ResearchPad - cell-membranes https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Inorganic polyphosphate is produced and hydrolyzed in F<sub>0</sub>F<sub>1</sub>-ATP synthase of mammalian mitochondria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9196 Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a polymer present in all living organisms. Although polyP is found to be involved in a variety of functions in cells of higher organisms, the enzyme responsible for polyP production and consumption has not yet been identified. Here, we studied the effect of polyP on mitochondrial respiration, oxidative phosphorylation and activity of F0F1-ATPsynthase. We have found that polyP activates mitochondrial respiration which does not coupled with ATP production (V2) but inhibits ADP-dependent respiration (V3). Moreover, PolyP can stimulate F0F1-ATPase activity in the presence of ATP and, importantly, can be hydrolyzed in this enzyme instead of ATP. Furthermore, PolyP can be produced in mitochondria in the presence of substrates for respiration and phosphate by the F0F1-ATPsynthase. Thus, polyP is an energy molecule in mammalian cells which can be produced and hydrolyzed in the mitochondrial F0F1-ATPsynthase.

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<![CDATA[An electrodiffusive, ion conserving Pinsky-Rinzel model with homeostatic mechanisms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7780 Neurons generate their electrical signals by letting ions pass through their membranes. Despite this fact, most models of neurons apply the simplifying assumption that ion concentrations remain effectively constant during neural activity. This assumption is often quite good, as neurons contain a set of homeostatic mechanisms that make sure that ion concentrations vary quite little under normal circumstances. However, under some conditions, these mechanisms can fail, and ion concentrations can vary quite dramatically. Standard models are thus not able to simulate such conditions. Here, we present what to our knowledge is the first multicompartmental neuron model that accounts for ion concentration variations in a way that ensures complete and consistent ion concentration and charge conservation. In this work, we use the model to explore under which activity conditions the ion concentration variations become important for predicting the neurodynamics. We expect the model to be of great value for the field of neuroscience, as it can be used to simulate a range of pathological conditions, such as spreading depression or epilepsy, which are associated with large changes in extracellular ion concentrations.

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<![CDATA[The tetraspanin CD9 facilitates MERS-coronavirus entry by scaffolding host cell receptors and proteases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/598bdfb5fa495b7488185485

Infection by enveloped coronaviruses (CoVs) initiates with viral spike (S) proteins binding to cellular receptors, and is followed by proteolytic cleavage of receptor-bound S proteins, which prompts S protein-mediated virus-cell membrane fusion. Infection therefore requires close proximity of receptors and proteases. We considered whether tetraspanins, scaffolding proteins known to facilitate CoV infections, hold receptors and proteases together on cell membranes. Using knockout cell lines, we found that the tetraspanin CD9, but not the tetraspanin CD81, formed cell-surface complexes of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), the MERS-CoV receptor, and the type II transmembrane serine protease (TTSP) member TMPRSS2, a CoV-activating protease. This CD9-facilitated condensation of receptors and proteases allowed MERS-CoV pseudoviruses to enter cells rapidly and efficiently. Without CD9, MERS-CoV viruses were not activated by TTSPs, and they trafficked into endosomes to be cleaved much later and less efficiently by cathepsins. Thus, we identified DPP4:CD9:TTSP as the protein complexes necessary for early, efficient MERS-CoV entry. To evaluate the importance of these complexes in an in vivo CoV infection model, we used recombinant Adenovirus 5 (rAd5) vectors to express human DPP4 in mouse lungs, thereby sensitizing the animals to MERS-CoV infection. When the rAd5-hDPP4 vectors co-expressed small RNAs silencing Cd9 or Tmprss2, the animals were significantly less susceptible, indicating that CD9 and TMPRSS2 facilitated robust in vivo MERS-CoV infection of mouse lungs. Furthermore, the S proteins of virulent mouse-adapted MERS-CoVs acquired a CD9-dependent cell entry character, suggesting that CD9 is a selective agent in the evolution of CoV virulence.

