ResearchPad - cell-binding https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Differential expression of interferon-lambda receptor 1 splice variants determines the magnitude of the antiviral response induced by interferon-lambda 3 in human immune cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13835 Type III IFNs (IFN-λs) are antiviral cytokines that are thought to act on specific subsets of cells, especially to protect mucosal barriers. Here, we demonstrate that IFN-λ3 differentially binds multiple human immune cell subsets, indicating the specific receptor subunit, IFN-λR1, is more broadly expressed in the human immune system, compared to published mouse models. IFN-λR1 expression increased after cellular activation, and antiviral responses were inhibited by a soluble version of the receptor. The direct interaction of IFN-λs with human immune cells, and specific regulation of IFN-λR1 expression, has broad mechanistic implications in the modulation of inflammatory or anti-cancer immune responses, and future antiviral therapies.

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<![CDATA[Blood co-expression modules identify potential modifier genes of diabetes and lung function in cystic fibrosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N07a3560c-fa96-4eb5-821e-9292b7a2bef0

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a rare genetic disease that affects the respiratory and digestive systems. Lung disease is variable among CF patients and associated with the development of comorbidities and chronic infections. The rate of lung function deterioration depends not only on the type of mutations in CFTR, the disease-causing gene, but also on modifier genes. In the present study, we aimed to identify genes and pathways that (i) contribute to the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis and (ii) modulate the associated comorbidities. We profiled blood samples in CF patients and healthy controls and analyzed RNA-seq data with Weighted Gene Correlation Network Analysis (WGCNA). Interestingly, lung function, body mass index, the presence of diabetes, and chronic P. aeruginosa infections correlated with four modules of co-expressed genes. Detailed inspection of networks and hub genes pointed to cell adhesion, leukocyte trafficking and production of reactive oxygen species as central mechanisms in lung function decline and cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. Of note, we showed that blood is an informative surrogate tissue to study the contribution of inflammation to lung disease and diabetes in CF patients. Finally, we provided evidence that WGCNA is useful to analyze–omic datasets in rare genetic diseases as patient cohorts are inevitably small.

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<![CDATA[Distinct transcriptional modules in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells response to human respiratory syncytial virus or to human rhinovirus in hospitalized infants with bronchiolitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9902b2d5eed0c484b983fb

Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the main cause of bronchiolitis during the first year of life, when infections by other viruses, such as rhinovirus, also occur and are clinically indistinguishable from those caused by HRSV. In hospitalized infants with bronchiolitis, the analysis of gene expression profiles from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) may be useful for the rapid identification of etiological factors, as well as for developing diagnostic tests, and elucidating pathogenic mechanisms triggered by different viral agents. In this study we conducted a comparative global gene expression analysis of PBMC obtained from two groups of infants with acute viral bronchiolitis who were infected by HRSV (HRSV group) or by HRV (HRV group). We employed a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) which allows the identification of transcriptional modules and their correlations with HRSV or HRV groups. This approach permitted the identification of distinct transcription modules for the HRSV and HRV groups. According to these data, the immune response to HRSV infection—comparatively to HRV infection—was more associated to the activation of the interferon gamma signaling pathways and less related to neutrophil activation mechanisms. Moreover, we also identified host-response molecular markers that could be used for etiopathogenic diagnosis. These results may contribute to the development of new tests for respiratory virus identification. The finding that distinct transcriptional profiles are associated to specific host responses to HRSV or to HRV may also contribute to the elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms triggered by different respiratory viruses, paving the way for new therapeutic strategies.

