ResearchPad - cell-biology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[IP<sub>3</sub> mediated global Ca<sup>2+</sup> signals arise through two temporally and spatially distinct modes of Ca<sup>2+</sup> release]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13332 The ‘building-block’ model of inositol trisphosphate (IP3)-mediated Ca2+ liberation posits that cell-wide cytosolic Ca2+ signals arise through coordinated activation of localized Ca2+ puffs generated by stationary clusters of IP3 receptors (IP3Rs). Here, we revise this hypothesis, applying fluctuation analysis to resolve Ca2+ signals otherwise obscured during large Ca2+ elevations. We find the rising phase of global Ca2+ signals is punctuated by a flurry of puffs, which terminate before the peak by a mechanism involving partial ER Ca2+ depletion. The continuing rise in Ca2+, and persistence of global signals even when puffs are absent, reveal a second mode of spatiotemporally diffuse Ca2+ signaling. Puffs make only small, transient contributions to global Ca2+ signals, which are sustained by diffuse release of Ca2+ through a functionally distinct process. These two modes of IP3-mediated Ca2+ liberation have important implications for downstream signaling, imparting spatial and kinetic specificity to Ca2+-dependent effector functions and Ca2+ transport.

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<![CDATA[Activated α<sub>IIb</sub>β<sub>3</sub> on platelets mediates flow-dependent NETosis via SLC44A2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13330 Platelets in our blood form clots over sites of injury to stop us from bleeding. Blood clots can also occur in places where they are not needed, such as deep veins in our legs or other regions of the body. Developing such clots – also known as deep vein thrombosis (or DVT for short) – is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases and a major cause of death. Although certain inherited factors have been linked to DVT, the underlying mechanisms of the disease remain poorly understood.

In addition to platelets, the pathological (or dangerous) clots that cause DVT also contain immune cells called neutrophils which fight off bacterial infections. Platelets are recruited to the wall of the vein by a protein called “von Willebrand Factor” (or VWF for short). However, it remained unclear how these recruited platelets interact with neutrophils and whether this promotes the onset of DVT.

To answer this question, Constantinescu-Bercu et al. used a device that mimics the flow of blood to study how human platelets change when they are exposed to VWF. This revealed that VWF ‘primes’ the platelets to interact with neutrophils via a protein called integrin αIIbβ3. Further experiments showed that integrin αIIbβ3 binds to a protein on the surface of neutrophils called SLC44A2. Once the neutrophils interacted with the ‘primed’ platelets, they started making traps which increased the size of the blood clot by capturing other blood cells and proteins.

Finally, Constantinescu-Bercu et al. studied a genetic variant of the SLC44A2 protein which is found in 22% of people and is associated with a lower risk of developing DVT. This genetic mutation caused SLC44A2 to interact with ‘primed’ platelets more weakly, which may explain why people with this genetic variant are protected from getting DVT.

These findings suggest that blocking the interaction between ‘primed’ platelets and neutrophils could reduce the risk of DVT. Although current treatments for DVT can prevent patients from forming dangerous blood clots, they can also cause severe bleeding. Since neutrophils are not crucial for normal blood clots to form at the site of injury, drugs targeting SLC44A2 could inhibit inappropriate clotting without causing excess bleeding.

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<![CDATA[Cortical bone maturation in mice requires SOCS3 suppression of gp130/STAT3 signalling in osteocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13326 Bone strength is determined by its dense cortical shell, generated by unknown mechanisms. Here we use the Dmp1Cre:Socs3f/f mouse, with delayed cortical bone consolidation, to characterise cortical maturation and identify control signals. We show that cortical maturation requires a reduction in cortical porosity, and a transition from low to high density bone, which continues even after cortical shape is established. Both processes were delayed in Dmp1Cre:Socs3f/f mice. SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signalling 3) inhibits signalling by leptin, G-CSF, and IL-6 family cytokines (gp130). In Dmp1Cre:Socs3f/f bone, STAT3 phosphorylation was prolonged in response to gp130-signalling cytokines, but not G-CSF or leptin. Deletion of gp130 in Dmp1Cre:Socs3f/f mice suppressed STAT3 phosphorylation in osteocytes and osteoclastic resorption within cortical bone, leading to rescue of the corticalisation defect, and restoration of compromised bone strength. We conclude that cortical bone development includes both pore closure and accumulation of high density bone, and that these processes require suppression of gp130-STAT3 signalling in osteocytes.