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<![CDATA[Influence of the tubular network on the characteristics of calcium transients in cardiac myocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7f446290-780e-4486-a1de-95187c6060a1

Transverse and axial tubules (TATS) are an essential ingredient of the excitation-contraction machinery that allow the effective coupling of L-type Calcium Channels (LCC) and ryanodine receptors (RyR2). They form a regular network in ventricular cells, while their presence in atrial myocytes is variable regionally and among animal species We have studied the effect of variations in the TAT network using a bidomain computational model of an atrial myocyte with variable density of tubules. At each z-line the t-tubule length is obtained from an exponential distribution, with a given mean penetration length. This gives rise to a distribution of t-tubules in the cell that is characterized by the fractional area (F.A.) occupied by the t-tubules. To obtain consistent results, we average over different realizations of the same mean penetration length. To this, in some simulations we add the effect of a network of axial tubules. Then we study global properties of calcium signaling, as well as regional heterogeneities and local properties of sparks and RyR2 openings. In agreement with recent experiments in detubulated ventricular and atrial cells, we find that detubulation reduces the calcium transient and synchronization in release. However, it does not affect sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) load, so the decrease in SR calcium release is due to regional differences in Ca2+ release, that is restricted to the cell periphery in detubulated cells. Despite the decrease in release, the release gain is larger in detubulated cells, due to recruitment of orphaned RyR2s, i.e, those that are not confronting a cluster of LCCs. This probably provides a safeguard mechanism, allowing physiological values to be maintained upon small changes in the t-tubule density. Finally, we do not find any relevant change in spark properties between tubulated and detubulated cells, suggesting that the differences found in experiments could be due to differential properties of the RyR2s in the membrane and in the t-tubules, not incorporated in the present model. This work will help understand the effect of detubulation, that has been shown to occur in disease conditions such as heart failure (HF) in ventricular cells, or atrial fibrillation (AF) in atrial cells.

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<![CDATA[Proteomic analysis of protein composition of rat hippocampus exposed to morphine for 10 days; comparison with animals after 20 days of morphine withdrawal]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2838fdc6-dc33-429a-ba0d-e2e831e6a950

Opioid addiction is recognized as a chronic relapsing brain disease resulting from repeated exposure to opioid drugs. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of organism to return back to the physiological norm after cessation of drug supply are not fully understood. The aim of this work was to extend our previous studies of morphine-induced alteration of rat forebrain cortex protein composition to the hippocampus. Rats were exposed to morphine for 10 days and sacrificed 24 h (groups +M10 and −M10) or 20 days after the last dose of morphine (groups +M10/−M20 and −M10/−M20). The six altered proteins (≥2-fold) were identified in group (+M10) when compared with group (−M10) by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). The number of differentially expressed proteins was increased to thirteen after 20 days of the drug withdrawal. Noticeably, the altered level of α-synuclein, β-synuclein, α-enolase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was also determined in both (±M10) and (±M10/−M20) samples of hippocampus. Immunoblot analysis of 2D gels by specific antibodies oriented against α/β-synucleins and GAPDH confirmed the data obtained by 2D-DIGE analysis. Label-free quantification identified nineteen differentially expressed proteins in group (+M10) when compared with group (−M10). After 20 days of morphine withdrawal (±M10/−M20), the number of altered proteins was increased to twenty. We conclude that the morphine-induced alteration of protein composition in rat hippocampus after cessation of drug supply proceeds in a different manner when compared with the forebrain cortex. In forebrain cortex, the total number of altered proteins was decreased after 20 days without morphine, whilst in hippocampus, it was increased.

