ResearchPad - cell-death-injury https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Cytotoxicity of snake venom enzymatic toxins: phospholipase A<sub>2</sub> and <span style="font-variant: all-small-caps">l</span>-amino acid oxidase]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9179 The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and l-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) are two major enzymes found in the venoms from most snake species. These enzymes have been structurally and functionally characterised for their pharmacological activities. Both PLA2 and LAAO from different venoms demonstrate considerable cytotoxic effects on cancer cells via induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and suppression of proliferation. These enzymes produce more pronounced cytotoxic effects in cancer cells than normal cells, thus they can be potential sources as chemotherapeutic agents. It is proposed that PLA2 and LAAO contribute to an elevated oxidative stress due to their catalytic actions, for instance, the ability of PLA2 to produce reactive oxygen species during lipolysis and formation of H2O2 from LAAO catalytic activity which consequently lead to cell death. Nonetheless, the cell-death signalling pathways associated with exposure to these enzymatic toxins are not fully elucidated yet. Here in this review, we will discuss the cytotoxic effects of PLA2 and LAAO in relationship to their catalytic mechanisms and the underlying mechanisms of cytotoxic actions.

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<![CDATA[TLR4-mediated pyroptosis in human hepatoma-derived HuH-7 cells induced by a branched-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, geranylgeranoic acid]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Naaa91242-214d-4bc8-ab54-61394756d852 A branched-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, geranylgeranoic acid (GGA; C20:4), which is an endogenous metabolite derived from the mevalonate pathway in mammals, has been reported to induce cell death in human hepatoma cells. We have previously shown that the lipid-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) is an upstream cellular process for an incomplete autophagic response that might be involved in GGA-induced cell death. Here, we found that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated pyroptosis in HuH-7 cells occurred by GGA treatment. The TLR4-specific inhibitor VIPER prevented both GGA-induced cell death and UPR. Knockdown of the TLR4 gene attenuated GGA-induced cell death significantly. Upon GGA-induced UPR, caspase (CASP) 4 (CASP4) was activated immediately and gasdermin D (GSDMD) was translocated concomitantly to the plasma membrane after production of the N-terminal fragment of GSDMD. Then, cellular CASP1 activation occurred following a second gradual up-regulation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, suggesting that GGA activated the inflammasome. Indeed, the mRNA levels of NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) and interleukin-1 β (IL1B) genes were up-regulated dramatically with translocation of cytoplasmic nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) to nuclei after GGA treatment, indicating that GGA induced priming of the NLRP3 inflammasome through NF-κB activation. GGA-induced up-regulation of CASP1 activity was blocked by either oleic acid, VIPER, MCC950 (a selective inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome), or CASP4-specific inhibitor peptide cotreatment. Pyroptotic cell death was also confirmed morphologically by bleb formation in time-series live cell imaging of GGA-treated cells. Taken together, the present results strongly indicate that GGA causes pyroptotic cell death in human hepatoma-derived HuH-7 via TLR4 signalling.

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<![CDATA[Anti-apoptosis mechanism of triptolide based on network pharmacology in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N409d00df-bdc9-40d1-b0a2-a6055e43bdc2 Triptolide (TPL), the active component of Tripterygium wilfordii, exhibits anti-cancer and antioxidant functions. We aimed to explore the anti-apoptosis mechanism of TPL based on network pharmacology and in vivo and in vitro research validation using a rat model of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The chemical structures and pharmacological activities of the compounds reported in T. wilfordii were determined and used to perform the network pharmacology analysis. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database (TCMSP) was then used to identify the network targets for 16 compounds from Tripterygium wilfordii. Our results showed that 47 overlapping genes obtained from the GeneCards and OMIM databases were involved in the occurrence and development of FSGS and used to construct the protein–protein interaction (PPI) network using the STRING database. Hub genes were identified via the MCODE plug-in of the Cytoscape software. IL4 was the target gene of TPL in FSGS and was mainly enriched in the cell apoptosis term and p53 signaling pathway, according to Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses. TPL inhibited FSGS-induced cell apoptosis in rats and regulated IL4, nephrin, podocin, and p53 protein levels via using CCK8, TUNEL, and Western blot assays. The effects of IL4 overexpression, including inhibition of cell viability and promotion of apoptosis, were reversed by TPL. TPL treatment increased the expression of nephrin and podocin and decreased p53 expression in rat podocytes. In conclusion, TPL inhibited podocyte apoptosis by targeting IL4 to alleviate kidney injury in FSGS rats.