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<![CDATA[Limitation of adipose tissue by the number of embryonic progenitor cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13325 Adipogenesis in adulthood replaces fat cells that turn over and can contribute to the development of obesity. However, the proliferative potential of adipocyte progenitors in vivo is unknown (Faust et al., 1976; Faust et al., 1977; Hirsch and Han, 1969; Johnson and Hirsch, 1972). We addressed this by injecting labeled wild-type embryonic stem cells into blastocysts derived from lipodystrophic A-ZIP transgenic mice, which have a genetic block in adipogenesis. In the resulting chimeric animals, wild-type ES cells are the only source of mature adipocytes. We found that when chimeric animals were fed a high-fat-diet, animals with low levels of chimerism showed a significantly lower adipose tissue mass than animals with high levels of chimerism. The difference in adipose tissue mass was attributed to variability in the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue as the amount of visceral fat was independent of the level of chimerism. Our findings thus suggest that proliferative potential of adipocyte precursors is limited and can restrain the development of obesity.

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<![CDATA[Asymmetric clustering of centrosomes defines the early evolution of tetraploid cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12755 Tetraploidy has long been of interest to both cell and cancer biologists, partly because of its documented role in tumorigenesis. A common model proposes that the extra centrosomes that are typically acquired during tetraploidization are responsible for driving tumorigenesis. However, tetraploid cells evolved in culture have been shown to lack extra centrosomes. This observation raises questions about how tetraploid cells evolve and more specifically about the mechanisms(s) underlying centrosome loss. Here, using a combination of fixed cell analysis, live cell imaging, and mathematical modeling, we show that populations of newly formed tetraploid cells rapidly evolve in vitro to retain a near-tetraploid chromosome number while losing the extra centrosomes gained at the time of tetraploidization. This appears to happen through a process of natural selection in which tetraploid cells that inherit a single centrosome during a bipolar division with asymmetric centrosome clustering are favored for long-term survival.

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<![CDATA[Keratin 14-dependent disulfides regulate epidermal homeostasis and barrier function via 14-3-3σ and YAP1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12738 The intermediate filament protein keratin 14 (K14) provides vital structural support in basal keratinocytes of epidermis. Recent studies evidenced a role for K14-dependent disulfide bonding in the organization and dynamics of keratin IFs in skin keratinocytes. Here we report that knock-in mice harboring a cysteine-to-alanine substitution at Krt14’s codon 373 (C373A) exhibit alterations in disulfide-bonded K14 species and a barrier defect secondary to enhanced proliferation, faster transit time and altered differentiation in epidermis. A proteomics screen identified 14-3-3 as K14 interacting proteins. Follow-up studies showed that YAP1, a transcriptional effector of Hippo signaling regulated by 14-3-3sigma in skin keratinocytes, shows aberrant subcellular partitioning and function in differentiating Krt14 C373A keratinocytes. Residue C373 in K14, which is conserved in a subset of keratins, is revealed as a novel regulator of keratin organization and YAP function in early differentiating keratinocytes, with an impact on cell mechanics, homeostasis and barrier function in epidermis.

