ResearchPad - cell-metabolism https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Application of co-culture technology of epithelial type cells and mesenchymal type cells using nanopatterned structures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7654 Various nanopatterning techniques have been developed to improve cell proliferation and differentiation efficiency. As we previously reported, nanopillars and pores are able to sustain human pluripotent stem cells and differentiate pancreatic cells. From this, the nanoscale patterns would be effective environment for the co-culturing of epithelial and mesenchymal cell types. Interestingly, the nanopatterning selectively reduced the proliferative rate of mesenchymal cells while increasing the expression of adhesion protein in epithelial type cells. Additionally, co-cultured cells on the nanopatterning were not negatively affected in terms of cell function metabolic ability or cell survival. This is in contrast to conventional co-culturing methods such as ultraviolet or chemical treatments. The nanopatterning appears to be an effective environment for mesenchymal co-cultures with typically low proliferative rates cells such as astrocytes, neurons, melanocytes, and fibroblasts without using potentially damaging treatments.

]]>
<![CDATA[OAZ1 knockdown enhances viability and inhibits ER and LHR transcriptions of granulosa cells in geese]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc164

An increasing number of studies suggest that ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 (OAZ1), which is regarded as a tumor suppressor gene, regulates follicular development, ovulation, and steroidogenesis. The granulosa cells in the ovary play a critical role in these ovarian functions. However, the action of OAZ1 mediating physiological functions of granulosa cells is obscure. OAZ1 knockdown in granulosa cells of geese was carried out in the current study. The effect of OAZ1 knockdown on polyamine metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and hormone receptor transcription of primary granulosa cells in geese was measured. The viability of granulosa cells transfected with the shRNA OAZ1 at 48 h was significantly higher than the control (p<0.05). The level of putrescine and spermidine in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 was 7.04- and 2.11- fold higher compared with the control, respectively (p<0.05). The CCND1, SMAD1, and BCL-2 mRNA expression levels in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 were each significantly higher than the control, respectively (p<0.05), whereas the PCNA and CASPASE 3 expression levels were significantly lower than the control (p<0.05). The estradiol concentration, ER and LHR mRNA expression levels were significantly lower in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 compared with the control (p<0.05). Taken together, our results indicated that OAZ1 knockdown elevated the putrescine and spermidine contents and enhanced granulosa cell viability and inhibited ER and LHR transcriptions of granulosa cells in geese.

]]>
<![CDATA[Podocyte RNA sequencing reveals Wnt- and ECM-associated genes as central in FSGS]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nff231b2e-f2d8-47eb-acf2-c510faf35a1a

Loss of podocyte differentiation can cause nephrotic-range proteinuria and Focal and Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). As specific therapy is still lacking, FSGS frequently progresses to end-stage renal disease. The exact molecular mechanisms of FSGS and gene expression changes in podocytes are complex and widely unknown as marker changes have mostly been assessed on the glomerular level. To gain a better insight, we isolated podocytes of miR-193a overexpressing mice, which suffer from FSGS due to suppression of the podocyte master regulator Wt1. We characterised the podocytic gene expression changes by RNAseq and identified many novel candidate genes not linked to FSGS so far. This included strong upregulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA6 and a massive dysregulation of circadian genes including the loss of the transcriptional activator Arntl. By comparison with podocyte-specific changes in other FSGS models we found a shared dysregulation of genes associated with the Wnt signaling cascade, while classical podocyte-specific genes appeared widely unaltered. An overlap with gene expression screens from human FSGS patients revealed a strong enrichment in genes associated with extra-cellular matrix (ECM) and metabolism. Our data suggest that FSGS progression might frequently depend on pathways that are often overlooked when considering podocyte homeostasis.