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<![CDATA[Variants encoding a restricted carboxy-terminal domain of SLC12A2 cause hereditary hearing loss in humans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd1837fa5-7737-42fc-aa07-ce2092d99c03

Hereditary hearing loss is challenging to diagnose because of the heterogeneity of the causative genes. Further, some genes involved in hereditary hearing loss have yet to be identified. Using whole-exome analysis of three families with congenital, severe-to-profound hearing loss, we identified a missense variant of SLC12A2 in five affected members of one family showing a dominant inheritance mode, along with de novo splice-site and missense variants of SLC12A2 in two sporadic cases, as promising candidates associated with hearing loss. Furthermore, we detected another de novo missense variant of SLC12A2 in a sporadic case. SLC12A2 encodes Na+, K+, 2Cl cotransporter (NKCC) 1 and plays critical roles in the homeostasis of K+-enriched endolymph. Slc12a2-deficient mice have congenital, profound deafness; however, no human variant of SLC12A2 has been reported as associated with hearing loss. All identified SLC12A2 variants mapped to exon 21 or its 3’-splice site. In vitro analysis indicated that the splice-site variant generates an exon 21-skipped SLC12A2 mRNA transcript expressed at much lower levels than the exon 21-included transcript in the cochlea, suggesting a tissue-specific role for the exon 21-encoded region in the carboy-terminal domain. In vitro functional analysis demonstrated that Cl influx was significantly decreased in all SLC12A2 variants studied. Immunohistochemistry revealed that SLC12A2 is located on the plasma membrane of several types of cells in the cochlea, including the strial marginal cells, which are critical for endolymph homeostasis. Overall, this study suggests that variants affecting exon 21 of the SLC12A2 transcript are responsible for hereditary hearing loss in humans.

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<![CDATA[Cobalt ion interaction with TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel: Inhibition and potentiation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nba3bff3f-41a4-460d-bc9b-3a7adada8996

TMEM16A, a Ca2+-sensitive Cl- channel, plays key roles in many physiological functions related to Cl- transport across lipid membranes. Activation of this channel is mediated via binding intracellular Ca2+ to the channel with a relatively high apparent affinity, roughly in the sub-μM to low μM concentration range. Recently available high-resolution structures of TMEM16 molecules reveal that the high-affinity Ca2+ activation sites are formed by several acidic amino acids, using their negatively charged sidechain carboxylates to coordinate the bound Ca2+. In this study, we examine the interaction of TMEM16A with a divalent cation, Co2+, which by itself cannot activate current in TMEM16A. This divalent cation, however, has two effects when applied intracellularly. It inhibits the Ca2+-induced TMEM16A current by competing with Ca2+ for the aforementioned high-affinity activation sites. In addition, Co2+ also potentiates the Ca2+-induced current with a low affinity. This potentiation effect requires high concentration (mM) of Co2+, similar to our previous findings that high concentrations (mM) of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) can induce more TMEM16A current after the Ca2+-activation sites are saturated by tens of μM [Ca2+]i. The degrees of potentiation by Co2+ and Ca2+ also roughly correlate with each other. Interestingly, mutating a pore residue of TMEM16A, Y589, alters the degree of potentiation in that the smaller the sidechain of the replaced residue, the larger the potentiation induced by divalent cations. We suggest that the Co2+ potentiation and the Ca2+ potentiation share a similar mechanism by increasing Cl- flux through the channel pore, perhaps due to an increase of positive pore potential after the binding of divalent cations to phospholipids in the pore. A smaller sidechain of a pore residue may allow the pore to accommodate more phospholipids, thus enhancing the current potentiation caused by high concentrations of divalent cations.