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<![CDATA[Chloroplast genomes of Rubiaceae: Comparative genomics and molecular phylogeny in subfamily Ixoroideae]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11231 In Rubiaceae phylogenetics, the number of markers often proved a limitation with authors failing to provide well-supported trees at tribal and generic levels. A robust phylogeny is a prerequisite to study the evolutionary patterns of traits at different taxonomic levels. Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized biology by providing, at reduced cost, huge amounts of data for an increased number of species. Due to their highly conserved structure, generally recombination-free, and mostly uniparental inheritance, chloroplast DNA sequences have long been used as choice markers for plant phylogeny reconstruction. The main objectives of this study are: 1) to gain insight in chloroplast genome evolution in the Rubiaceae (Ixoroideae) through efficient methodology for de novo assembly of plastid genomes; and, 2) to test the efficiency of mining SNPs in the nuclear genome of Ixoroideae based on the use of a coffee reference genome to produce well-supported nuclear trees. We assembled whole chloroplast genome sequences for 27 species of the Rubiaceae subfamily Ixoroideae using next-generation sequences. Analysis of the plastid genome structure reveals a relatively good conservation of gene content and order. Generally, low variation was observed between taxa in the boundary regions with the exception of the inverted repeat at both the large and short single copy junctions for some taxa. An average of 79% of the SNP determined in the Coffea genus are transferable to Ixoroideae, with variation ranging from 35% to 96%. In general, the plastid and the nuclear genome phylogenies are congruent with each other. They are well-resolved with well-supported branches. Generally, the tribes form well-identified clades but the tribe Sherbournieae is shown to be polyphyletic. The results are discussed relative to the methodology used and the chloroplast genome features in Rubiaceae and compared to previous Rubiaceae phylogenies.

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<![CDATA[Extending thermotolerance to tomato seedlings by inoculation with SA1 isolate of <i>Bacillus cereus</i> and comparison with exogenous humic acid application]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11229 Heat stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that impair plant growth and crop productivity. Plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria (PGPEB) and humic acid (HA) are used as bio-stimulants and ecofriendly approaches to improve agriculture crop production and counteract the negative effects of heat stress. Current study aimed to analyze the effect of thermotolerant SA1 an isolate of Bacillus cereus and HA on tomato seedlings. The results showed that combine application of SA1+HA significantly improved the biomass and chlorophyll fluorescence of tomato plants under normal and heat stress conditions. Heat stress increased abscisic acid (ABA) and reduced salicylic acid (SA) content; however, combined application of SA1+HA markedly reduced ABA and increased SA. Antioxidant enzymes activities revealed that SA1 and HA treated plants exhibited increased levels of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH). In addition, heat stress markedly reduced the amino acid contents; however, the amino acids were increased with co-application of SA1+HA. Similarly, inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry results showed that plants treated with SA1+HA exhibited significantly higher iron (Fe+), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K+) uptake during heat stress. Heat stress increased the relative expression of SlWRKY33b and autophagy-related (SlATG5) genes, whereas co-application of SA1+HA augmented the heat stress response and reduced SlWRKY33b and SlATG5 expression. The heat stress-responsive transcription factor (SlHsfA1a) and high-affinity potassium transporter (SlHKT1) were upregulated in SA1+HA-treated plants. In conclusion, current findings suggest that co-application with SA1+HA can be used for the mitigation of heat stress damage in tomato plants and can be commercialized as a biofertilizer.

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<![CDATA[A modified arginine-depleting enzyme NEI-01 inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11227 Arginine deprivation cancer therapy targets certain types of malignancies with positive result in many studies and clinical trials. NEI-01 was designed as a novel arginine-depleting enzyme comprising an albumin binding domain capable of binding to human serum albumin to lengthen its half-life. In the present work, NEI-01 is shown to bind to serum albumin from various species, including mice, rat and human. Single intraperitoneal administration of NEI-01 to mice reduced plasma arginine to undetectable level for at least 9 days. Treatment of NEI-01 specifically inhibited cell viability of MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cancer cell lines, which were ASS1 negative. Using a human pancreatic mouse xenograft model, NEI-01 treatment significantly reduced tumor volume and weight. Our data provides proof of principle for a cancer treatment strategy using NEI-01.