]]>
<![CDATA[Uncovering and resolving challenges of quantitative modeling in a simplified community of interacting cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c99020dd5eed0c484b97589

Quantitative modeling is useful for predicting behaviors of a system and for rationally constructing or modifying the system. The predictive power of a model relies on accurate quantification of model parameters. Here, we illustrate challenges in parameter quantification and offer means to overcome these challenges, using a case example in which we quantitatively predict the growth rate of a cooperative community. Specifically, the community consists of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, each engineered to release a metabolite required and consumed by its partner. The initial model, employing parameters measured in batch monocultures with zero or excess metabolite, failed to quantitatively predict experimental results. To resolve the model–experiment discrepancy, we chemically identified the correct exchanged metabolites, but this did not improve model performance. We then remeasured strain phenotypes in chemostats mimicking the metabolite-limited community environments, while mitigating or incorporating effects of rapid evolution. Almost all phenotypes we measured, including death rate, metabolite release rate, and the amount of metabolite consumed per cell birth, varied significantly with the metabolite environment. Once we used parameters measured in a range of community-like chemostat environments, prediction quantitatively agreed with experimental results. In summary, using a simplified community, we uncovered and devised means to resolve modeling challenges that are likely general to living systems.

]]>
<![CDATA[SLFN11 can sensitize tumor cells towards IFN-γ-mediated T cell killing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75d8d5eed0c4843d02bd

Experimental and clinical observations have highlighted the role of cytotoxic T cells in human tumor control. However, the parameters that control tumor cell sensitivity to T cell attack remain incompletely understood. To identify modulators of tumor cell sensitivity to T cell effector mechanisms, we performed a whole genome haploid screen in HAP1 cells. Selection of tumor cells by exposure to tumor-specific T cells identified components of the interferon-γ (IFN-γ) receptor (IFNGR) signaling pathway, and tumor cell killing by cytotoxic T cells was shown to be in large part mediated by the pro-apoptotic effects of IFN-γ. Notably, we identified schlafen 11 (SLFN11), a known modulator of DNA damage toxicity, as a regulator of tumor cell sensitivity to T cell-secreted IFN-γ. SLFN11 does not influence IFNGR signaling, but couples IFNGR signaling to the induction of the DNA damage response (DDR) in a context dependent fashion. In line with this role of SLFN11, loss of SLFN11 can reduce IFN-γ mediated toxicity. Collectively, our data indicate that SLFN11 can couple IFN-γ exposure of tumor cells to DDR and cellular apoptosis. Future work should reveal the mechanistic basis for the link between IFNGR signaling and DNA damage response, and identify tumor cell types in which SLFN11 contributes to the anti-tumor activity of T cells.

]]>
<![CDATA[SIRT5 deficiency suppresses mitochondrial ATP production and promotes AMPK activation in response to energy stress]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc99ed5eed0c484529ee3

Sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) is a member of the NAD+-dependent sirtuin family of protein deacylase that catalyzes removal of post-translational modifications, such as succinylation, malonylation, and glutarylation on lysine residues. In light of the SIRT5's roles in regulating mitochondrion function, we show here that SIRT5 deficiency leads to suppression of mitochondrial NADH oxidation and inhibition of ATP synthase activity. As a result, SIRT5 deficiency decreases mitochondrial ATP production, increases AMP/ATP ratio, and subsequently activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in cultured cells and mouse hearts under energy stress conditions. Moreover, Sirt5 knockout attenuates transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction in mice, which is associated with decreased ATP level, increased AMP/ATP ratio and enhanced AMPK activation. Our study thus uncovers an important role of SIRT5 in regulating cellular energy metabolism and AMPK activation in response to energy stress.

]]>
<![CDATA[Anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody-mediated depletion alters the phenotype and behavior of surviving CD8+ T cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6730ddd5eed0c484f38251

It is common practice for researchers to use antibodies to remove a specific cell type to infer its function. However, it is difficult to completely eliminate a cell type and there is often limited or no information as to how the cells which survive depletion are affected. This is particularly important for CD8+ T cells for two reasons. First, they are more resistant to mAb-mediated depletion than other lymphocytes. Second, targeting either the CD8α or CD8β chain could induce differential effects. We show here that two commonly used mAbs, against either the CD8α or CD8β subunit, can differentially affect cellular metabolism. Further, in vivo treatment leaves behind a population of CD8+ T cells with different phenotypic and functional attributes relative to each other or control CD8+ T cells. The impact of anti-CD8 antibodies on CD8+ T cell phenotype and function indicates the need to carefully consider the use of these, and possibly other “depleting” antibodies, as they could significantly complicate the interpretation of results or change the outcome of an experiment. These observations could impact how immunotherapy and modulation of CD8+ T cell activation is pursued.