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<![CDATA[Interaction between nectin-1 and the human natural killer cell receptor CD96]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca1ed5eed0c48452a7e2

Regulation of Natural Killer (NK) cell activity is achieved by the integration of both activating and inhibitory signals acquired at the immunological synapse with potential target cells. NK cells express paired receptors from the immunoglobulin family which share common ligands from the nectin family of adhesion molecules. The activating receptor CD226 (DNAM-1) binds to nectin-2 and CD155, which are also recognized by the inhibitory receptor TIGIT. The third receptor in this family is CD96, which is less well characterized and may have different functions in human and mouse models. Human CD96 interacts with CD155 and ligation of this receptor activates NK cells, while in mice the presence of CD96 correlates with decreased NK cell activation. Mouse CD96 also binds nectin-1, but the effect of this interaction has not yet been determined. Here we show that human nectin-1 directly interacts with CD96 in vitro. The binding site for CD96 is located on the nectin-1 V-domain, which comprises a canonical interface that is shared by nectins to promote cell adhesion. The affinity of nectin-1 for CD96 is lower than for other nectins such as nectin-3 and nectin-1 itself. However, the affinity of nectin-1 for CD96 is similar to its affinity for herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D (HSV gD), which binds the nectin-1 V-domain during virus entry. The affinity of human CD96 for nectin-1 is lower than for its known activating ligand CD155. We also found that human erythroleukemia K562 cells, which are commonly used as susceptible targets to assess NK cell cytotoxicity did not express nectin-1 on their surface and were resistant to HSV infection. When expressed in K562 cells, nectin-1-GFP accumulated at cell contacts and allowed HSV entry. Furthermore, overexpression of nectin-1-GFP led to an increased susceptibility of K562 cells to NK-92 cell cytotoxicity.

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<![CDATA[The Cdk8/19-cyclin C transcription regulator functions in genome replication through metazoan Sld7]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59feebd5eed0c4841357c1

Accurate genome duplication underlies genetic homeostasis. Metazoan Mdm2 binding protein (MTBP) forms a main regulatory platform for origin firing together with Treslin/TICRR and TopBP1 (Topoisomerase II binding protein 1 (TopBP1)–interacting replication stimulating protein/TopBP1-interacting checkpoint and replication regulator). We report the first comprehensive analysis of MTBP and reveal conserved and metazoa-specific MTBP functions in replication. This suggests that metazoa have evolved specific molecular mechanisms to adapt replication principles conserved with yeast to the specific requirements of the more complex metazoan cells. We uncover one such metazoa-specific process: a new replication factor, cyclin-dependent kinase 8/19–cyclinC (Cdk8/19-cyclin C), binds to a central domain of MTBP. This interaction is required for complete genome duplication in human cells. In the absence of MTBP binding to Cdk8/19-cyclin C, cells enter mitosis with incompletely duplicated chromosomes, and subsequent chromosome segregation occurs inaccurately. Using remote homology searches, we identified MTBP as the metazoan orthologue of yeast synthetic lethal with Dpb11 7 (Sld7). This homology finally demonstrates that the set of yeast core factors sufficient for replication initiation in vitro is conserved in metazoa. MTBP and Sld7 contain two homologous domains that are present in no other protein, one each in the N and C termini. In MTBP the conserved termini flank the metazoa-specific Cdk8/19-cyclin C binding region and are required for normal origin firing in human cells. The N termini of MTBP and Sld7 share an essential origin firing function, the interaction with Treslin/TICRR or its yeast orthologue Sld3, respectively. The C termini may function as homodimerisation domains. Our characterisation of broadly conserved and metazoa-specific initiation processes sets the basis for further mechanistic dissection of replication initiation in vertebrates. It is a first step in understanding the distinctions of origin firing in higher eukaryotes.

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<![CDATA[CD4 occupancy triggers sequential pre-fusion conformational states of the HIV-1 envelope trimer with relevance for broadly neutralizing antibody activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c48df5cd5eed0c4841cd854

During the entry process, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer undergoes a sequence of conformational changes triggered by both CD4 and coreceptor engagement. Resolving the conformation of these transient entry intermediates has proven challenging. Here, we fine-mapped the antigenicity of entry intermediates induced by increasing CD4 engagement of cell surface–expressed Env. Escalating CD4 triggering led to the sequential adoption of different pre-fusion conformational states of the Env trimer, up to the pre-hairpin conformation, that we assessed for antibody epitope presentation. Maximal accessibility of the coreceptor binding site was detected below Env saturation by CD4. Exposure of the fusion peptide and heptad repeat 1 (HR1) required higher CD4 occupancy. Analyzing the diverse antigenic states of the Env trimer, we obtained key insights into the transitions in epitope accessibility of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). Several bnAbs preferentially bound CD4-triggered Env, indicating a potential capacity to neutralize both pre- and post-CD4 engagement, which needs to be explored. Assessing binding and neutralization activity of bnAbs, we confirm antibody dissociation rates as a driver of incomplete neutralization. Collectively, our findings highlight a need to resolve Env conformations that are neutralization-relevant to provide guidance for immunogen development.