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<![CDATA[Effect of celecoxib in treatment of burn-induced hypermetabolism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndeaf5b05-2afc-45be-92c0-1480786a5c1f Background: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of prostanoid biosynthesis. Under pathologic conditions, COX-2 activity can produce reactive oxygen species and toxic prostaglandin metabolites that exacerbate injury and metabolic disturbance. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of Celecoxib (the inhibitor of COX-2) treatment on lipolysis in burn mice.

Methods: One hundred male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into sham group, burn group, celecoxib group, and burn with celecoxib group (25 mice in each group). Thirty percent total body surface area (TBSA) full-thickness injury was made for mice to mimic burn injuries. Volume of oxygen uptake (VO2), volume of carbon dioxide output (VCO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), energy expenditure (EE), COX-2 and uncoupled protein-1 (UCP-1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT) were measured for different groups.

Results: Adipose tissue (AT) activation was associated with the augmentation of mitochondria biogenesis, and UCP-1 expression in isolated iBAT mitochondria. In addition, VO2, VCO2, EE, COX-2, and UCP-1 expression were significantly higher in burn group than in burn with celecoxib group (P<0.05).

Conclusion: BAT plays important roles in burn injury-induced hypermetabolism through its morphological changes and elevating the expression of UCP-1. Celecoxib could improve lipolysis after burn injury.

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<![CDATA[Prognostic value of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) for hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N989d694b-b69d-4ab6-aae7-85f9ffa2db63

Abstract

The prognostic role of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been widely studied but the results are controversial. In this comprehensive meta-analysis, we elucidated the clinical value of PD-L1 in HCC. Relevant studies were systematically searched in the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and PubMed until June 27, 2019. Eligible studies were validated for the prognostic effect of PD-L1 on the overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and relapse-free survival (RFS) in HCC using a hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Twenty-three studies with 3529 patients were involved in this meta-analysis. The pooled results revealed that high membrane-bound PD-L1 (mPD-L1) expression was associated with poor OS (HR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.12–1.80; P = 0.004) and had no significant correlation with RFS (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.85–1.54; P = 0.39), and DFS (HR: 1.36; 95% CI: 0.81–2.28; P = 0.25). The results also indicated that high soluble PD-L1 (sPD-L1) levels were associated with worse OS (HR: 2.93; 95% CI: 2.20–3.91; P < 0.00001). In addition, high mPD-L1 expression was associated with high alpha-fetoprotein levels (AFP; OR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.16–1.84; P = 0.001), hepatitis (OR = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.54–0.98; P = 0.03), poor tumor differentiation (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.55–0.84; P = 0.03), and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (OR = 3.39; 95% CI: 1.06–10.91; P = 0.04). The mPD-L1 expression had no significant correlation with age, number of tumors, gender, tumor size, liver cirrhosis, vascular invasion, tumor encapsulation, or TNM stage. The study revealed that high mPD-L1 expression in the tumor tissue and high sPD-L1 levels were associated with shorter OS in HCC. Moreover, overexpression of mPD-L1 was significantly associated with poor tumor differentiation, hepatitis, AFP elevation, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.

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<![CDATA[Extracellular DNA in blood products and its potential effects on transfusion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2c43a6d9-b325-4827-8d79-69a6ffb5c163

Abstract

Blood transfusions are sometimes necessary after a high loss of blood due to injury or surgery. Some people need regular transfusions due to medical conditions such as haemophilia or cancer. Studies have suggested that extracellular DNA including mitochondrial DNA present in the extracellular milieu of transfused blood products has biological actions that are capable of activating the innate immune systems and potentially contribute to some adverse reactions in transfusion. From the present work, it becomes increasingly clear that extracellular DNA encompassed mitochondrial DNA is far from being biologically inert in blood products. It has been demonstrated to be present in eligible blood products and thus can be transfused to blood recipients. Although the presence of extracellular DNA in human plasma was initially detected in 1948, some aspects have not been fully elucidated. In this review, we summarize the potential origins, clearance mechanisms, relevant structures, and potential role of extracellular DNA in the innate immune responses and its relationship with individual adverse reactions in transfusion.