]]>
<![CDATA[Targeted lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic intermediate analysis with normal-phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6730d1d5eed0c484f38198

Lipopolysacharride (LPS) forms the outer leaflet of the outer membrane in Gram-negative bacteria and contributes to the permeability barrier and immune response. In this study, we established a method for monitoring the LPS biosynthetic intermediates of the Raetz pathway (lpxA-lpxK) in Escherichia coli. Metabolites from compound-treated cells and genetically-perturbed cells were extracted from whole cells and concentrated by mixed-mode weak anion exchange (WAX) solid-phase extraction (SPE) prior to analysis by normal phase (NP)LC-MS/MS. Data was normalized to cell density and an internal standard prior to comparison against untreated cells in order to determine fold accumulation and depletion for affected metabolites. Using this LC-MS/MS method, we were able to reliably monitor changes in levels of the LPS intermediates in response to compound-treatment and genetic modification. In addition, we found that deletion of periplasmic CDP-diacylglycerol pyrophosphatase dramatically increased levels of the UDP-containing LPS intermediates, suggesting the enzymatic breakdown during sample preparation. This assay allows for probing a key essential pathway in Gram-negative bacteria in an effort to discover antibacterial agents that inhibit enzymes in the LPS biosynthetic pathway.

]]>
<![CDATA[Extreme pathway analysis reveals the organizing rules of metabolic regulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c63394dd5eed0c484ae646f

Cellular systems shift metabolic states by adjusting gene expression and enzyme activities to adapt to physiological and environmental changes. Biochemical and genetic studies are identifying how metabolic regulation affects the selection of metabolic phenotypes. However, how metabolism influences its regulatory architecture still remains unexplored. We present a new method of extreme pathway analysis (the minimal set of conically independent metabolic pathways) to deduce regulatory structures from pure pathway information. Applying our method to metabolic networks of human red blood cells and Escherichia coli, we shed light on how metabolic regulation are organized by showing which reactions within metabolic networks are more prone to transcriptional or allosteric regulation. Applied to a human genome-scale metabolic system, our method detects disease-associated reactions. Thus, our study deepens the understanding of the organizing principle of cellular metabolic regulation and may contribute to metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and disease treatment.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Human Cytomegalovirus UL38 protein drives mTOR-independent metabolic flux reprogramming by inhibiting TSC2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536b4cd5eed0c484a485ec

Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection induces several metabolic activities that are essential for viral replication. Despite the important role that this metabolic modulation plays during infection, the viral mechanisms involved are largely unclear. We find that the HCMV UL38 protein is responsible for many aspects of HCMV-mediated metabolic activation, with UL38 being necessary and sufficient to drive glycolytic activation and induce the catabolism of specific amino acids. UL38’s metabolic reprogramming role is dependent on its interaction with TSC2, a tumor suppressor that inhibits mTOR signaling. Further, shRNA-mediated knockdown of TSC2 recapitulates the metabolic phenotypes associated with UL38 expression. Notably, we find that in many cases the metabolic flux activation associated with UL38 expression is largely independent of mTOR activity, as broad spectrum mTOR inhibition does not impact UL38-mediated induction of glycolysis, glutamine consumption, or the secretion of proline or alanine. In contrast, the induction of metabolite concentrations observed with UL38 expression are largely dependent on active mTOR. Collectively, our results indicate that the HCMV UL38 protein induces a pro-viral metabolic environment via inhibition of TSC2.

]]>
<![CDATA[The red pepper’s spicy ingredient capsaicin activates AMPK in HepG2 cells through CaMKKβ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59fed8d5eed0c484135716

Capsaicin is a natural compound present in chili and red peppers and the responsible of their spicy flavor. It has recently provoked interest because of its antitumoral effects in many cell types although its action mechanism is not clearly understood. As metabolic dysregulation is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells and the key metabolic sensor in the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), in this study we explored the ability of capsaicin to modulate AMPK activity. We found that capsaicin activated AMPK in HepG2 cells by increasing AMPK phosphorylation and its downstream target ACC. Mechanistically, we determined that capsaicin activated AMPK through the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β, CaMKKβ as either the CaMKK inhibitor STO-609 or CaMKK knock down with siRNA abrogated the activation of AMPK. Moreover, capsaicin decreased cell viability, inhibited Akt/mTOR pathway and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells. AMPK activation was involved in the underpinning mechanism of capsaicin-induced cell death.

