ResearchPad - cell-homeostasis-autophagy https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Hereditary hemochromatosis disrupts uric acid homeostasis and causes hyperuricemia via altered expression/activity of xanthine oxidase and ABCG2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9170 Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is mostly caused by mutations in the iron-regulatory gene HFE. The disease is associated with iron overload, resulting in liver cirrhosis/cancer, cardiomegaly, kidney dysfunction, diabetes, and arthritis. Fe2+-induced oxidative damage is suspected in the etiology of these symptoms. Here we examined, using Hfe−/− mice, whether disruption of uric acid (UA) homeostasis plays any role in HH-associated arthritis. We detected elevated levels of UA in serum and intestine in Hfe−/− mice compared with controls. Though the expression of xanthine oxidase, which generates UA, was not different in liver and intestine between wild type and Hfe−/− mice, the enzymatic activity was higher in Hfe−/− mice. We then examined various transporters involved in UA absorption/excretion. Glut9 expression did not change; however, there was an increase in Mrp4 and a decrease in Abcg2 in Hfe−/− mice. As ABCG2 mediates intestinal excretion of UA and mutations in ABCG2 cause hyperuricemia, we examined the potential connection between iron and ABCG2. We found p53-responsive elements in hABCG2 promoter and confirmed with chromatin immunoprecipitation that p53 binds to this promoter. p53 protein was reduced in Hfe−/− mouse intestine. p53 is a heme-binding protein and p53-heme complex is subjected to proteasomal degradation. We conclude that iron/heme overload in HH increases xanthine oxidase activity and also promotes p53 degradation resulting in decreased ABCG2 expression. As a result, systemic UA production is increased and intestinal excretion of UA via ABCG2 is decreased, causing serum and tissue accumulation of UA, a potential factor in the etiology of HH-associated arthritis.

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<![CDATA[Chloroquine and bafilomycin A mimic lysosomal storage disorders and impair mTORC1 signalling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd1230112-cc81-4a5a-ba57-11113fa6ebb5 Autophagy is dependent upon lysosomes, which fuse with the autophagosome to complete the autophagic process and whose acidic interior permits the activity of their intraluminal degradative enzymes. Chloroquine (CQ) and bafilomycin A1 (BafA) each cause alkalinisation of the lumen and thus impair lysosomal function, although by distinct mechanisms. CQ diffuses into lysosomes and undergoes protonation, while BafA inhibits the ability of the vacuolar type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase) to transfer protons into the lysosome. In the present study, we examine the impact of CQ and BafA on the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), inhibition of which is an early step in promoting autophagy. We find each compound inhibits mTORC1 signalling, without affecting levels of protein components of the mTORC1 signalling pathway. Furthermore, these effects are not related to these agents’ capacity to inhibit autophagy or the reduction in amino acid supply from lysosomal proteolysis. Instead, our data indicate that the reduction in mTORC1 signalling appears to be due to the accumulation of lysosomal storage material. However, there are differences in responses to these agents, for instance, in their abilities to up-regulate direct targets of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a substrate of mTORC1 that drives transcription of many lysosomal and autophagy-related genes. Nonetheless, our data imply that widely used agents that alkalinise intralysosomal pH are mimetics of acute lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) and emphasise the importance of considering the result of CQ and BafA on mTORC1 signalling when interpreting the effects of these agents on cellular physiology.

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<![CDATA[MEHP interferes with mitochondrial functions and homeostasis in skeletal muscle cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na411c472-0723-403f-89af-3381276a1e18

Abstract

Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer frequently leached out from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products and is quickly metabolized to its monoester equivalent mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) once enters organisms. Exposure to DEHP/MEHP through food chain intake has been shown to modified metabolism but its effect on the development of metabolic myopathy of skeletal muscle (SKM) has not been revealed so far. Here, we found that MEHP repressed myogenic terminal differentiation of proliferating myoblasts (PMB) and confluent myoblasts (CMB) but had weak effect on this process once it had been initiated. The transition of mitochondria (MITO) morphology from high efficient filamentary network to low efficient vesicles was triggered by MEHP, implying its negative effects on MITO functions. The impaired MITO functions was further demonstrated by reduced MITO DNA (mtDNA) level and SDH enzyme activity as well as highly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells after MEHP treatment. The expression of metabolic genes, including PDK4, CPT1b, UCP2, and HO1, was highly increased by MEHP and the promoters of PDK4 and CPT1b were also activated by MEHP. Additionally, the stability of some subunits in the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) complexes was found to be reduced by MEHP, implying defective oxidative metabolism in MITO and which was confirmed by repressed palmitic acid oxidation in MEHP-treated cells. Besides, MEHP also blocked insulin-induced glucose uptake. Taken together, our results suggest that MEHP is inhibitory to myogenesis and is harmful to MITO functions in SKM, so its exposure should be avoided or limited.