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<![CDATA[Extensive multilineage analysis in patients with mixed chimerism after allogeneic transplantation for sickle cell disease: insight into hematopoiesis and engraftment thresholds for gene therapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11006 Although studies of mixed chimerism following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) may provide insights into the engraftment needed to correct the disease and into immunological reconstitution, an extensive multilineage analysis is lacking. We analyzed chimerism simultaneously in peripheral erythroid and granulomonocytic precursors/progenitors, highly purified B and T lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes and red blood cells (RBC). Thirty-four patients with mixed chimerism and ≥12 months of follow-up were included. A selective advantage of donor RBC and their progenitors/precursors led to full chimerism in mature RBC (despite partial engraftment of other lineages), and resulted in the clinical control of the disease. Six patients with donor chimerism <50% had hemolysis (reticulocytosis) and higher HbS than their donor. Four of them had donor chimerism <30%, including a patient with AA donor (hemoglobin >10 g/dL) and three with AS donors (hemoglobin <10 g/dL). However, only one vaso-occlusive crisis occurred with 68.7% HbS. Except in the patients with the lowest chimerism, the donor engraftment was lower for T cells than for the other lineages. In a context of mixed chimerism after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for SCD, myeloid (rather than T cell) engraftment was the key efficacy criterion. Results show that myeloid chimerism as low as 30% was sufficient to prevent a vaso-occlusive crisis in transplants from an AA donor but not constantly from an AS donor. However, the correction of hemolysis requires higher donor chimerism levels (i.e. ≥50%) in both AA and AS recipients. In the future, this group of patients may need a different therapeutic approach.

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<![CDATA[The protein kinase complex CBL10–CIPK8–SOS1 functions in Arabidopsis to regulate salt tolerance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10060 In Arabidopsis, the Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1, which functions in salt tolerance, is activated by the protein kinase complex CBL10–CIPK8 in shoots, independent of the root activator SOS3.

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<![CDATA[NbCycB2 represses Nbwo activity via a negative feedback loop in tobacco trichome development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10046 The transcription factor Woolly (Wo) and its downstream gene CycB2 have been shown to regulate trichome development in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). It has been demonstrated that only the gain-of-function allele of Slwo (SlWoV, the Slwo woolly motif mutant allele) can increase the trichome density; however, it remains unclear why the two alleles function differently in trichome development. In this study, we used Nicotiana benthamiana as a model and cloned the homologues of Slwo and SlCycB2 (named Nbwo and NbCycB2). We also constructed a Nbwo gain-of-function allele with the same mutation site as SlWoV (named NbWoV). We found that both Nbwo and NbWoV directly regulate NbCycB2 and their own expression by binding to the promoter of NbCycB2 and their own genomic sequences. As form of a feedback regulation, NbCycB2 negatively regulates trichome formation by repressing Nbwo activity at the protein level. We also found that mutations in the Nbwo woolly motif can prevent repression of NbWoV by NbCycB2, which results in a significant increase in the amount of active Nbwo proteins and in increases in trichome density and the number of branches. Our results reveal a novel reciprocal regulation mechanism between NbCycB2 and Nbwo during trichome formation in N. benthamiana.

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<![CDATA[Thalamic, cortical, and amygdala involvement in the processing of a natural sound cue of danger]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7872 When others stop and silence ensues, animals respond as if threatened. This study highlights the brain areas involved in listening to the dangerous silence.