]]>
<![CDATA[Cellular determinants of metabolite concentration ranges]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536be4d5eed0c484a4947e

Cellular functions are shaped by reaction networks whose dynamics are determined by the concentrations of underlying components. However, cellular mechanisms ensuring that a component’s concentration resides in a given range remain elusive. We present network properties which suffice to identify components whose concentration ranges can be efficiently computed in mass-action metabolic networks. We show that the derived ranges are in excellent agreement with simulations from a detailed kinetic metabolic model of Escherichia coli. We demonstrate that the approach can be used with genome-scale metabolic models to arrive at predictions concordant with measurements from Escherichia coli under different growth scenarios. By application to 14 genome-scale metabolic models from diverse species, our approach specifies the cellular determinants of concentration ranges that can be effectively employed to make predictions for a variety of biotechnological and medical applications.

]]>
<![CDATA[Blue light irradiation and its beneficial effect on Dupuytren’s fibroblasts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c42438ed5eed0c4845e05ab

Dupuytren’s contracture is a fibroproliferative disorder affecting the palmar fascia of the hand. Most affected are the ring fingers, and little fingers of middle-aged men. Symptomatic for this disease is the increased proliferation and differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, which is accompanied by an elevated α-SMA expression. The present study evaluated the therapeutic benefit of blue light (λ = 453 nm, 38 mW/cm2, continuous radiance, spot size 10–12 cm2) as well as the molecular mechanism mediating this effect. It could be determined that blue light significantly diminished the induced α-SMA protein expression in both normal palmar fibroblasts and Duypuytren’s fibroblasts. The beneficial effect mediated by this irradiance, radiant exposure and wavelength was associated with an elevated reactive oxygen species generation. Furthermore, the data underlines the potential usefulness of blue light irradiation as a promising therapy option for Dupuytren’s disease, especially for relapse prevention, and may represent a useful strategy to treat further fibrotic diseases, such as keloids, hypertrophic scarring, and scleroderma.

]]>
<![CDATA[Machine learning framework for assessment of microbial factory performance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c5fd5eed0c484bd1ec8

Metabolic models can estimate intrinsic product yields for microbial factories, but such frameworks struggle to predict cell performance (including product titer or rate) under suboptimal metabolism and complex bioprocess conditions. On the other hand, machine learning, complementary to metabolic modeling necessitates large amounts of data. Building such a database for metabolic engineering designs requires significant manpower and is prone to human errors and bias. We propose an approach to integrate data-driven methods with genome scale metabolic model for assessment of microbial bio-production (yield, titer and rate). Using engineered E. coli as an example, we manually extracted and curated a data set comprising about 1200 experimentally realized cell factories from ~100 papers. We furthermore augmented the key design features (e.g., genetic modifications and bioprocess variables) extracted from literature with additional features derived from running the genome-scale metabolic model iML1515 simulations with constraints that match the experimental data. Then, data augmentation and ensemble learning (e.g., support vector machines, gradient boosted trees, and neural networks in a stacked regressor model) are employed to alleviate the challenges of sparse, non-standardized, and incomplete data sets, while multiple correspondence analysis/principal component analysis are used to rank influential factors on bio-production. The hybrid framework demonstrates a reasonably high cross-validation accuracy for prediction of E.coli factory performance metrics under presumed bioprocess and pathway conditions (Pearson correlation coefficients between 0.8 and 0.93 on new data not seen by the model).

]]>
<![CDATA[Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in ambient urban dust drive proinflammatory T cell and dendritic cell responses via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in vitro]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c26976ad5eed0c48470f75d