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<![CDATA[Metaproteomics reveals potential mechanisms by which dietary resistant starch supplementation attenuates chronic kidney disease progression in rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52bad5eed0c4842bcf23

Background

Resistant starch is a prebiotic metabolized by the gut bacteria. It has been shown to attenuate chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in rats. Previous studies employed taxonomic analysis using 16S rRNA sequencing and untargeted metabolomics profiling. Here we expand these studies by metaproteomics, gaining new insight into the host-microbiome interaction.

Methods

Differences between cecum contents in CKD rats fed a diet containing resistant starch with those fed a diet containing digestible starch were examined by comparative metaproteomics analysis. Taxonomic information was obtained using unique protein sequences. Our methodology results in quantitative data covering both host and bacterial proteins.

Results

5,834 proteins were quantified, with 947 proteins originating from the host organism. Taxonomic information derived from metaproteomics data surpassed previous 16S RNA analysis, and reached species resolutions for moderately abundant taxonomic groups. In particular, the Ruminococcaceae family becomes well resolved–with butyrate producers and amylolytic species such as R. bromii clearly visible and significantly higher while fibrolytic species such as R. flavefaciens are significantly lower with resistant starch feeding. The observed changes in protein patterns are consistent with fiber-associated improvement in CKD phenotype. Several known host CKD-associated proteins and biomarkers of impaired kidney function were significantly reduced with resistant starch supplementation. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD008845.

Conclusions

Metaproteomics analysis of cecum contents of CKD rats with and without resistant starch supplementation reveals changes within gut microbiota at unprecedented resolution, providing both functional and taxonomic information. Proteins and organisms differentially abundant with RS supplementation point toward a shift from mucin degraders to butyrate producers.

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<![CDATA[Modeling cell line-specific recruitment of signaling proteins to the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c4a308ed5eed0c4844c04f9

Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) typically contain multiple autophosphorylation sites in their cytoplasmic domains. Once activated, these autophosphorylation sites can recruit downstream signaling proteins containing Src homology 2 (SH2) and phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domains, which recognize phosphotyrosine-containing short linear motifs (SLiMs). These domains and SLiMs have polyspecific or promiscuous binding activities. Thus, multiple signaling proteins may compete for binding to a common SLiM and vice versa. To investigate the effects of competition on RTK signaling, we used a rule-based modeling approach to develop and analyze models for ligand-induced recruitment of SH2/PTB domain-containing proteins to autophosphorylation sites in the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) receptor (IGF1R). Models were parameterized using published datasets reporting protein copy numbers and site-specific binding affinities. Simulations were facilitated by a novel application of model restructuration, to reduce redundancy in rule-derived equations. We compare predictions obtained via numerical simulation of the model to those obtained through simple prediction methods, such as through an analytical approximation, or ranking by copy number and/or KD value, and find that the simple methods are unable to recapitulate the predictions of numerical simulations. We created 45 cell line-specific models that demonstrate how early events in IGF1R signaling depend on the protein abundance profile of a cell. Simulations, facilitated by model restructuration, identified pairs of IGF1R binding partners that are recruited in anti-correlated and correlated fashions, despite no inclusion of cooperativity in our models. This work shows that the outcome of competition depends on the physicochemical parameters that characterize pairwise interactions, as well as network properties, including network connectivity and the relative abundances of competitors.