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<![CDATA[Overexpression of TGR5 alleviates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via AKT/GSK-3β mediated inflammation and mitochondrial pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N01073ce1-7e39-474b-be02-57a1e4763f59

Abstract

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury reduces cell proliferation, triggers inflammation, promotes cell apoptosis and necrosis, which are the leading reasons of morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiac disease. TGR5 is shown to express in hearts, but its functional role in I/R-induced myocardial injury is unclear. In the present study, we aimed to explore the underlying molecular mechanism of TGR5 in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced cardiomyocyte injury in vitro. The results showed that TGR5 was significantly up-regulated in H9C2 (rat cardiomyocyte cells) and human cardiomyocytes (HCMs) after H/R. Overexpression of TGR5 significantly improved cell proliferation, alleviated apoptosis rate, the activities of caspase-3, cleaved caspases-3 and Bax protein expression levels, and increased Bcl-2 level. Overexpression of TGR5 significantly up-regulated ROS generation, stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and reduced the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ as well as cytosolic translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c (cyto-c). Meanwhile, overexpressed TGR5 also enhanced the mRNA and protein levels of interleukin (IL)-10, and decreased the mRNA and protein levels of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The shTGR5+H/R group followed opposite trends. In addition, overexpressed TGR5 induced an increase in the levels of p-AKT and p-GSK-3β. The protective effects of TGR5 were partially reversed by AKT inhibitor MK-2206. Taken together, these results suggest that TGR5 attenuates I/R-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis as well as inflammation, and these protections may through AKT/GSK-3β pathway.

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<![CDATA[MicroRNA files in the prevention of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury by hydrogen rich saline]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N62eb9d1e-5d10-4284-bc17-5627e8920055

Abstract

Background: Hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) has been proven effective against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, knowledge on the underlying signaling events remain poor. Having recent highlight of microRNAs (miRNAs) in mediating intestinal I/R injury, we hypothesized that HRS may protect intestine against I/R injury by regulating miRNAs.

Method: Mice were given intraperitoneal injection of saline or HRS once daily for five consecutive days before undergoing intestinal I/R that was induced by 60-min ischemia followed by 180-min reperfusion of superior mesenteric artery. The intestine was collected for histopathological assay, miRNA microarray profiling, Real-Time PCR, and Western blotting. Next, miR-199a-3p mimics or inhibitors were transfected into IEC-6 cells to explore the relationship between HRS treatment and miR-199a-3p.

Results: I/R-induced mucosal injury and epithelial cells apoptosis were attenuated by HRS pretreatment. A total of 64 intestinal I/R-responsive miRNAs were altered significantly by HRS pretreatment, in which we validated four novel miRNAs with top significance by Real-Time PCR, namely miR-199a-3p, miR-296-5p, miR-5126, and miR-6538. Particularly, miR-199a-3p was drastically increased by I/R but reduced by HRS. Computational analysis predicts insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) regulatory subunit 1 as targets of miR-199a-3p, suggesting involvement of the pro-survival pathway, IGF- 1/PI3K/Akt/mTOR. In in vitro experiment, HRS treatment reduced miR-199a-3p level, increase IGF-1, PI3K and mTOR mRNA expression, restore IEC-6 cells viability, and this protective effects were reversed under miR-199a-3p mimics treatment.

Conclusion: Collectively, miR-199a-3p may serve a key role in the anti-apoptotic mechanism of HRS that contributes to its protection of the intestine against I/R injury.

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<![CDATA[Foam cells promote atherosclerosis progression by releasing CXCL12]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N84a17081-cf78-4be7-a264-5554dcf1a076

Abstract

Background: Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that contributes to multiple cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and foam cell formation plays important roles in the progression of AS. There is an urgent need to identify new molecular targets for treating AS, and thereby improve the quality of life and reduce the financial burden of individuals with CVD.

Methods: An in vitro model of AS was generated by treating THP-1 cells and human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HA-VSMCs) with oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDLs). HA-VSMC proliferation and foam cell formation were detected by the MTT assay and Oil Red O staining. C–X–C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12) expression was suppressed by siRNA. An AS rat model was established by feeding rats a high-fat diet and vitamin D2 for 3 weeks. Histopathology examinations were conducted by Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining and the levels ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (IBA1) and α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression were determined by ELISA assays and immunohistochemistry.

Results: An in vitro model of AS was established with THP-1 cells. CXCL12 expression in the model THP-1 cells was significantly increased when compared with its expression in control cells. Suppression of CXCL12 expression reduced the progression of AS in the cell model. Moreover, CXCL12 promoted AS in the in vivo rat model.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that CXCL12 plays an important role in promoting the progression of AS. Furthermore, inhibition of CXCL12 might suppress the development of AS by inhibiting HA-VSMC proliferation and their transformation to foam cells.

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