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex component of air pollution that is a composed of inorganic and organic constituents. The chemically-extracted organic fraction (OF) of PM excludes inorganics but retains most organic constituents like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are ubiquitous environmental toxicants and known aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands. The AHR is a ligand activated transcription factor that responds to endogenous ligands and exogenous ligands including PAHs. Activation of the AHR leads to upregulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolizing enzymes which are important for the biotransformation of toxicants to less toxic, or in the case of PAHs, more toxic intermediates. Additionally, the AHR plays an important role in balancing regulatory and effector T cell responses. This study aimed to determine whether PAHs present in PM aggravate inflammation by driving inflammatory T cell and dendritic cell (DC) responses and their mechanism of action. This study tests the hypothesis that PAHs present in PM activate the AHR and alter the immune balance shifting from regulation to inflammation. To test this, the effects of SRM1649b OF on T cell differentiation and DC function were measured in vitro. SRM1649b OF enhanced Th17 differentiation in an AHR and CYP-dependent manner and increased the percent of IFNγ positive DCs in an AHR-dependent manner. SRM1649b PAH mixtures enhanced Th17 differentiation in an AHR-dependent but CYP-independent manner and increased the percent of IFNγ positive DCs. Cumulatively, these results suggest that PAHs present in PM are active components that contribute to immune responses in both T cells and BMDCs through the AHR and CYP metabolism. Understanding the role of AHR and CYP metabolism of PAHs in immune cells after PM exposure will shed light on new targets that will shift the immune balance from inflammation to regulation.

]]>
<![CDATA[Mass spectrometric analysis of purine de novo biosynthesis intermediates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c18133cd5eed0c4847748c8

Purines are essential molecules for all forms of life. In addition to constituting a backbone of DNA and RNA, purines play roles in many metabolic pathways, such as energy utilization, regulation of enzyme activity, and cell signaling. The supply of purines is provided by two pathways: the salvage pathway and de novo synthesis. Although purine de novo synthesis (PDNS) activity varies during the cell cycle, this pathway represents an important source of purines, especially for rapidly dividing cells. A method for the detailed study of PDNS is lacking for analytical reasons (sensitivity) and because of the commercial unavailability of the compounds. The aim was to fully describe the mass spectrometric fragmentation behavior of newly synthesized PDNS-related metabolites and develop an analytical method. Except for four initial ribotide PDNS intermediates that preferentially lost water or phosphate or cleaved the forming base of the purine ring, all the other metabolites studied cleaved the glycosidic bond in the first fragmentation stage. Fragmentation was possible in the third to sixth stages. A liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometric method was developed and applied in the analysis of CRISPR-Cas9 genome-edited HeLa cells deficient in the individual enzymatic steps of PDNS and the salvage pathway. The identities of the newly synthesized intermediates of PDNS were confirmed by comparing the fragmentation patterns of the synthesized metabolites with those produced by cells (formed under pathological conditions of known and theoretically possible defects of PDNS). The use of stable isotope incorporation allowed the confirmation of fragmentation mechanisms and provided data for future fluxomic experiments. This method may find uses in the diagnosis of PDNS disorders, the investigation of purinosome formation, cancer research, enzyme inhibition studies, and other applications.

]]>
<![CDATA[Multi-scale computational study of the Warburg effect, reverse Warburg effect and glutamine addiction in solid tumors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141e8ad5eed0c484d27173

Cancer metabolism has received renewed interest as a potential target for cancer therapy. In this study, we use a multi-scale modeling approach to interrogate the implications of three metabolic scenarios of potential clinical relevance: the Warburg effect, the reverse Warburg effect and glutamine addiction. At the intracellular level, we construct a network of central metabolism and perform flux balance analysis (FBA) to estimate metabolic fluxes; at the cellular level, we exploit this metabolic network to calculate parameters for a coarse-grained description of cellular growth kinetics; and at the multicellular level, we incorporate these kinetic schemes into the cellular automata of an agent-based model (ABM), iDynoMiCS. This ABM evaluates the reaction-diffusion of the metabolites, cellular division and motion over a simulation domain. Our multi-scale simulations suggest that the Warburg effect provides a growth advantage to the tumor cells under resource limitation. However, we identify a non-monotonic dependence of growth rate on the strength of glycolytic pathway. On the other hand, the reverse Warburg scenario provides an initial growth advantage in tumors that originate deeper in the tissue. The metabolic profile of stromal cells considered in this scenario allows more oxygen to reach the tumor cells in the deeper tissue and thus promotes tumor growth at earlier stages. Lastly, we suggest that glutamine addiction does not confer a selective advantage to tumor growth with glutamine acting as a carbon source in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, any advantage of glutamine uptake must come through other pathways not included in our model (e.g., as a nitrogen donor). Our analysis illustrates the importance of accounting explicitly for spatial and temporal evolution of tumor microenvironment in the interpretation of metabolic scenarios and hence provides a basis for further studies, including evaluation of specific therapeutic strategies that target metabolism.