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<![CDATA[Molecular characterization of the insecticidal activity of double-stranded RNA targeting the smooth septate junction of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f769d5eed0c4843860d9

The western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) gene, dvssj1, is a putative homolog of the Drosophila melanogaster gene, snakeskin (ssk). This gene encodes a membrane protein associated with the smooth septate junction (SSJ) which is required for the proper barrier function of the epithelial lining of insect intestines. Disruption of DVSSJ integrity by RNAi technique has been shown previously to be an effective approach for corn rootworm control, by apparent suppression of production of DVSSJ1 protein leading to growth inhibition and mortality. To understand the mechanism that leads to the death of WCR larvae by dvssj1 double-stranded RNA, we examined the molecular characteristics associated with SSJ functions during larval development. Dvssj1 dsRNA diet feeding results in dose-dependent suppression of mRNA and protein; this impairs SSJ formation and barrier function of the midgut and results in larval mortality. These findings suggest that the malfunctioning of the SSJ complex in midgut triggered by dvssj1 silencing is the principal cause of WCR death. This study also illustrates that dvssj1 is a midgut-specific gene in WCR and its functions are consistent with biological functions described for ssk.

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<![CDATA[Determinants of drug-target interactions at the single cell level]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c25450dd5eed0c48442bda5

The physiochemical determinants of drug-target interactions in the microenvironment of the cell are complex and generally not defined by simple diffusion and intrinsic chemical reactivity. Non-specific interactions of drugs and macromolecules in cells are rarely considered formally in assessing pharmacodynamics. Here, we demonstrate that non-specific interactions lead to very slow incorporation kinetics of DNA binding drugs. We observe a rate of drug incorporation in cell nuclei three orders of magnitude slower than in vitro due to anomalous drug diffusion within cells. This slow diffusion, however, has an advantageous consequence: it leads to virtually irreversible binding of the drug to specific DNA targets in cells. We show that non-specific interactions drive slow drug diffusion manifesting as slow reaction front propagation. We study the effect of non-specific interactions in different cellular compartments by permeabilization of plasma and nuclear membranes in order to pinpoint differential compartment effects on variability in intracellular drug kinetics. These results provide the basis for a comprehensive model of the determinants of intracellular diffusion of small-molecule drugs, their target-seeking trajectories, and the consequences of these processes on the apparent kinetics of drug-target interactions.

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<![CDATA[Glycosaminoglycans from Alzheimer’s disease hippocampus have altered capacities to bind and regulate growth factors activities and to bind tau]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390c03d5eed0c48491f63f

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), including heparan sulfates and chondroitin sulfates, are major components of the extracellular matrix. Upon interacting with heparin binding growth factors (HBGF), GAGs participate to the maintaintenance of tissue homeostasis and contribute to self-healing. Although several processes regulated by HBGF are altered in Alzheimer’s disease, it is unknown whether the brain GAG capacities to bind and regulate the function of HBGF or of other heparin binding proteins, as tau, are modified in this disease. Here, we show that total sulfated GAGs from hippocampus of Alzheimer’s disease have altered capacities to bind and potentiate the activities of growth factors including FGF-2, VEGF, and BDNF while their capacity to bind to tau is remarkable increased. Alterations of GAG structures and capacities to interact with and regulate the activity of heparin binding proteins might contribute to impaired tissue homeostasis in the Alzheimer’s disease brain.

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<![CDATA[ALG-2 participates in recovery of cells after plasma membrane damage by electroporation and digitonin treatment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bae98e640307c0c23a1c14c

The calcium binding protein ALG-2 is upregulated in several types of cancerous tissues and cancer cell death may be a consequence of ALG-2 downregulation. Novel research suggests that ALG-2 is involved in membrane repair mechanisms, in line with several published studies linking ALG-2 to processes of membrane remodeling and transport, which may contribute to the fitness of cells or protect them from damage. To investigate the involvement of ALG-2 in cell recovery after membrane damage we disrupted the PDCD6 gene encoding the ALG-2 protein in DT-40 cells and exposed them to electroporation. ALG-2 knock-out cells were more sensitive to electroporation as compared to wild type cells. This phenotype could be reversed by reestablishing ALG-2 expression confirming that ALG-2 plays an important role in cell recovery after plasma membrane damage. We found that overexpression of wild type ALG-2 but not a mutated form unable to bind Ca2+ partially protected HeLa cells from digitonin-induced cell death. Further, we were able to inhibit the cell protective function of ALG-2 after digitonin treatment by adding a peptide with the ALG-2 binding sequence of ALIX, which has been proposed to serve as the ALG-2 downstream target in a number of processes including cell membrane repair. Our results suggest that ALG-2 may serve as a novel therapeutic target in combination with membrane damaging interventions.