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<![CDATA[Substantial improvement of tetraene macrolide production in <i>Streptomyces diastatochromogenes</i> by cumulative drug resistance mutations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7861 Tetraene macrolides remain one of the most reliable fungicidal agents as resistance of fungal pathogens to these antibiotics is relatively rare. The modes of action and biosynthesis of polyene macrolides had been the focus of research over the past few years. However, few studies have been carried out on the overproduction of polyene macrolides. In the present study, cumulative drug-resistance mutation was used to obtain a quintuple mutant G5-59 with huge tetraene macrolide overproduction from the starting strain Streptomyces diastatochromogenes 1628. Through DNA sequence analysis, the mutation points in the genes of rsmG, rpsL and rpoB were identified. Additionally, the growth characteristic and expression level of tetrRI gene (belonging to the large ATP binding regulator of LuxR family) involved in the biosynthesis of tetraene macrolides were analyzed. As examined with 5L fermentor, the quintuple mutant G5-59 grew very well and the maximum productivity of tetramycin A, tetramycin P and tetrin B was as high as 1735, 2811 and 1500 mg/L, which was 8.7-, 16- and 25-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain 1628, respectively. The quintuple mutant G5-59 could be useful for further improvement of tetraene macrolides production at industrial level.

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<![CDATA[Active Notch signaling is required for arm regeneration in a brittle star]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7845 Cell signaling pathways play key roles in coordinating cellular events in development. The Notch signaling pathway is highly conserved across all multicellular animals and is known to coordinate a multitude of diverse cellular events, including proliferation, differentiation, fate specification, and cell death. Specific functions of the pathway are, however, highly context-dependent and are not well characterized in post-traumatic regeneration. Here, we use a small-molecule inhibitor of the pathway (DAPT) to demonstrate that Notch signaling is required for proper arm regeneration in the brittle star Ophioderma brevispina, a highly regenerative member of the phylum Echinodermata. We also employ a transcriptome-wide gene expression analysis (RNA-seq) to characterize the downstream genes controlled by the Notch pathway in the brittle star regeneration. We demonstrate that arm regeneration involves an extensive cross-talk between the Notch pathway and other cell signaling pathways. In the regrowing arm, Notch regulates the composition of the extracellular matrix, cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis, as well as components of the innate immune response. We also show for the first time that Notch signaling regulates the activity of several transposable elements. Our data also suggests that one of the possible mechanisms through which Notch sustains its activity in the regenerating tissues is via suppression of Neuralized1.

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<![CDATA[Regulation of cell growth and migration by miR-96 and miR-183 in a breast cancer model of epithelial-mesenchymal transition]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7836 Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in women, and has the second highest mortality rate. Over 90% of all cancer-related deaths are due to metastasis, which is the spread of malignant cells from the primary tumor to a secondary site in the body. It is hypothesized that one cause of metastasis involves epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). When epithelial cells undergo EMT and transition into mesenchymal cells, they display increased levels of cell proliferation and invasion, resulting in a more aggressive phenotype. While many factors regulate EMT, microRNAs have been implicated in driving this process. MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs that suppress protein production, therefore loss of microRNAs may promote the overexpression of specific target proteins important for EMT. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of miR-96 and miR-183 in EMT in breast cancer. Both miR-96 and miR-183 were found to be downregulated in post-EMT breast cancer cells. When microRNA mimics were transfected into these cells, there was a significant decrease in cell viability and migration, and a shift from a mesenchymal to an epithelial morphology (mesenchymal-epithelial transition or MET). These MET-related changes may be facilitated in part by the regulation of ZEB1 and vimentin, as both of these proteins were downregulated when miR-96 and miR-183 were overexpressed in post-EMT cells. These findings indicate that the loss of miR-96 and miR-183 may help facilitate EMT and contribute to the maintenance of a mesenchymal phenotype. Understanding the role of microRNAs in regulating EMT is significant in order to not only further elucidate the pathways that facilitate metastasis, but also identify potential therapeutic options for preventing or reversing this process.

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<![CDATA[The Rho-associated kinase inhibitor fasudil can replace Y-27632 for use in human pluripotent stem cell research]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7829 Poor survival of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) following freezing, thawing, or passaging hinders the maintenance and differentiation of stem cells. Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) play a crucial role in hPSC survival. To date, a typical ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, has been the primary agent used in hPSC research. Here, we report that another ROCK inhibitor, fasudil, can be used as an alternative and is cheaper than Y-27632. It increased hPSC growth following thawing and passaging, like Y-27632, and did not affect pluripotency, differentiation ability, and chromosome integrity. Furthermore, fasudil promoted retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) differentiation and the survival of neural crest cells (NCCs) during differentiation. It was also useful for single-cell passaging of hPSCs and during aggregation. These findings suggest that fasudil can replace Y-27632 for use in stem research.