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<![CDATA[Potential combinations of endocannabinoid/endocannabinoid-like compounds and antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne8a72c2e-13c7-43d3-9f49-0ed6410d9d0b

Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus have reached epidemic proportions globally. Our previous study showed antimicrobial effects of anandamide (AEA) and arachidonoyl serine (AraS) against methicillin (MET)-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, proposing the therapeutic potential of these endocannabinoid/endocannabinoid-like (EC/EC-like) agents for the treatment of MRSA. Here, we investigated the potential synergism of combinations of AEA and AraS with different types of antibiotics against MRSA grown under planktonic growth or biofilm formation. The most effective combinations under planktonic conditions were mixtures of AEA and ampicillin (AMP), and of AraS and gentamicin (GEN). The combination with the highest synergy in the biofilm formation against all tested bacterial strains was AEA and MET. Moreover, the combination of AraS and MET synergistically caused default of biofilm formation. Slime production of MRSA was also dramatically impaired by AEA or AraS combined with MET. Our data suggest the novel potential activity of combinations of EC/EC-like agents and antibiotics in the prevention of MRSA biofilm formation.

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<![CDATA[Lipid microdomains are important for the entry process of SARS coronavirus to target cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8d254f8f-0da9-46ec-99ce-13fc980c9463

Cholesterol‐enriched microdomains known as lipid rafts have been shown to be important for the life cycle of several viruses. Here, we investigated whether cholesterol is important during the initial steps of SARS‐CoV spike (S) glycoprotein‐mediated entry. Vero cells were treated with the cholesterol sequestering drug methyl‐β‐cyclodextrin (mβCD) and then exposed to SARS‐CoV and Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotyped with SARS‐CoV spike glycoprotein (VSV‐ΔG‐S). Furthermore, a cell‐based binding assay and a binding assay with soluble S protein demonstrated that the binding of S to its receptor angiotensin‐converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is affected by cholesterol depletion and that multi‐ligand interactions might be important for the entry process of SARS‐CoV to target cells. Confocal laser microscopy studies and a membrane flotation assay in Vero cells show that the SARS‐CoV receptor is organized within lipid microdomains and cholesterol depletion results in a reduction of ACE2 in the buoyant detergent resistant membrane fraction after Triton‐X 100 solubilization. Further attempts are directed to understand the molecular role of cholesterol during the initial steps of SARS‐CoV life cycle.

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<![CDATA[Desolvation of the substrate-binding protein TauA dictates ligand specificity for the alkanesulfonate ABC importer TauABC]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N98d40b69-dc39-489e-b890-e58d78b11aee

Under limiting sulfur availability, bacteria can assimilate sulfur from alkanesulfonates. Bacteria utilize ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters to internalise them for further processing to release sulfur. In gram-negative bacteria the TauABC and SsuABC ensure internalization, although, these two systems have common substrates, the former has been characterized as a taurine specific system. TauA and SsuA are substrate-binding proteins (SBPs) that bind and bring the alkanesulfonates to the ABC importer for transport. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of TauA and have characterized its thermodynamic binding parameters by isothermal titration calorimetry in complex with taurine and different alkanesulfonates. Our structures revealed that the coordination of the alkanesulfonates is conserved, with the exception of Asp205 that is absent from SsuA, but the thermodynamic parameters revealed a very high enthalpic penalty cost for binding of the other alkanesulfonates relative to taurine. Our molecular dynamic simulations indicated that the different levels of hydration of the binding site contributed to the selectivity for taurine over the other alkanesulfonates. Such selectivity mechanism is very likely to be employed by other SBPs of ABC transporters.

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<![CDATA[A novel polymorphism in the fatty acid desaturase 2 gene (Fads2): A possible role in the basal metabolic rate]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c818e86d5eed0c484cc247a

Fatty acyl composition of cell membrane lipids, particularly the abundance of highly unsaturated docosahexaenoic fatty acid (22:6n-3, DHA), is likely to be an important predictor of basal metabolic rate (BMR). Our study was performed using two lines of laboratory mice divergently selected for either high or low BMR. We describe a novel single nucleotide polymorphism in the Fads2 gene encoding Δ6-desaturase, a key enzyme in the metabolic pathways of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The allele frequencies of Fads2 were significantly different in both lines of mice. The analysis of genetic distances revealed that the genetic differentiation between the two studied lines developed significantly faster at the Fads2 locus than it did at neutral loci. Such a pattern suggests that the Fads2 polymorphism is related to the variation in BMR, i.e. the direct target of selection. The Fads2 polymorphism significantly affected abundance of several PUFAs; however, the differences in PUFA composition between lines were compatible with the difference in frequency of Fads2 alleles only for DHA. We hypothesize that the polymorphism in the Fads2 gene affects the BMR through modification of DHA abundance in cell membranes. This may be the first example of a significant link between a polymorphism in a gene responsible for fatty acyl composition and variation in BMR.