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<![CDATA[Paxillin phosphorylation at serine 273 and its effects on Rac, Rho and adhesion dynamics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4a1919463d7e428027f887

Focal adhesions are protein complexes that anchor cells to the extracellular matrix. During migration, the growth and disassembly of these structures are spatiotemporally regulated, with new adhesions forming at the leading edge of the cell and mature adhesions disassembling at the rear. Signalling proteins and structural cytoskeletal components tightly regulate adhesion dynamics. Paxillin, an adaptor protein within adhesions, is one of these proteins. Its phosphorylation at serine 273 (S273) is crucial for maintaining fast adhesion assembly and disassembly. Paxillin is known to bind to a GIT1-βPIX-PAK1 complex, which increases the local activation of the small GTPase Rac. To understand quantitatively the behaviour of this system and how it relates to adhesion assembly/disassembly, we developed a mathematical model describing the dynamics of the small GTPases Rac and Rho as determined by paxillin S273 phosphorylation. Our model revealed that the system possesses bistability, where switching between uninduced (active Rho) and induced (active Rac) states can occur through a change in rate of paxillin phosphorylation or PAK1 activation. The bistable switch is characterized by the presence of memory, minimal change in the levels of active Rac and Rho within the induced and uninduced states, respectively, and the limited regime of monostability associated with the uninduced state. These results were validated experimentally by showing the presence of bimodality in adhesion assembly and disassembly rates, and demonstrating that Rac activity increases after treating Chinese Hamster Ovary cells with okadaic acid (a paxillin phosphatase inhibitor), followed by a modest recovery after 20 min washout. Spatial gradients of phosphorylated paxillin in a reaction-diffusion model gave rise to distinct regions of Rac and Rho activities, resembling polarization of a cell into front and rear. Perturbing several parameters of the model also revealed important insights into how signalling components upstream and downstream of paxillin phosphorylation affect dynamics.

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<![CDATA[Listeria monocytogenes InlP interacts with afadin and facilitates basement membrane crossing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b28b271463d7e11c3009599

During pregnancy, the placenta protects the fetus against the maternal immune response, as well as bacterial and viral pathogens. Bacterial pathogens that have evolved specific mechanisms of breaching this barrier, such as Listeria monocytogenes, present a unique opportunity for learning how the placenta carries out its protective function. We previously identified the L. monocytogenes protein Internalin P (InlP) as a secreted virulence factor critical for placental infection. Here, we show that InlP, but not the highly similar L. monocytogenes internalin Lmo2027, binds to human afadin (encoded by AF-6), a protein associated with cell-cell junctions. A crystal structure of InlP reveals several unique features, including an extended leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain with a distinctive Ca2+-binding site. Despite afadin’s involvement in the formation of cell-cell junctions, MDCK epithelial cells expressing InlP displayed a decrease in the magnitude of the traction stresses they could exert on deformable substrates, similar to the decrease in traction exhibited by AF-6 knock-out MDCK cells. L. monocytogenes ΔinlP mutants were deficient in their ability to form actin-rich protrusions from the basal face of polarized epithelial monolayers, a necessary step in the crossing of such monolayers (transcytosis). A similar phenotype was observed for bacteria expressing an internal in-frame deletion in inlP (inlP ΔLRR5) that specifically disrupts its interaction with afadin. However, afadin deletion in the host cells did not rescue the transcytosis defect. We conclude that secreted InlP targets cytosolic afadin to specifically promote L. monocytogenes transcytosis across the basal face of epithelial monolayers, which may contribute to the crossing of the basement membrane during placental infection.