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<![CDATA[Autophagy in the mammalian nervous system: a primer for neuroscientists]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0e73c24f-a1fe-42b7-b578-a6cd3225d1d0

Abstract

Autophagy refers to the lysosomal degradation of damaged or superfluous components and is essential for metabolic plasticity and tissue integrity. This evolutionarily conserved process is particularly vital to mammalian post-mitotic cells such as neurons, which face unique logistical challenges and must sustain homoeostasis over decades. Defective autophagy has pathophysiological importance, especially for human neurodegeneration. The present-day definition of autophagy broadly encompasses two distinct yet related phenomena: non-selective and selective autophagy. In this minireview, we focus on established and emerging concepts in the field, paying particular attention to the physiological significance of macroautophagy and the burgeoning world of selective autophagy pathways in the context of the vertebrate nervous system. By highlighting established basics and recent breakthroughs, we aim to provide a useful conceptual framework for neuroscientists interested in autophagy, in addition to autophagy enthusiasts with an eye on the nervous system.

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<![CDATA[Down-regulation of protease-activated receptor 2 ameliorated osteoarthritis in rats through regulation of MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N23ff7292-a7a0-4903-9f18-e29c0a2bb86e

Abstract

Recently, protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has been proved to be involved in the inflammatory response including osteoarthritis (OA). In the present study, we found that PAR2 antagonist could remarkably improve the pathological condition of OA rats in vivo. In addition, we also found that PAR2 antagonist could suppress the production of inflammatory factors (TNF-α and Cox-2), decrease the levels of MMP-1 and MMP-13, and restrain the levels of P62 proteins and aggravate the expression of LC3-II both in vivo and in vitro. Besides, in vitro, PAR2 antagonist could increase the proliferation and colony formation of chondrocytes induced with IL-1β. Moreover, PAR2 antagonist could decrease the expression of expressions of p-p38, p-IκBα and p-NF-κB in vitro. However, PAR2 agonist exhibited the opposite effects. Furthermore, SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, could remarkably promote the proliferation of chondrocytes induced with IL-1β, could alleviate the production of TNF-α and Cox-2, could down-regulate the protein expressions of MMP-1 and MMP-13, and could decrease the expression of P62 and increase the expressions of LC3-II of chondrocytes induced with IL-1β. Importantly, SB203580 could reverse the effects of PAR2 agonist on the functions of chondrocytes induced with IL-1β. Taken together, the present data suggest that down-regulation of PAR2 can ameliorate OA through inducing autophagy via regulation of MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro, and PAR2 can be considered as a potential candidate to treat OA.

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<![CDATA[The cholesterol synthesis enzyme lanosterol 14α-demethylase is post-translationally regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH6]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7ada06cb-4da8-499c-84b8-f972af66c4fd

Cholesterol synthesis is a tightly controlled pathway, with over 20 enzymes involved. Each of these enzymes can be distinctly regulated, helping to fine-tune the production of cholesterol and its functional intermediates. Several enzymes are degraded in response to increased sterol levels, whilst others remain stable. We hypothesised that an enzyme at a key branch point in the pathway, lanosterol 14α-demethylase (LDM) may be post-translationally regulated. Here, we show that the preceding enzyme, lanosterol synthase is stable, whilst LDM is rapidly degraded. Surprisingly, this degradation is not triggered by sterols. However, the E3 ubiquitin ligase membrane-associated ring-CH-type finger 6 (MARCH6), known to control earlier rate-limiting steps in cholesterol synthesis, also control levels of LDM and the terminal cholesterol synthesis enzyme, 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase. Our work highlights MARCH6 as the first example of an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets multiple steps in a biochemical pathway and indicates new facets in the control of cholesterol synthesis.

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<![CDATA[Clozapine protects adult neural stem cells from ketamine-induced cell death in correlation with decreased apoptosis and autophagy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd3338d73-9e0d-4a6b-860f-bb34607d1e3d

Abstract

Adult neurogenesis, the production of newborn neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs) has been suggested to be decreased in patients with schizophrenia. A similar finding was observed in an animal model of schizophrenia, as indicated by decreased bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labelling cells in response to a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. The antipsychotic drug clozapine was shown to counteract the observed decrease in BrdU-labelled cells in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). However, phenotypic determination by immunohistochemistry analysis could not reveal whether BrdU-positive cells were indeed NSCs. Using a previously established cell model for analysing NSC protection in vitro, we investigated a protective effect of clozapine on NSCs.

Primary NSCs were isolated from the mouse subventricular zone (SVZ), we show that clozapine had a NSC protective activity alone, as evident by employing an ATP cell viability assay. In contrast, haloperidol did not show any NSC protective properties. Subsequently, cells were exposed to the non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist ketamine. Clozapine, but not haloperidol, had a NSC protective/anti-apoptotic activity against ketamine-induced cytotoxicity. The observed NSC protective activity of clozapine was associated with increased expression of the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2, decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic cleaved form of caspase-3 and associated with decreased expression of the autophagosome marker 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II).

Collectively, our findings suggest that clozapine may have a protective/anti-apoptotic effect on NSCs, supporting previous in vivo observations, indicating a neurogenesis-promoting activity for clozapine. If the data are further confirmed in vivo, the results may encourage an expanded use of clozapine to restore impaired neurogenesis in schizophrenia.

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