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<![CDATA[Inferring the immune response from repertoire sequencing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7765 High-throughput immune repertoire sequencing (RepSeq) experiments are becoming a common way to study the diversity, structure and composition of lymphocyte repertoires, promising to yield unique insight into individuals’ past infection history. However, the analysis of these sequences remains challenging, especially when comparing two different temporal or tissue samples. Here we develop a new theoretical approach and methodology to extract the characteristics of the lymphocyte repertoire response from different samples. The method is specifically tailored to RepSeq experiments and accounts for the multiple sources of noise present in these experiments. Its output provides expansion parameters, as well as a list of potentially responding clonotypes. We apply the method to describe the response to yellow fever vaccine obtained from samples taken at different time points. We also use our results to estimate the diversity and clone size statistics from data.

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<![CDATA[ICOS signaling promotes a secondary humoral response after re-challenge with <i>Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi</i> AS]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7745 Malaria, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, remains a major global health problem, as over 400,000 people die from this disease every year. Further understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to protective immunity against this parasite will serve to promote the development of an effective vaccine. Here, we describe the importance of the co-stimulatory molecule ICOS during secondary infection with the rodent parasite Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS. We show that ICOS promotes the expansion of memory T cells, their acquisition of a secondary follicular helper T (Tfh) cell phenotype, and their ability to provide help to MBCs after reinfection. While ICOS deficient mice control the initial parasite load after re-challenge, the absence of ICOS leads to higher relapsing parasitemia compared to wild-type mice. We establish that the lack of expansion of effector cells with a Tfh cell phenotype in Icos-/- mice prevents germinal center formation after secondary infection. Thus, we show that ICOS signaling in T cells promotes an effective memory T cell response and suggests that the enhancement of this co-stimulatory pathway during vaccination may enhance protective immunity to blood-stage Plasmodium infection.

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<![CDATA[Oral administration with a traditional fermented multi-fruit beverage modulates non-specific and antigen-specific immune responses in BALB/c mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7730 Fruits have been widely considered as the default “health foods” because they contain numerous vitamins and minerals needed to sustain human health. Fermentation strategies have been utilized to enhance the nutritive and flavor features of healthy and readily consumable fruit products while extending their shelf lives. A traditional fermented multi-fruit beverage was made from five fruits including kiwi, guava, papaya, pineapple, and grape fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae along with lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The immunomodulatory properties of the fermented multi-fruit beverage, in vivo nonspecific and ovalbumin (OVA)-specific immune response experiments using female BALB/c mice were performed. Administration of the fermented multi-fruit beverage reduced the calorie intake, thus resulting in a less weight gain in mice compared to the water (placebo)-fed mice. In the nonspecific immune study model, the fermented multi-fruit beverage enhanced phagocytosis and T cell proliferation but did not affect B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin G (IgG) production. Analysis of cytokine secretion profile also revealed that the fermented multi-fruit beverage enhanced proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and T helper (Th)1-related cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ production, thus creating an immunostimulatory effect. Nonetheless, in the specific immune study model, the results showed that the fermented multi-fruit beverage decreased the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α production in OVA-immunized mice. Moreover, it also caused a decrease in the production of anti-OVA IgG1, which was accompanied by a decrease in Th2-related cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 production and an increase in Th1-related cytokine IFN-γ production, indicating that it may have the potential to shift the immune system from the allergen‐specific Th2 responses toward Th1-type responses. The results indicate that fermented multi-fruit beverage has the potential to modulate immune responses both in a nonspecific and specific manners.

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