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<![CDATA[Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): Molecular cloning, transcriptional response to acidity stress, and physiological roles in pH homeostasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c803c66d5eed0c484ad88a5

Na+/H+ exchangers are the most common membrane proteins involved in the regulation of intracellular pH that concurrently transport Na+ into the cells and H+ out of the cells. In this study, the full-length cDNA of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) from the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was cloned. The LvNHE cDNA is 3167 bp long, contains a 5’-untranslated region (UTR) of 74 bp and a 3’-UTR of 456 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 2637 bp, coding for a protein of 878 amino acids with 11 putative transmembrane domains and a long cytoplasmic tail. LvNHE shows high sequence homology with mud crab NHE at the amino acid level. LvNHE mRNA was detected in the hepatopancreas, gill, eyestalk, skin, heart, intestine, muscle, brain and stomach, with the highest abundance in the intestine. In the shrimp intestinal fragment cultures exposed to gradually declining pH medium (from pH 8.0 to pH 6.4), the LvNHE mRNA expression was significantly stimulated, with the highest response when incubated in pH 7.0 medium for 6 h. To investigate the functional roles of LvNHE in pH regulation at the physiological and cellular levels, the LvNHE mRNA expression was silenced by siRNA knockdown. Upon low-pH challenge, the hemolymph pH was significantly reduced in the LvNHE mRNA knockdown shrimp. In addition, knockdown of LvNHE mRNA reduced the recovery capacity of intracellular pH in intestinal fragment cultures after acidification. Altogether, this study demonstrates the role of NHE in shrimp response to low pH stress and provides new insights into the acid/base homeostasis mechanisms of crustaceans.

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<![CDATA[Advances in geometric techniques for analyzing blebbing in chemotaxing Dictyostelium cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f1522d5eed0c48467ae3b

We present a technical platform that allows us to monitor and measure cortex and membrane dynamics during bleb-based chemotaxis. Using D. discoideum cells expressing LifeAct-GFP and crawling under agarose containing RITC-dextran, we were able to simultaneously visualize the actin cortex and the cell membrane throughout bleb formation. Using these images, we then applied edge detect to generate points on the cell boundary with coordinates in a coordinate plane. Then we fitted these points to a curve with known x and y coordinate functions. The result was to parameterize the cell outline. With the parameterization, we demonstrate how to compute data for geometric features such as cell area, bleb area and edge curvature. This allows us to collect vital data for the analysis of blebbing.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of Epichloë festucae small secreted proteins in the interaction with Lolium perenne]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9b2d5eed0c48452a041

Epichloë festucae is an endophyte of the agriculturally important perennial ryegrass. This species systemically colonises the aerial tissues of this host where its growth is tightly regulated thereby maintaining a mutualistic symbiotic interaction. Recent studies have suggested that small secreted proteins, termed effectors, play a vital role in the suppression of host defence responses. To date only a few effectors with important roles in mutualistic interactions have been described. Here we make use of the fully assembled E. festucae genome and EffectorP to generate a suite of 141 effector candidates. These were analysed with respect to their genome location and expression profiles in planta and in several symbiosis-defective mutants. We found an association between effector candidates and a class of transposable elements known as MITEs, but no correlation with other dynamic features of the E. festucae genome, such as transposable element-rich regions. Three effector candidates and a small GPI-anchored protein were chosen for functional analysis based on their high expression in planta compared to in culture and their differential regulation in symbiosis defective E. festucae mutants. All three candidate effector proteins were shown to possess a functional signal peptide and two could be detected in the extracellular medium by western blotting. Localization of the effector candidates in planta suggests that they are not translocated into the plant cell, but rather, are localized in the apoplastic space or are attached to the cell wall. Deletion and overexpression of the effector candidates, as well as the putative GPI-anchored protein, did not affect the plant growth phenotype or restrict growth of E. festucae mutants in planta. These results indicate that these proteins are either not required for the interaction at the observed life stages or that there is redundancy between effectors expressed by E. festucae.