]]>
<![CDATA[An efficient proteome-wide strategy for discovery and characterization of cellular nucleotide-protein interactions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c12cef8d5eed0c484913c3b

Metabolite-protein interactions define the output of metabolic pathways and regulate many cellular processes. Although diseases are often characterized by distortions in metabolic processes, efficient means to discover and study such interactions directly in cells have been lacking. A stringent implementation of proteome-wide Cellular Thermal Shift Assay (CETSA) was developed and applied to key cellular nucleotides, where previously experimentally confirmed protein-nucleotide interactions were well recaptured. Many predicted, but never experimentally confirmed, as well as novel protein-nucleotide interactions were discovered. Interactions included a range of different protein families where nucleotides serve as substrates, products, co-factors or regulators. In cells exposed to thymidine, a limiting precursor for DNA synthesis, both dose- and time-dependence of the intracellular binding events for sequentially generated thymidine metabolites were revealed. Interactions included known cancer targets in deoxyribonucleotide metabolism as well as novel interacting proteins. This stringent CETSA based strategy will be applicable for a wide range of metabolites and will therefore greatly facilitate the discovery and studies of interactions and specificities of the many metabolites in human cells that remain uncharacterized.

]]>
<![CDATA[Metabolic fingerprint of insulin resistance in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b6003a6463d7e38dd0d05b8

The present study was aimed at determining the metabolic profile of PMNs in obese subjects, and to explore its potential relationship with insulin resistance (IR). To achieve this goal, a pilot clinical study was performed using PMNs from 17 patients with obesity and IR, and 17 lean controls without IR, which was validated in an additional smaller cohort (consisting of 10 patients and 10 controls). PMNs were isolated from peripheral blood and nuclear magnetic resonance was used to perform the metabolomic analysis. A total of 48 metabolites were quantified. The main metabolic change found in PMNs was a significant increase in 2-aminoisobutyric acid with a direct correlation with HOMA-IR (p<0.001), BMI (p<0.000001) and waist circumference (p<0.000001). By contrast, a decrease of 3-hydroxyisovalerate was observed with an inverse correlation with HOMA-IR (p = 0.001), BMI (p = 0.001) and waist circumference (p = 0.0001). Notably, the metabolic profile in plasma was different than that obtained in PMNs. In summary, our results suggest that the change in 3-hydroxyisovalerate and 2-aminoisobutyric is the key metabolic fingerprint in PMNs of obese subjects with IR. In addition, our methodology could be an easy and reliable tool for monitoring the effect of treatments in the setting of precision medicine.

]]>
<![CDATA[Benzoxaborole treatment perturbs S-adenosyl-L-methionine metabolism in Trypanosoma brucei]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b04367b463d7e0f0e6b979c

The parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei causes Human African Trypanosomiasis and Nagana in other mammals. These diseases present a major socio-economic burden to large areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Current therapies involve complex and toxic regimens, which can lead to fatal side-effects. In addition, there is emerging evidence for drug resistance. AN5568 (SCYX-7158) is a novel benzoxaborole class compound that has been selected as a lead compound for the treatment of HAT, and has demonstrated effective clearance of both early and late stage trypanosomiasis in vivo. The compound is currently awaiting phase III clinical trials and could lead to a novel oral therapeutic for the treatment of HAT. However, the mode of action of AN5568 in T. brucei is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the mode of action of AN5568 against T. brucei, using a combination of molecular and metabolomics-based approaches.Treatment of blood-stage trypanosomes with AN5568 led to significant perturbations in parasite metabolism. In particular, elevated levels of metabolites involved in the metabolism of S-adenosyl-L-methionine, an essential methyl group donor, were found. Further comparative metabolomic analyses using an S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase inhibitor, sinefungin, showed the presence of several striking metabolic phenotypes common to both treatments. Furthermore, several metabolic changes in AN5568 treated parasites resemble those invoked in cells treated with a strong reducing agent, dithiothreitol, suggesting redox imbalances could be involved in the killing mechanism.

]]>