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<![CDATA[Role of critical elements in botulinum neurotoxin complex in toxin routing across intestinal and bronchial barriers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4a1929463d7e428027f88f

The highly potent botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) inhibits neurotransmitter release at neuromuscular junctions resulting in flaccid muscle paralysis, respiratory arrest and death. In order to reach their neuronal cell targets, BoNT/A must cross epithelial cell barriers lining the intestines and airways. The toxin is produced as a large protein complex comprised of the neurotoxin and non-toxic neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs). Although NAPs are known to protect the toxin from harsh environments, their role in the movement of BoNT/A across epithelial barriers has not been fully characterized. In the current study, movement of the toxin across epithelial cells was examined macroscopically using a sensitive near infrared fluorescence transcytosis assay and microscopically using fluorescently labeled toxin and confocal microscopy. The studies show that the BoNT/A complex internalizes more rapidly than the pure toxin. The studies also show that one NAP protein, hemaglutinin 33 (Hn33), enhanced both the binding and movement of a deactivated recombinant botulinum neurotoxin A (DrBoNT) across epithelial cell monolayers and that the toxin associates with Hn33 on the cell surface. Collectively, the data demonstrate that, in addition to their protective role, NAPs and Hn33 play an important role in BoNT/A intoxication.

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<![CDATA[A transcriptomic survey of the impact of environmental stress on response to dengue virus in the mosquito, Aedes aegypti]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b28b9f8463d7e156497703b

Populations of Aedes aegypti naturally exhibit variable susceptibility to dengue viruses. This natural variation can be impacted by nutritional stress resulting from larval-stage crowding, indicating the influence of environment components on the adult mosquito immune response. In particular, larval crowding was previously shown to reduce the susceptibility of adult females of a Trinidad field isolate of A. aegypti to the dengue serotype 2 (JAM1409) virus. Here, we present the first whole transcriptome study to address the impact of environmental stress on A. aegypti response to dengue virus. We examined expression profiles of adult females resulting from crowded and optimum reared larvae from the same Trinidad isolate at two critical early time points—3 and 18 hours post dengue virus infected blood meal. We exposed specimens to either a dengue or naïve blood meal, and then characterized the response in ten gene co-expression modules based on their transcriptional associations with environmental stress and time. We further analyzed the top 30 hub or master regulatory genes in each of the modules, and validated our results via qRT-PCR. These hub genes reveal which functions are critical to the mechanisms that confer dengue virus refractoriness or susceptibility to stress conditioned A. aegypti, as well as the time points at which they are most important.

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<![CDATA[DENR–MCTS1 heterodimerization and tRNA recruitment are required for translation reinitiation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b28baa9463d7e1564977085

The succession of molecular events leading to eukaryotic translation reinitiation—whereby ribosomes terminate translation of a short open reading frame (ORF), resume scanning, and then translate a second ORF on the same mRNA—is not well understood. Density-regulated reinitiation and release factor (DENR) and multiple copies in T-cell lymphoma-1 (MCTS1) are implicated in promoting translation reinitiation both in vitro in translation extracts and in vivo. We present here the crystal structure of MCTS1 bound to a fragment of DENR. Based on this structure, we identify and experimentally validate that DENR residues Glu42, Tyr43, and Tyr46 are important for MCTS1 binding and that MCTS1 residue Phe104 is important for tRNA binding. Mutation of these residues reveals that DENR-MCTS1 dimerization and tRNA binding are both necessary for DENR and MCTS1 to promote translation reinitiation in human cells. These findings thereby link individual residues of DENR and MCTS1 to specific molecular functions of the complex. Since DENR–MCTS1 can bind tRNA in the absence of the ribosome, this suggests the DENR–MCTS1 complex could recruit tRNA to the ribosome during reinitiation analogously to the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) complex in cap-dependent translation.

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<![CDATA[Candidate gene biodosimetry markers of exposure to external ionizing radiation in human blood: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b28b8a6463d7e14181b1860

Purpose

To compile a list of genes that have been reported to be affected by external ionizing radiation (IR) and to assess their performance as candidate biomarkers for individual human radiation dosimetry.