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<![CDATA[Early girl is a novel component of the Fat signaling pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52c2d5eed0c4842bcfaa

The Drosophila protocadherins Dachsous and Fat regulate growth and tissue polarity by modulating the levels, membrane localization and polarity of the atypical myosin Dachs. Localization to the apical junctional membrane is critical for Dachs function, and the adapter protein Vamana/Dlish and palmitoyl transferase Approximated are required for Dachs membrane localization. However, how Dachs levels are regulated is poorly understood. Here we identify the early girl gene as playing an essential role in Fat signaling by limiting the levels of Dachs protein. early girl mutants display overgrowth of the wings and reduced cross vein spacing, hallmark features of mutations affecting Fat signaling. Genetic experiments reveal that it functions in parallel with Fat to regulate Dachs. early girl encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase, physically interacts with Dachs, and regulates its protein stability. Concomitant loss of early girl and approximated results in accumulation of Dachs and Vamana in cytoplasmic punctae, suggesting that it also regulates their trafficking to the apical membrane. Our findings establish a crucial role for early girl in Fat signaling, involving regulation of Dachs and Vamana, two key downstream effectors of this pathway.

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<![CDATA[RPGRIP1L is required for stabilizing epidermal keratinocyte adhesion through regulating desmoglein endocytosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d63dd5eed0c48403195b

Cilia-related proteins are believed to be involved in a broad range of cellular processes. Retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator interacting protein 1-like (RPGRIP1L) is a ciliary protein required for ciliogenesis in many cell types, including epidermal keratinocytes. Here we report that RPGRIP1L is also involved in the maintenance of desmosomal junctions between keratinocytes. Genetically disrupting the Rpgrip1l gene in mice caused intraepidermal blistering, primarily between basal and suprabasal keratinocytes. This blistering phenotype was associated with aberrant expression patterns of desmosomal proteins, impaired desmosome ultrastructure, and compromised cell-cell adhesion in vivo and in vitro. We found that disrupting the RPGRIP1L gene in HaCaT cells, which do not form primary cilia, resulted in mislocalization of desmosomal proteins to the cytoplasm, suggesting a cilia-independent function of RPGRIP1L. Mechanistically, we found that RPGRIP1L regulates the endocytosis of desmogleins such that RPGRIP1L-knockdown not only induced spontaneous desmoglein endocytosis, as determined by AK23 labeling and biotinylation assays, but also exacerbated EGTA- or pemphigus vulgaris IgG-induced desmoglein endocytosis. Accordingly, inhibiting endocytosis with dynasore or sucrose rescued these desmosomal phenotypes. Biotinylation assays on cell surface proteins not only reinforced the role of RPGRIP1L in desmoglein endocytosis, but also suggested that RPGRIP1L may be more broadly involved in endocytosis. Thus, data obtained from this study advanced our understanding of the biological functions of RPGRIP1L by identifying its role in the cellular endocytic pathway.

