibrosis via NF-κB signaling. Moreover, our work suggests that miR-146 appeared to regulate this process. These findings are significant and imply that manipulating the function of HSCs by targeting either NF-κB signaling or miR-146 expression may provide a novel method of treating hepatic schistosomiasis japonica.

]]>
<![CDATA[Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Progesterone in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated BV-2 Microglia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f2ab0ee8fa60b6f013

Female sex is associated with improved outcome in experimental brain injury models, such as traumatic brain injury, ischemic stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhage. This implies female gonadal steroids may be neuroprotective. A mechanism for this may involve modulation of post-injury neuroinflammation. As the resident immunomodulatory cells in central nervous system, microglia are activated during acute brain injury and produce inflammatory mediators which contribute to secondary injury including proinflammatory cytokines, and nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), mediated by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), respectively. We hypothesized that female gonadal steroids reduce microglia mediated neuroinflammation. In this study, the progesterone’s effects on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), iNOS, and COX-2 expression were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglia. Further, investigation included nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. LPS (30 ng/ml) upregulated TNF-α, iNOS, and COX-2 protein expression in BV-2 cells. Progesterone pretreatment attenuated LPS-stimulated TNF-α, iNOS, and COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent fashion. Progesterone suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation by decreasing inhibitory κBα and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation. Progesterone decreased LPS-mediated phosphorylation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular regulated kinase MAPKs. These progesterone effects were inhibited by its antagonist mifepristone. In conclusion, progesterone exhibits pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia by down-regulating proinflammatory mediators corresponding to suppression of NF-κB and MAPK activation. This suggests progesterone may be used as a potential neurotherapeutic to treat inflammatory components of acute brain injury.

]]>
<![CDATA[Physiological Epidermal Growth Factor Concentrations Activate High Affinity Receptors to Elicit Calcium Oscillations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae3ab0ee8fa60bbc979

Signaling mediated by the epidermal growth factor (EGF) is crucial in tissue development, homeostasis and tumorigenesis. EGF is mitogenic at picomolar concentrations and is known to bind its receptor on high affinity binding sites depending of the oligomerization state of the receptor (monomer or dimer). In spite of these observations, the cellular response induced by EGF has been mainly characterized for nanomolar concentrations of the growth factor, and a clear definition of the cellular response to circulating (picomolar) concentrations is still lacking. We investigated Ca2+ signaling, an early event in EGF responses, in response to picomolar doses in COS-7 cells where the monomer/dimer equilibrium is unaltered by the synthesis of exogenous EGFR. Using the fluo5F Ca2+ indicator, we found that picomolar concentrations of EGF induced in 50% of the cells a robust oscillatory Ca2+ signal quantitatively similar to the Ca2+ signal induced by nanomolar concentrations. However, responses to nanomolar and picomolar concentrations differed in their underlying mechanisms as the picomolar EGF response involved essentially plasma membrane Ca2+ channels that are not activated by internal Ca2+ store depletion, while the nanomolar EGF response involved internal Ca2+ release. Moreover, while the picomolar EGF response was modulated by charybdotoxin-sensitive K+ channels, the nanomolar response was insensitive to the blockade of these ion channels.

]]>
<![CDATA[Prostaglandin E2 Prevents Hyperosmolar-Induced Human Mast Cell Activation through Prostanoid Receptors EP2 and EP4]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafeab0ee8fa60bc5c60

Background

Mast cells play a critical role in allergic and inflammatory diseases, including exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in asthma. The mechanism underlying EIB is probably related to increased airway fluid osmolarity that activates mast cells to the release inflammatory mediators. These mediators then act on bronchial smooth muscle to cause bronchoconstriction. In parallel, protective substances such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are probably also released and could explain the refractory period observed in patients with EIB.

Objective

This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of PGE2 on osmotically activated mast cells, as a model of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.

Methods

We used LAD2, HMC-1, CD34-positive, and human lung mast cell lines. Cells underwent a mannitol challenge, and the effects of PGE2 and prostanoid receptor (EP) antagonists for EP1–4 were assayed on the activated mast cells. Beta-hexosaminidase release, protein phosphorylation, and calcium mobilization were assessed.

Results

Mannitol both induced mast cell degranulation and activated phosphatidyl inositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, thereby causing de novo eicosanoid and cytokine synthesis. The addition of PGE2 significantly reduced mannitol-induced degranulation through EP2 and EP4 receptors, as measured by beta-hexosaminidase release, and consequently calcium influx. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 phosphorylation were diminished when compared with mannitol activation alone.

Conclusions

Our data show a protective role for the PGE2 receptors EP2 and EP4 following osmotic changes, through the reduction of human mast cell activity caused by calcium influx impairment and MAP kinase inhibition.

]]>
<![CDATA[Irisin Promotes Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell Proliferation through the ERK Signaling Pathway and Partly Suppresses High Glucose-Induced Apoptosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf9ab0ee8fa60bc3e48

Irisin is a newly discovered myokine that links exercise with metabolic homeostasis. It is involved in modest weight loss and improves glucose intolerance. However, the direct effects and mechanisms of irisin on vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are not fully understood. In the current study, we demonstrated that irisin promoted Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell (HUVEC) proliferation. It was further demonstrated that this pro-proliferation effect was mediated by irisin-induced activation of extracellular signal–related kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Inhibition of ERK signaling with U0126 decreased the pro-proliferation effect of irisin on HUVECs. It was also demonstrated that irisin reduced high glucose-induced apoptosis by up-regulating Bcl-2 expression and down-regulating Bax, Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 expression. In summary, these results suggested that irisin plays a novel role in sustaining endothelial homeostasis by promoting HUVEC proliferation via the ERK signaling pathway and protects the cell from high glucose-induced apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2,Bax and Caspase expression.

]]>