Methods

Eligible studies were identified through extensive searches of the online databases from 1978 to 2017. Original English-language publications of microarray studies assessing radiation-induced changes in gene expression levels in human blood after external IR were included. Genes identified in at least half of the selected studies were retained for bio-statistical analysis in order to evaluate their diagnostic ability.

Results

24 studies met the criteria and were included in this study. Radiation-induced expression of 10,170 unique genes was identified and the 31 genes that have been identified in at least 50% of studies (12/24 studies) were selected for diagnostic power analysis. Twenty-seven genes showed a significant Spearman’s correlation with radiation dose. Individually, TNFSF4, FDXR, MYC, ZMAT3 and GADD45A provided the best discrimination of radiation dose < 2 Gy and dose ≥ 2 Gy according to according to their maximized Youden’s index (0.67, 0.55, 0.55, 0.55 and 0.53 respectively). Moreover, 12 combinations of three genes display an area under the Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) curve (AUC) = 1 reinforcing the concept of biomarker combinations instead of looking for an ideal and unique biomarker.

Conclusion

Gene expression is a promising approach for radiation dosimetry assessment. A list of robust candidate biomarkers has been identified from analysis of the studies published to date, confirming for example the potential of well-known genes such as FDXR and TNFSF4 or highlighting other promising gene such as ZMAT3. However, heterogeneity in protocols and analysis methods will require additional studies to confirm these results.

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<![CDATA[Identification of a Small Molecule Inhibitor of RAD52 by Structure-Based Selection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0eab0ee8fa60bcb240

It has been reported that inhibition of RAD52 either by specific shRNA or a small peptide aptamer induced synthetic lethality in tumor cell lines carrying BRCA1 and BRCA2 inactivating mutations. Molecular docking was used to screen two chemical libraries: 1) 1,217 FDA approved drugs, and 2) 139,735 drug-like compounds to identify candidates for interacting with DNA binding domain of human RAD52. Thirty six lead candidate compounds were identified that were predicted to interfere with RAD52 –DNA binding. Further biological testing confirmed that 9 of 36 candidate compounds were able to inhibit the binding of RAD52 to single-stranded DNA in vitro. Based on molecular binding combined with functional assays, we propose a model in which the active compounds bind to a critical “hotspot” in RAD52 DNA binding domain 1. In addition, one of the 9 active compounds, adenosine 5’-monophosphate (A5MP), and also its mimic 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) 5’ phosphate (ZMP) inhibited RAD52 activity in vivo and exerted synthetic lethality against BRCA1 and BRCA2–mutated carcinomas. These data suggest that active, inhibitory RAD52 binding compounds could be further refined for efficacy and safety to develop drugs inducing synthetic lethality in tumors displaying deficiencies in BRCA1/2-mediated homologous recombination.

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<![CDATA[LANA-Mediated Recruitment of Host Polycomb Repressive Complexes onto the KSHV Genome during De Novo Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da89ab0ee8fa60b9d3ed

One of the hallmarks of the latent phase of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection is the global repression of lytic viral gene expression. Following de novo KSHV infection, the establishment of latency involves the chromatinization of the incoming viral genomes and recruitment of the host Polycomb repressive complexes (PRC1 and PRC2) to the promoters of lytic genes, which is accompanied by the inhibition of lytic genes. However, the mechanism of how PRCs are recruited to the KSHV episome is still unknown. Utilizing a genetic screen of latent genes in the context of KSHV genome, we identified the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) to be responsible for the genome-wide recruitment of PRCs onto the lytic promoters following infection. We found that LANA initially bound to the KSHV genome right after infection and subsequently recruited PRCs onto the viral lytic promoters, thereby repressing lytic gene expression. Furthermore, both the DNA and chromatin binding activities of LANA were required for the binding of LANA to the KSHV promoters, which was necessary for the recruitment of PRC2 to the lytic promoters during de novo KSHV infection. Consequently, the LANA-knockout KSHV could not recruit PRCs to its viral genome upon de novo infection, resulting in aberrant lytic gene expression and dysregulation of expression of host genes involved in cell cycle and proliferation pathways. In this report, we demonstrate that KSHV LANA recruits host PRCs onto the lytic promoters to suppress lytic gene expression following de novo infection.

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