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<![CDATA[GluClR-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents reveal targets for ivermectin and potential mechanisms of ivermectin resistance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59fee7d5eed0c484135792

Glutamate-gated chloride channel receptors (GluClRs) mediate inhibitory neurotransmission at invertebrate synapses and are primary targets of parasites that impact drastically on agriculture and human health. Ivermectin (IVM) is a broad-spectrum pesticide that binds and potentiates GluClR activity. Resistance to IVM is a major economic and health concern, but the molecular and synaptic mechanisms of resistance are ill-defined. Here we focus on GluClRs of the agricultural endoparasite, Haemonchus contortus. We demonstrate that IVM potentiates inhibitory input by inducing a tonic current that plateaus over 15 minutes and by enhancing post-synaptic current peak amplitude and decay times. We further demonstrate that IVM greatly enhances the active durations of single receptors. These effects are greatly attenuated when endogenous IVM-insensitive subunits are incorporated into GluClRs, suggesting a mechanism of IVM resistance that does not affect glutamate sensitivity. We discovered functional groups of IVM that contribute to tuning its potency at different isoforms and show that the dominant mode of access of IVM is via the cell membrane to the receptor.

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<![CDATA[Learning the sequence of influenza A genome assembly during viral replication using point process models and fluorescence in situ hybridization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d65ed5eed0c484031d18

Within influenza virus infected cells, viral genomic RNA are selectively packed into progeny virions, which predominantly contain a single copy of 8 viral RNA segments. Intersegmental RNA-RNA interactions are thought to mediate selective packaging of each viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP). Clear evidence of a specific interaction network culminating in the full genomic set has yet to be identified. Using multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization to visualize four vRNP segments within a single cell, we developed image-based models of vRNP-vRNP spatial dependence. These models were used to construct likely sequences of vRNP associations resulting in the full genomic set. Our results support the notion that selective packaging occurs during cytoplasmic transport and identifies the formation of multiple distinct vRNP sub-complexes that likely form as intermediate steps toward full genomic inclusion into a progeny virion. The methods employed demonstrate a statistically driven, model based approach applicable to other interaction and assembly problems.

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<![CDATA[New interfaces on MiD51 for Drp1 recruitment and regulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2b5d5eed0c48441e93f

Mitochondrial fission is facilitated by dynamin-related protein Drp1 and a variety of its receptors. However, the molecular mechanism of how Drp1 is recruited to the mitochondrial surface by receptors MiD49 and MiD51 remains elusive. Here, we showed that the interaction between Drp1 and MiD51 is regulated by GTP binding and depends on the polymerization of Drp1. We identified two regions on MiD51 that directly bind to Drp1, and found that dimerization of MiD51, relevant to residue C452, is required for mitochondrial dynamics regulation. Our Results have suggested a multi-faceted regulatory mechanism for the interaction between Drp1 and MiD51 that illustrates the potentially complicated and tight regulation of mitochondrial fission.

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<![CDATA[Collective radioresistance of T47D breast carcinoma cells is mediated by a Syncytin-1 homologous protein]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b524ad5eed0c4842bc5fc

It is generally accepted that radiotherapy must target clonogenic cells, i.e., those cells in a tumour that have self-renewing potential. Focussing on isolated clonogenic cells, however, may lead to an underestimate or even to an outright neglect of the importance of biological mechanisms that regulate tumour cell sensitivity to radiation. We develop a new statistical and experimental approach to quantify the effects of radiation on cell populations as a whole. In our experiments, we change the proximity relationships of the cells by culturing them in wells with different shapes, and we find that the radiosensitivity of T47D human breast carcinoma cells in tight clusters is different from that of isolated cells. Molecular analyses show that T47D cells express a Syncytin-1 homologous protein (SyHP). We observe that SyHP translocates to the external surface of the plasma membrane of cells killed by radiation treatment. The data support the fundamental role of SyHP in the formation of intercellular cytoplasmic bridges and in the enhanced radioresistance of surviving cells. We conclude that complex and unexpected biological mechanisms of tumour radioresistance take place at the cell population level. These mechanisms may significantly bias our estimates of the radiosensitivity of breast carcinomas in vivo and thereby affect treatment plans, and they call for further investigations.

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